Parallel Bible VersionsHebrew Bible Study Tools

Esther 9:20 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Mordecai wrote these things, and sent letters unto all the Jews that were in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus, both nigh and far,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And Mordecai wrote these things, and sent letters unto all the Jews that [were] in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus, [both] nigh and far,
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then Mordecai recorded these events, and he sent letters to all the Jews who were in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, both near and far,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And Mordecai wrote these things, and sent letters to all the Jews that [were] in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus, [both] nigh and far,
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Mordecai wrote these things, and sent letters to all the Jews near and far that were in all the provinces of king Ahasuerus,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And Mordecai wrote these things,—and sent letters unto all the Jews who were in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, near, and far off;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Mordecai writeth these things, and sendeth letters unto all the Jews who [are] in all provinces of the king Ahasuerus, who are near and who are far off,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And Mardochai wrote all these things, and sent them comprised in letters to the Jews that abode in all the king's provinces, both those that lay near and those afar off,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Mordecai wrote these things, and sent letters vnto all the Iewes, that [were] in all the prouinces of the king Ahasuerus, [both] nigh & farre,
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Mordecai{gr.Mardochaeus} wrote these things in a book, and sent them to the Jews, as many as were in the kingdom of Artaxerxes, both them that were near and them that were afar off,
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Mordokhay wrote these things, and sent letters unto all the Yehudim that [were] in all the provinces of the king Achashwerosh, [both] nigh and far,

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And Morday מָרדֳּכַי 4782
{4782} Prime
Of foreign derivation; Mordecai, an Israelite.
wrote 3789
{3789} Prime
A primitive root; to grave; by implication to write (describe, inscribe, prescribe, subscribe).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
(0853) Complement
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
these x428
(0428) Complement
Prolonged from H0411; these or those.
things, 1697
{1697} Prime
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
and sent 7971
{7971} Prime
A primitive root; to send away, for, or out (in a great variety of applications).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
letters 5612
{5612} Prime
From H5608; properly writing (the art or a document); by implication a book.
unto x413
(0413) Complement
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
all x3605
(3605) Complement
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the Yhm יְהוּדִים 3064
{3064} Prime
Patronymic from H3063; a Jehudite (that is, Judaite or Jew), or descendant of Jehudah (that is, Judah).
that x834
(0834) Complement
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
[were] in all x3605
(3605) Complement
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the provinces 4082
{4082} Prime
From H1777; properly a judgeship, that is, jurisdiction; by implication a district (as ruled by a judge); generally a region.
of the king 4428
{4428} Prime
From H4427; a king.
awr אֲחַשׁוֵרוֹשׁ, 325
{0325} Prime
Of Persian origin; Achashverosh (that is, Ahasuerus or Artaxerxes, but in this case Xerxes), the title (rather than name) of a Persian king.
[both] nigh 7138
{7138} Prime
From H7126; near (in place, kindred or time).
and far, 7350
{7350} Prime
From H7368; remote, literally of figuratively, of place or time; specifically precious; often used adverbially (with preposition).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Esther 9:20

_ _ Esther 9:20-32. The two days of Purim made a festival.

_ _ Mordecai wrote these things — Commentators are not agreed what is particularly meant by “these things”; whether the letters following, or an account of these marvelous events to be preserved in the families of the Jewish people, and transmitted from one generation to another.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Esther 9:20-32

_ _ We may well imagine how much affected Mordecai and Esther were with the triumphs of the Jews over their enemies, and how they saw the issue of that decisive day with a satisfaction proportionable to the care and concern with which they expected it. How were their hearts enlarged with joy in God and his salvation, and what new songs of praise were put into their mouths! But here we are told what course they took to spread the knowledge of it among their people, and to perpetuate the remembrance of it to posterity, for the honour of God and the encouragement of his people to trust in him at all times.

_ _ I. The history was written, and copies of it were dispersed among all the Jews in all the provinces of the empire, both nigh and far, Esther 9:20. They all knew something of the story, being nearly concerned in it — were by the first edict made sensible of their danger and by the second of their deliverance; but how this amazing turn was given they could not tell. Mordecai therefore wrote all these things. And if this book be the same that he wrote, as many think it is, I cannot but observe what a difference there is between Mordecai's style and Nehemiah's. Nehemiah, at every turn, takes notice of divine Providence and the good hand of his God upon him, which is very proper to stir up devout affections in the minds of his readers; but Mordecai never so much as mentions the name of God in the whole story. Nehemiah wrote his book at Jerusalem, where religion was in fashion and an air of it appeared in men's common conversation; Mordecai wrote his at Shushan the palace, where policy reigned more then piety, and he wrote according to the genius of the place. Even those that have the root of the matter in them are apt to lose the savour of religion, and let their leaf wither, when they converse wholly with those that have little religion. Commend me to Nehemiah's way of writing; that I would imitate, and yet learn from Mordecai's that men may be truly devout though they do not abound in the shows and expressions of devotion, and therefore that we must not judge nor despise our brethren. But, because there is so little of the language of Canaan in this book, many think it was not written by Mordecai, but was an extract out of the journals of the kings of Persia, giving an account of the matter of fact, which the Jews themselves knew how to comment upon.

