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Exodus 10:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Jehovah said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I may show these my signs in the midst of them,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that I may perform these signs of Mine among them,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And the LORD said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants; that I might show these my signs before him:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Jehovah said to Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh; for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his bondmen, that I might do these my signs in their midst,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Then said Yahweh unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh,—for, I, have suffered his heart to be dull, and the heart of his servants, that I may show these my signs, in their midst;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Jehovah saith unto Moses, 'Go in unto Pharaoh, for I have declared hard his heart, and the heart of his servants, so that I set these My signs in their midst,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the Lord said to Moses: Go in to Pharao; for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants: that I may work these my signs in him,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And the LORD said vnto Moses, Goe in vnto Pharaoh: for I haue hardned his heart, and the heart of his seruants, that I might shew these my signes before him:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the Lord spoke to Mosheh{gr.Moses}, saying, Go in to Pharaoh{gr.Pharao}: for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that these signs may come upon them; in order
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Yahweh said unto Mosheh, Go in unto Paroh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him:

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
said 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
M מֹשֶׁה, 4872
{4872} Prime
מֹשֶׁה
Mosheh
{mo-sheh'}
From H4871; drawing out (of the water), that is, rescued; Mosheh, the Israelitish lawgiver.
Go y935
[0935] Standard
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8798
<8798> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 2847
in x935
(0935) Complement
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
Par` פַּרעֹה: 6547
{6547} Prime
פַּרְעֹה
Par`oh
{par-o'}
Of Egyptian derivation; Paroh, a generic title of Egyptian kings.
for x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
I x589
(0589) Complement
אֲנִי
'aniy
{an-ee'}
Contracted from H0595; I.
have hardened 3513
{3513} Prime
כָּבַד
kabad
{kaw-bad'}
A primitive root; to be heavy, that is, in a bad sense (burdensome, severe, dull) or in a good sense (numerous, rich, honorable); causatively to make weighty (in the same two senses).
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
his heart, 3820
{3820} Prime
לֵב
leb
{labe}
A form of H3824; the heart; also used (figuratively) very widely for the feelings, the will and even the intellect; likewise for the centre of anything.
and the heart 3820
{3820} Prime
לֵב
leb
{labe}
A form of H3824; the heart; also used (figuratively) very widely for the feelings, the will and even the intellect; likewise for the centre of anything.
of his servants, 5650
{5650} Prime
עֶבֶד
`ebed
{eh'-bed}
From H5647; a servant.
that x4616
(4616) Complement
לְמַעַן
ma`an
{mah'-an}
From H6030; properly heed, that is, purpose; used only adverbially, on account of (as a motive or an aim), teleologically in order that.
I might shew 7896
{7896} Prime
שִׁית
shiyth
{sheeth}
A primitive root; to place (in a very wide application).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
these x428
(0428) Complement
אֵלֶּה
'el-leh
{ale'-leh}
Prolonged from H0411; these or those.
my signs 226
{0226} Prime
אוֹת
'owth
{oth}
Probably from H0225 (in the sense of appearing); a signal (literally or figuratively), as a flag, beacon, monument, omen, prodigy, evidence, etc.
before 7130
{7130} Prime
קֶרֶב
qereb
{keh'-reb}
From H7126; properly the nearest part, that is, the centre, whether literally, figuratively or adverbially (especially with preposition).
him:
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Exodus 10:1

_ _ Exodus 10:1-20. Plague of locusts.

_ _ show these my signs, etc. — Sinners even of the worst description are to be admonished even though there may be little hope of amendment, and hence those striking miracles that carried so clear and conclusive demonstration of the being and character of the true God were performed in lengthened series before Pharaoh to leave him without excuse when judgment should be finally executed.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 10:1-11

_ _ Here, I. Moses is instructed. We may well suppose that he, for his part, was much astonished both at Pharaoh's obstinacy and at God's severity, and could not but be compassionately concerned for the desolations of Egypt, and at a loss to conceive what this contest would come to at last. Now here God tells him what he designed, not only Israel's release, but the magnifying of his own name: That thou mayest tell in thy writings, which shall continue to the world's end, what I have wrought in Egypt, Exodus 10:1, Exodus 10:2. The ten plagues of Egypt must be inflicted, that they may be recorded for the generations to come as undeniable proofs, 1. Of God's overruling power in the kingdom of nature, his dominion over all the creatures, and his authority to use them either as servants to his justice or sufferers by it, according to the counsel of his will. 2. Of God's victorious power over the kingdom of Satan, to restrain the malice and chastise the insolence of his and his church's enemies. These plagues are standing monuments of the greatness of God, the happiness of the church, and the sinfulness of sin, and standing monitors to the children of men in all ages not to provoke the Lord to jealousy nor to strive with their Maker. The benefit of these instructions to the world sufficiently balances the expense.

_ _ II. Pharaoh is reproved (Exodus 10:3): Thus saith the Lord God of the poor, despised, persecuted, Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me? Note, It is justly expected from the greatest of men that they humble themselves before the great God, and it is at their peril if they refuse to do it. This has more than once been God's quarrel with princes. Belshazzar did not humble his heart, Daniel 5:22. Zedekiah humbled not himself before Jeremiah, 2 Chronicles 36:12. Those that will not humble themselves God will humble. Pharaoh had sometimes pretended to humble himself, but no account was made of it, because he was neither sincere nor constant in it.

