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Esther 8:11 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— wherein the king granted the Jews that were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that would assault them, [their] little ones and women, and to take the spoil of them for a prey,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Wherein the king granted the Jews which [were] in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that would assault them, [both] little ones and women, and [to take] the spoil of them for a prey,
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— In them the king granted the Jews who were in each and every city [the right] to assemble and to defend their lives, to destroy, to kill and to annihilate the entire army of any people or province which might attack them, including children and women, and to plunder their spoil,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— In which the king granted the Jews who [were] in every city to assemble, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that would assault them, [both] little ones and women, and [to take] the spoil of them for a prey,
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— [stating] that the king granted the Jews that were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that might assault them, [their] little ones and women, and to [take] the spoil of them for a prey,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— That the king had granted unto the Jews who were in every city, to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay and to cause to perish—all the force of the people and province who should distress them, their little ones and women,—and [to take] the spoil of them as a prey:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— that the king hath given to the Jews who [are] in every city and city, to be assembled, and to stand for their life, to cut off, to slay, and to destroy the whole force of the people and province who are distressing them, infants and women, and their spoil to seize.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the king gave orders to them, to speak to the Jews in every city, and to command them to gather themselves together, and to stand for their lives, and to kill and destroy all their enemies with their wives and children and all their houses, and to take their spoil.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Wherein the King granted the Iewes, which were in euery citie, to gather themselues together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish all the power of the people and prouince that would assault them, [both] little ones, and women, and [to take] the spoile of them for a pray:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— wherein he charged them to use their [own] laws in every city, and to help each other, and to treat their adversaries, and those who attacked them, as they pleased,
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Wherein the king granted the Yehudim which [were] in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that would assault them, [both] little ones and women, and [to take] the spoil of them for a prey,

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Wherein x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
the king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
granted 5414
{5414} Prime
נָתַן
nathan
{naw-than'}
A primitive root; to give, used with great latitude of application (put, make, etc.).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
the Yhm יְהוּדִים 3064
{3064} Prime
יְהוּדִי
Y@huwdiy
{yeh-hoo-dee'}
Patronymic from H3063; a Jehudite (that is, Judaite or Jew), or descendant of Jehudah (that is, Judah).
which x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
[were] in every x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
city 5892
{5892} Prime
עִיר
`iyr
{eer}
From H5782 a city (a place guarded by waking or a watch) in the widest sense (even of a mere encampment or post).
to gather themselves together, 6950
{6950} Prime
קָהַל
qahal
{'kaw-hal'}
A primitive root; to convoke.
z8736
<8736> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 240
and to stand 5975
{5975} Prime
עָמַד
`amad
{aw-mad'}
A primitive root; to stand, in various relations (literally and figuratively, intransitively and transitively).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
for x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
their life, 5315
{5315} Prime
נֶפֶשׁ
nephesh
{neh'-fesh}
From H5314; properly a breathing creature, that is, animal or (abstractly) vitality; used very widely in a literal, accommodated or figurative sense (bodily or mental).
to destroy, 8045
{8045} Prime
שָׁמַד
shamad
{shaw-mad'}
A primitive root; to desolate.
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
to slay, 2026
{2026} Prime
הָרַג
harag
{haw-rag'}
A primitive root; to smite with deadly intent.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
and to cause to perish, 6
{0006} Prime
אָבַד
'abad
{aw-bad'}
A primitive root; properly to wander away, that is lose oneself; by implication to perish (causatively, destroy).
z8763
<8763> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 790
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the power 2428
{2428} Prime
חַיִל
chayil
{khah'-yil}
From H2342; probably a force, whether of men, means or other resources; an army, wealth, virtue, valor, strength.
of the people 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
and province 4082
{4082} Prime
מְדִינָה
m@diynah
{med-ee-naw'}
From H1777; properly a judgeship, that is, jurisdiction; by implication a district (as ruled by a judge); generally a region.
that would assault 6696
{6696} Prime
צוּר
tsuwr
{tsoor}
A primitive root; to cramp, that is, confine (in many applications, literally and figuratively, formative or hostile).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
them, [both] little ones 2945
{2945} Prime
טַף
taph
{taf}
From H2952 (perhaps referring to the tripping gait of children); a family (mostly used collectively in the singular).
and women, 802
{0802} Prime
אִשָּׁה
'ishshah
{ish-shaw'}
The first form is the feminine of H0376 or H0582; the second form is an irregular plural; a woman (used in the same wide sense as H0582).
and [to take] the spoil 7998
{7998} Prime
שָׁלָל
shalal
{shaw-lawl'}
From H7997; booty.
of them for a prey, 962
{0962} Prime
בָּזַז
bazaz
{baw-zaz'}
A primitive root; to plunder.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Esther 8:11-13