_ _ II. A festival was instituted, to be observed yearly from generation to generation by the Jews, in remembrance of this wonderful work which God wrought for them, that the children who should be born might know it, and declare it to their children, that they might set their hope in God, Psalms 78:6, Psalms 78:7. It would be for the honour of God as the protector of his people, and the honour of Israel as the care of Heaven, a confirmation of the fidelity of God's covenant, an invitation to strangers to come into the bonds of it, and an encouragement to God's own people cheerfully to depend upon his wisdom, power, and goodness, in the greatest straits. Posterity would reap the benefit of this deliverance, and therefore ought to celebrate the memorial of it. Now concerning this festival we are here told,

_ _ 1. When it was observed — every year on the fourteenth and fifteenth days of the twelfth month, just a month before the passover, Esther 9:21. Thus the first month and the last month of the year kept in remembrance the months that were past, even the days when God preserved them. They kept two days together as thanksgiving days, and did not think them too much to spend in praising God. Let us not be niggardly in our returns of praise to him who bestows his favours so liberally upon us. Observe, They did not keep the day when they fought, but the days when they rested, and on the fifteenth those in Shushan, and both those days they kept. The sabbath was appointed not on the day that God finished his work, but on the day that he rested from it. The modern Jews observe the thirteenth day, the day appointed for their destruction, as a fasting-day, grounding the practice on Esther 9:31, the matters of their fastings and cry. But that refers to what was in the day of their distress (Esther 4:3, Esther 4:16), which was not to be continued when God had turned their fasts into joy and gladness, Zechariah 8:19.

_ _ 2. How it was called — The feast of Purim (Esther 9:26), from Pur, a Persian word which signified a lot, because Haman had by lot determined this to be the time of the Jews' destruction, but the Lord, at whose disposal the lot is, had determined it to be the time of their triumph. The name of this festival would remind them of the sovereign dominion of the God of Israel, who served his own purposes by the foolish superstitions of the heathen, and outwitted the monthly prognosticators in their own craft (Isaiah 47:13), frustrating the tokens of the liars and making the diviners mad, Isaiah 44:25, Isaiah 44:26.

_ _ 3. By whom it was instituted and enacted. It was not a divine institution, and therefore it is not called a holy day, but a human appointment, by which it was made a good day, Esther 9:19, Esther 9:22. (1.) The Jews ordained it, and took it upon themselves (Esther 9:27), voluntarily undertook to do as they had begun. Esther 9:23. They bound themselves to this by common consent. (2.) Mordecai and Esther confirmed their resolve, that it might be the more binding on posterity, and might come well recommended by those great names. They wrote, [1.] With all authority (Esther 9:29), as well they might, Esther being queen and Mordecai prime-minister of state. It is well when those who are in authority use their authority to authorize that which is good. [2.] With words of peace and truth. Though they wrote with authority, they wrote with tenderness, not imperious, not imposing, but in such language as the council at Jerusalem use in their decree (Acts 15:29): “If you do so and so, you shall do well. Fare you well.” Such was the style of these letters, or such the salutation or valediction of them: Peace and truth be with you.

_ _ 4. By whom it was to be observed — by all the Jews, and by their seed, and by all such as joined themselves to them, Esther 9:27. The observance of this feast was to be both universal and perpetual; the proselytes must observe it, in token of their sincere affection to the Jewish nation and their having united interests with them. A concurrence in joys and praises is one branch of the communion of saints.

_ _ 5. Why it was to be observed — that the memorial of the great things God had done for his church might never perish from their seed, Esther 9:28. God does not work wonders for a day, but to be had in everlasting remembrance. What he does shall be for ever, and therefore should for ever be had in mind, Ecclesiastes 3:14. In this affair they would remember, (1.) Haman's bad practices against the church, to his perpetual reproach (Esther 9:24): Because he had devised against the Jews to destroy them. Let this be kept in mind, that God's people may never be secure, while they have such malicious enemies, on whom they ought to have a jealous eye. Their enemies aim at no less then their destruction; on God therefore let them depend for salvation. (2.) Esther's good services to the church, to her immortal honour. When Esther, in peril of her life, came before the king, he repealed the edict, Esther 9:25. This also must be remembered, that wherever this feast should be kept, and this history read in explication of it, this which she did might be told for a memorial of her. Good deeds done for the Israel of God ought to be remembered, for the encouragement of others to do the like. God will not forget them, and therefore we must not. (3.) Their own prayers, and the answers given to them (Esther 9:31): The matters of their fastings and their cry. The more cries we have offered up in our trouble, and the more prayers for deliverance, the more we are obliged to be thankful to God for deliverance. Call upon me in the time of trouble, and then offer to God thanksgiving.

