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Exodus 14:10 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians were marching after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto Jehovah.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— As Pharaoh drew near, the sons of Israel looked, and behold, the Egyptians were marching after them, and they became very frightened; so the sons of Israel cried out to the LORD.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were greatly afraid; and the children of Israel cried to the LORD.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Pharaoh approached; and the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and the children of Israel were much afraid, and cried out to Jehovah.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, when, Pharaoh, had drawn near, the sons of Israel lifted up their eyes, and lo! the Egyptians, moving along after them, and they feared greatly, and the sons of Israel made outcry unto Yahweh.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Pharaoh hath drawn near, and the sons of Israel lift up their eyes, and lo, the Egyptians are journeying after them, and they fear exceedingly, and the sons of Israel cry unto Jehovah.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And when Pharao drew near, the children of Israel lifting up their eyes, saw the Egyptians behind them: and they feared exceedingly, and cried to the Lord.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lift vp their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians marched after them, and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel lift vp their eyes, and beholde, the Egyptians marched after them, and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out vnto the LORD.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Pharaoh{gr.Pharao} approached, and the children of Israel having looked up, beheld, and the Mizraimites{gr.Egyptians} encamped behind them: and they were very greatly terrified, and the children of Israel cried to the Lord;
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And when Paroh drew nigh, the children of Yisrael lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Mitzrim marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Yisrael cried out unto Yahweh.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And when Par` פַּרעֹה 6547
{6547} Prime
פַּרְעֹה
Par`oh
{par-o'}
Of Egyptian derivation; Paroh, a generic title of Egyptian kings.
drew nigh, 7126
{7126} Prime
קָרַב
qarab
{kaw-rab'}
A primitive root; to approach (causatively bring near) for whatever purpose.
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
the children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
lifted up 5375
{5375} Prime
נָשָׂא
nasa'
{naw-saw'}
A primitive root; to lift, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, absolutely and relatively.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
their eyes, 5869
{5869} Prime
עַיִן
`ayin
{ah'-yin}
Probably a primitive word; an eye (literally or figuratively); by analogy a fountain (as the eye of the landscape).
and, behold, x2009
(2009) Complement
הִנֵּה
hinneh
{hin-nay'}
Prolonged for H2005; lo!.
the Mixrm מִצרִים 4714
{4714} Prime
מִצְרַיִם
Mitsrayim
{mits-rah'-yim}
Dual of H4693; Mitsrajim, that is, Upper and Lower Egypt.
marched 5265
{5265} Prime
נָסַע
naca`
{naw-sah'}
A primitive root; properly to pull up, especially the tent pins, that is, start on a journey.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
after 310
{0310} Prime
אַחַר
'achar
{akh-ar'}
From H0309; properly the hind part; generally used as an adverb or conjugation, after (in various senses).
them; and they were sore 3966
{3966} Prime
מְאֹד
m@`od
{meh-ode'}
From the same as H0181; properly vehemence, that is, (with or without preposition) vehemently; by implication wholly, speedily, etc. (often with other words as an intensive or superlative; especially when repeated).
afraid: 3372
{3372} Prime
יָרֵא
yare'
{yaw-ray'}
A primitive root; to fear; morally to revere; causatively to frighten.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and the children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
cried out 6817
{6817} Prime
צָעַק
tsa`aq
{tsaw-ak'}
A primitive root; to shriek; (by implication) to proclaim (an assembly).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
Yhw יָהוֶה. 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Exodus 14:10

_ _ when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes — The great consternation of the Israelites is somewhat astonishing, considering their vast superiority in numbers, but their deep dismay and absolute despair at the sight of this armed host receives a satisfactory explanation from the fact that the civilized state of Egyptian society required the absence of all arms, except when they were on service. If the Israelites were entirely unarmed at their departure, they could not think of making any resistance [Wilkinson and Hengstenberg].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 14:10-14