_ _ the king granted the Jews ... to stand for their life ... to slay ... all ... that would assault them — The fixed and unalterable character claimed for Persian edicts often placed the king in a very awkward dilemma; for, however bitterly he might regret things done in a moment of haste and thoughtlessness, it was beyond even his power to prevent the consequences. This was the reason on account of which the king was laid under a necessity not to reverse, but to issue a contradictory edict; according to which it was enacted that if, pursuant to the first decree, the Jews were assaulted, they might, by virtue of the second, defend themselves and even slay their enemies. However strange and even ridiculous this mode of procedure may appear, it was the only one which, from the peculiarities of court etiquette in Persia, could be adopted. Instances occur in sacred (Daniel 6:14), no less than profane, history. Many passages of the Bible attest the truth of this, particularly the well-known incident of Daniel’s being cast into the den of lions, in conformity with the rash decree of Darius, though, as it afterwards appeared, contrary to the personal desire of that monarch. That the law of Persia has undergone no change in this respect, and the power of the monarch not less immutable, appear from many anecdotes related in the books of modern travelers through that country.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Esther 8:3-14.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Esther 8:11

To stand — To fight for the defence of their lives against all that should seek to destroy them. The power — Either governors or governed, without any exception either of age, dignity, or sex, Both little ones and women — Which is here added, to strike the greater terror into their enemies; and according to the laws and customs of this kingdom; whereby children were punished for their parents offences: yet we read nothing in the execution of this decree of the slaughter of women or children, nor is it probable, they would kill their innocent children, who were so indulgent to their families, as not to meddle with the spoil.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Esther 8:11

Wherein the king granted the Jews which [were] in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for (h) their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that would assault them, [both] little ones and women, and [to take] the spoil of them for a prey,

(h) That is, to defend themselves against all who would assail them.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
to gather:

Esther 9:2-16 The Jews gathered themselves together in their cities throughout all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus, to lay hand on such as sought their hurt: and no man could withstand them; for the fear of them fell upon all people. ... But the other Jews that [were] in the king's provinces gathered themselves together, and stood for their lives, and had rest from their enemies, and slew of their foes seventy and five thousand, but they laid not their hands on the prey,

to destroy:

Psalms 37:14-15 The wicked have drawn out the sword, and have bent their bow, to cast down the poor and needy, [and] to slay such as be of upright conversation. ... Their sword shall enter into their own heart, and their bows shall be broken.
Psalms 68:3 But let the righteous be glad; let them rejoice before God: yea, let them exceedingly rejoice.
Psalms 137:8 O daughter of Babylon, who art to be destroyed; happy [shall he be], that rewardeth thee as thou hast served us.
Psalms 146:6-9 Which made heaven, and earth, the sea, and all that therein [is]: which keepeth truth for ever: ... The LORD preserveth the strangers; he relieveth the fatherless and widow: but the way of the wicked he turneth upside down.
Ezekiel 39:10 So that they shall take no wood out of the field, neither cut down [any] out of the forests; for they shall burn the weapons with fire: and they shall spoil those that spoiled them, and rob those that robbed them, saith the Lord GOD.

and to take the spoil:

Esther 3:13 And the letters were sent by posts into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, [even] upon the thirteenth [day] of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and [to take] the spoil of them for a prey.
Esther 9:10 The ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the enemy of the Jews, slew they; but on the spoil laid they not their hand.
Esther 9:15-16 For the Jews that [were] in Shushan gathered themselves together on the fourteenth day also of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men at Shushan; but on the prey they laid not their hand. ... But the other Jews that [were] in the king's provinces gathered themselves together, and stood for their lives, and had rest from their enemies, and slew of their foes seventy and five thousand, but they laid not their hands on the prey,
Isaiah 10:6 I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets.
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Es 3:13; 9:2, 10, 15. Ps 37:14; 68:3; 137:8; 146:6. Is 10:6. Ezk 39:10.

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