_ _ III. The plague of locusts is threatened, Exodus 10:4-6. The hail had broken down the fruits of the earth, but these locusts should come and devour them: and not only so, but they should fill their houses, whereas the former inroads of these insects had been confined to their lands. This should be much worse than all the calamities of that king which had ever been known. Moses, when he had delivered his message, not expecting any better answer than he had formerly, turned himself and went out from Pharaoh, Exodus 10:6. Thus Christ appointed his disciples to depart from those who would not receive them, and to shake off the dust of their feet for a testimony against them; and ruin is not far off from those who are thus justly abandoned by the Lord's messengers, 1 Samuel 15:27, etc.

_ _ IV. Pharaoh's attendants, his ministers of state, or privy-counsellors, interpose, to persuade him to come to some terms with Moses, Exodus 10:7. They, as in duty bound, represent to him the deplorable condition of the kingdom (Egypt is destroyed), and advise him by all means to release his prisoners (Let the men go); for Moses, they found, would be a snare to them till it was done, and it were better to consent at first than to be compelled at last. The Israelites had become a burdensome stone to the Egyptians, and now, at length, the princes of Egypt were willing to be rid of them, Zechariah 12:3. Note, It is a thing to be regretted (and prevented, if possible) that a whole nation should be ruined for the pride and obstinacy of its princes, Salus populi suprema lexTo consult the welfare of the people is the first of laws.

_ _ V. A new treaty is, hereupon, set on foot between Pharaoh and Moses, in which Pharaoh consents for the Israelites to go into the wilderness to do sacrifice; but the matter in dispute was who should go, Exodus 10:8. 1. Moses insists that they should take their whole families, and all their effects, along with them, Exodus 10:9. note, Those that serve God must serve him with all they have. Moses pleads, “We must hold a feast, therefore we must have our families to feast with, and our flocks and herds to feast upon, to the honour of God.” 2. Pharaoh will by no means grant this: he will allow the men to go, pretending that this was all they desired, though this matter was never yet mentioned in any of the former treaties; but, for the little ones, he resolves to keep them as hostages, to oblige them to return, Exodus 10:10, Exodus 10:11. In a great passion he curses them, and threatens that, if they offer to remove their little ones, they will do it at their peril. Note, Satan does all he can to hinder those that serve God themselves from bringing their children in to serve him. He is a sworn enemy to early piety, knowing how destructive it is to the interests of his kingdom; whatever would hinder us from engaging our children to the utmost in God's service, we have reason to suspect the hand of Satan in it. 3. The treaty, hereupon, breaks off abruptly; those that before went out from Pharaoh's presence (Exodus 10:6) were now driven out. Those will quickly hear their doom that cannot bear to hear their duty. See 2 Chronicles 25:16. Quos Deus destruet eos dementatWhom God intends to destroy he delivers up to infatuation. Never was man so infatuated to his own ruin as Pharaoh was.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Exodus 10:1

These plagues are standing monuments of the greatness of God, the happiness of the church, and the sinfulness of sin; and standing monitors to the children of men in all ages, not to provoke the Lord to jealousy, nor to strive with their Maker. The benefit of these instructions to the world doth sufficiently balance the expence.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
I have hardened:

Exodus 4:21 And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.
Exodus 7:13-14 And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said. ... And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh's heart [is] hardened, he refuseth to let the people go.
Exodus 9:27 And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned this time: the LORD [is] righteous, and I and my people [are] wicked.
Exodus 9:34-35 And when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders were ceased, he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants. ... And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, neither would he let the children of Israel go; as the LORD had spoken by Moses.
Psalms 7:11 God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry [with the wicked] every day.

that I:

Exodus 3:20 And I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do in the midst thereof: and after that he will let you go.
Exodus 7:4 But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, [and] my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.
Exodus 9:16 And in very deed for this [cause] have I raised thee up, for to shew [in] thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.
Exodus 14:17-18 And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen. ... And the Egyptians shall know that I [am] the LORD, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
Exodus 15:14-15 The people shall hear, [and] be afraid: sorrow shall take hold on the inhabitants of Palestina. ... Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed; the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them; all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away.
Joshua 2:9-10 And she said unto the men, I know that the LORD hath given you the land, and that your terror is fallen upon us, and that all the inhabitants of the land faint because of you. ... For we have heard how the LORD dried up the water of the Red sea for you, when ye came out of Egypt; and what ye did unto the two kings of the Amorites, that [were] on the other side Jordan, Sihon and Og, whom ye utterly destroyed.
Joshua 4:23-24 For the LORD your God dried up the waters of Jordan from before you, until ye were passed over, as the LORD your God did to the Red sea, which he dried up from before us, until we were gone over: ... That all the people of the earth might know the hand of the LORD, that it [is] mighty: that ye might fear the LORD your God for ever.
1 Samuel 4:8 Woe unto us! who shall deliver us out of the hand of these mighty Gods? these [are] the Gods that smote the Egyptians with all the plagues in the wilderness.
Romans 9:17 For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 3:20; 4:21; 7:4, 13; 9:16, 27, 34; 14:17; 15:14. Jsh 2:9; 4:23. 1S 4:8. Ps 7:11. Ro 9:17.

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