_ _ We have here, I. The fright that the children of Israel were in when they perceived that Pharaoh pursued them, Exodus 14:10. They knew very well the strength and rage of the enemy, and their own weakness; numerous indeed they were, but all on foot, unarmed, undisciplined, disquieted by long servitude, and (which was worst of all) now penned up by the situation of their camp, so that they could not make their escape. On the one hand was Pi-hahiroth, a range of craggy rocks impassable; on the other hand were Migdol and Baalzephon, which, some think were forts and garrisons upon the frontiers of Egypt; before them was the sea; behind them were the Egyptians: so that there was no way open for them but upwards, and thence their deliverance came. Note, We may be in the way of our duty, following God and hastening towards heaven, and yet may be in great straits, troubled on every side, 2 Corinthians 4:8. In this distress, no marvel that the children of Israel were sorely afraid; their father Jacob was so in a like case (Genesis 32:7); when without are fightings, it cannot be otherwise but that within are fears: what therefore was the fruit of this fear? According as that was, the fear was good or evil. 1. Some of them cried out unto the Lord; their fear set them a praying, and that was a good effect of it. God brings us into straits that he may bring us to our knees. 2. Others of them cried out against Moses; their fear set them a murmuring, Exodus 14:11, Exodus 14:12. They give up themselves for lost; and as if God's arm were shortened all of a sudden, and he were not as able to work miracles today as he was yesterday, they despair of deliverance, and can count upon nothing but dying in the wilderness. How inexcusable was their distrust! Did they not see themselves under the guidance and protection of a pillar from heaven? And can almighty power fail them, or infinite goodness be false to them? Yet this was not the worst; they quarrel with Moses for bringing them out of Egypt, and, in quarrelling with him, fly in the face of God himself, and provoke him to wrath whose favour was now the only succour they had to flee to. As the Egyptians were angry with themselves for the best deed they ever did, so the Israelites were angry with God for the greatest kindness that was ever done them; so gross are the absurdities of unbelief. They here express, (1.) A sordid contempt of liberty, preferring servitude before it, only because it was attended with some difficulties. A generous spirit would have said, “If the worst come to the worst,” as we say, “It is better to die in the field of honour than to live in the chains of slavery;” nay, under God's conduct, they could not miscarry, and therefore they might say, “Better live God's freemen in the open air of a wilderness than the Egyptians' bondmen in the smoke of the brick-kilns.” But because, for the present, they are a little embarrassed, they are angry that they were not left buried alive in their house of bondage. (2.) Base ingratitude to Moses, who had been the faithful instrument of their deliverance. They condemn him, as if he had dealt hardly and unkindly with them, whereas it was evident, beyond dispute, that whatever he did, and however it issued, it was by direction from their God, and with design for their good. What they had said in a former ferment (when they hearkened not to Moses for anguish of spirit), they repeat and justify in this: We said in Egypt, Let us alone; and it was ill-said, yet more excusable, because then they had not had so much experience as they had now of God's wonderful appearances in their favour. But they had as soon forgotten the miracles of mercy as the Egyptians had forgotten the miracles of wrath; and they, as well as the Egyptians, hardened their hearts, at last, to their own ruin; as Egypt after ten plagues, so Israel after ten provocations, of which this was the first (Numbers 14:22), were sentenced to die in the wilderness.

_ _ II. The seasonable encouragement that Moses gave them in this distress, Exodus 14:13, Exodus 14:14. He answered not these fools according to their folly. God bore with the provocation they gave to him, and did not (as he might justly have done) chose their delusions, and bring their fears upon them; and therefore Moses might well afford to pass by the affront they put upon him. Instead of chiding them, he comforts them, and with an admirable presence and composure of mind, not disheartened either by the threatenings of Egypt or the tremblings of Israel, stills their murmuring, with the assurance of a speedy and complete deliverance: Fear you not. Note, It is our duty and interest, when we cannot get out of our troubles, yet to get above our fears, so that they may only serve to quicken our prayers and endeavours, but may not prevail to silence our faith and hope. 1. He assures them that God would deliver them, that he would undertake their deliverance, and that he would effect it in the utter ruin of their pursuers: The Lord shall fight for you. This Moses was confident of himself, and would have them to be so, though as yet he knew not how or which way it would be brought to pass. God had assured him that Pharaoh and his host should be ruined, and he comforts them with the same comforts wherewith he had been comforted. 2. He directs them to leave it to God, in a silent expectation of the event: “Stand still, and think not to save yourselves either by fighting or flying; wait God's orders, and observe them; be not contriving what course to take, but follow your leader; wait God's appearances, and take notice of them, that you may see how foolish you are to distrust them. Compose yourselves, by an entire confidence in God, into a peaceful prospect of the great salvation God is now about to work for you. Hold your peace; you need not so much as give a shout against the enemy, as Joshua 6:16. The work shall be done without any concurrence of yours.” Note, (1.) If God himself bring his people into straits, he will himself discover a way to bring them out again. (2.) In times of great difficulty and great expectation, it is our wisdom to keep our spirits calm, quiet, and sedate; for then we are in the best frame both to do our own work and to consider the work of God. Your strength is to sit still (Isaiah 30:7), for the Egyptians shall help in vain, and threaten to hurt in vain.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Exodus 14:10