_ _ 6. How it was to be observed. And of this let us see,

_ _ (1.) What was here enjoined, which was very good, that they should make it, [1.] A day of cheerfulness, a day of feasting and joy (Esther 9:22), and a feast was made for laughter, Ecclesiastes 10:19. When God gives us cause to rejoice why should we not express our joy? [2.] A day of generosity, sending portions one to another, in token of their pleasantness and mutual respect, and their being knit by this and other public common dangers and deliverances so much the closer to each other in love. Friends have their goods in common. [3.] A day of charity, sending gifts to the poor. It is not to our kinsmen and rich neighbours only that we are to send tokens, but to the poor and the maimed, Luke 14:12, Luke 14:13. Those that have received mercy must, in token of their gratitude, show mercy; and there never wants occasion, for the poor we have always with us. Thanksgiving and almsgiving should go together, that, when we are rejoicing and blessing God, the heart of the poor may rejoice with us and their loins may bless us.

_ _ (2.) What was added to this, which was much better. They always, at the feast, read the whole story over in the synagogue each day, and put up three prayers to God, in the first of which they praise God for counting them worthy to attend this divine service; in the second they thank him for the miraculous preservation of their ancestors; in the third they praise him that they have lived to observe another festival in memory of it. So bishop Patrick.

_ _ (3.) What it has since degenerated to, which is much worse. Their own writers acknowledge that this feast is commonly celebrated among them with gluttony, and drunkenness, and excess of riot. Their Talmud says expressly that, in the feast of Purim, a man should drink till he knows not the difference between Cursed be Haman, and Blessed be Mordecai. See what the corrupt and wicked nature of man often brings that to which was at first well intended: here is a religious feast turned into a carnival, a perfect revel, as wakes are among us. Nothing more purifies the heart and adorns religion than holy joy; nothing more pollutes the heart and reproaches religion than carnal mirth and sensual pleasure. Corruptio optimi est pessimaWhat is best becomes when corrupted the worst.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Esther 9:20

And Mordecai wrote (l) these things, and sent letters unto all the Jews that [were] in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus, [both] nigh and far,

(l) The Jews gather from this that Mordecai wrote this book, but it seems that he wrote only these letters and decrees that follow.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
That is, as the words imply, the history contained in this book; and not merely the letters afterwards mentioned, as some understand it.

wrote these:

Exodus 17:14 And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this [for] a memorial in a book, and rehearse [it] in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.
Deuteronomy 31:19-22 Now therefore write ye this song for you, and teach it the children of Israel: put it in their mouths, that this song may be a witness for me against the children of Israel. ... Moses therefore wrote this song the same day, and taught it the children of Israel.
1 Chronicles 16:12 Remember his marvellous works that he hath done, his wonders, and the judgments of his mouth;
Psalms 124:1-3 [[A Song of degrees of David.]] If [it had not been] the LORD who was on our side, now may Israel say; ... Then they had swallowed us up quick, when their wrath was kindled against us:
Psalms 145:4-12 One generation shall praise thy works to another, and shall declare thy mighty acts. ... To make known to the sons of men his mighty acts, and the glorious majesty of his kingdom.
2 Corinthians 1:10-11 Who delivered us from so great a death, and doth deliver: in whom we trust that he will yet deliver [us]; ... Ye also helping together by prayer for us, that for the gift [bestowed] upon us by the means of many persons thanks may be given by many on our behalf.

in all the provinces:

Esther 1:1 Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus, (this [is] Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, [over] an hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)
Esther 1:22 For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and that [it] should be published according to the language of every people.
Esther 3:12 Then were the king's scribes called on the thirteenth day of the first month, and there was written according to all that Haman had commanded unto the king's lieutenants, and to the governors that [were] over every province, and to the rulers of every people of every province according to the writing thereof, and [to] every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and sealed with the king's ring.
Esther 8:9 Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that [is], the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth [day] thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which [are] from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.
Random Bible VersesNew Quotes

Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 17:14. Dt 31:19. 1Ch 16:12. Es 1:1, 22; 3:12; 8:9. Ps 124:1; 145:4. 2Co 1:10.

Newest Chat Bible Comment
Comment HereComplete Biblical ResearchComplete Chat Bible Commentary
Please post your comment on Esther 9:20.

WWW Chat Bible Commentary

User-Posted Comments on Esther 9:20

Recent Chat Bible Comments