They were sore afraid — They knew the strength of the enemy, and their own weakness; numerous indeed they were, but all foot, unarmed, undisciplined, dispirited, by long servitude, and now pent up, so that they could not escape. On one hand was Pi — hahiroth, a range of craggy rocks unpassable; on the other hand were Migdol and Baal — zephon, forts upon the frontiers of Egypt; before them was the sea, behind them were the Egyptians; so that there was no way open for them but upwards, and thence their deliverance came.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Exodus 14:10

And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore (f) afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD.

(f) They who earlier had rejoiced in their deliverance, being now in danger, are afraid.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
sore afraid:

Psalms 53:5 There were they in great fear, [where] no fear was: for God hath scattered the bones of him that encampeth [against] thee: thou hast put [them] to shame, because God hath despised them.
Isaiah 7:2 And it was told the house of David, saying, Syria is confederate with Ephraim. And his heart was moved, and the heart of his people, as the trees of the wood are moved with the wind.
Isaiah 8:12-13 Say ye not, A confederacy, to all [them to] whom this people shall say, A confederacy; neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid. ... Sanctify the LORD of hosts himself; and [let] him [be] your fear, and [let] him [be] your dread.
Isaiah 51:12-13 I, [even] I, [am] he that comforteth you: who [art] thou, that thou shouldest be afraid of a man [that] shall die, and of the son of man [which] shall be made [as] grass; ... And forgettest the LORD thy maker, that hath stretched forth the heavens, and laid the foundations of the earth; and hast feared continually every day because of the fury of the oppressor, as if he were ready to destroy? and where [is] the fury of the oppressor?
Matthew 8:26 And he saith unto them, Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith? Then he arose, and rebuked the winds and the sea; and there was a great calm.
Matthew 14:30-31 But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me. ... And immediately Jesus stretched forth [his] hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt?
1 John 4:18 There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear: because fear hath torment. He that feareth is not made perfect in love.

cried out:

Joshua 24:7 And when they cried unto the LORD, he put darkness between you and the Egyptians, and brought the sea upon them, and covered them; and your eyes have seen what I have done in Egypt: and ye dwelt in the wilderness a long season.
2 Chronicles 18:31 And it came to pass, when the captains of the chariots saw Jehoshaphat, that they said, It [is] the king of Israel. Therefore they compassed about him to fight: but Jehoshaphat cried out, and the LORD helped him; and God moved them [to depart] from him.
Nehemiah 9:9 And didst see the affliction of our fathers in Egypt, and heardest their cry by the Red sea;
Psalms 34:17 [The righteous] cry, and the LORD heareth, and delivereth them out of all their troubles.
Psalms 106:44 Nevertheless he regarded their affliction, when he heard their cry:
Psalms 107:6 Then they cried unto the LORD in their trouble, [and] he delivered them out of their distresses.
Psalms 107:13 Then they cried unto the LORD in their trouble, [and] he saved them out of their distresses.
Psalms 107:19 Then they cry unto the LORD in their trouble, [and] he saveth them out of their distresses.
Psalms 107:28 Then they cry unto the LORD in their trouble, and he bringeth them out of their distresses.
Isaiah 26:16 LORD, in trouble have they visited thee, they poured out a prayer [when] thy chastening [was] upon them.
Jeremiah 22:23 O inhabitant of Lebanon, that makest thy nest in the cedars, how gracious shalt thou be when pangs come upon thee, the pain as of a woman in travail!
Matthew 8:25 And his disciples came to [him], and awoke him, saying, Lord, save us: we perish.
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Jsh 24:7. 2Ch 18:31. Ne 9:9. Ps 34:17; 53:5; 106:44; 107:6, 13, 19, 28. Is 7:2; 8:12; 26:16; 51:12. Jr 22:23. Mt 8:25, 26; 14:30. 1Jn 4:18.

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