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Esther 6:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— On that night could not the king sleep; and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles, and they were read before the king.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— On that night could not the king sleep, and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles; and they were read before the king.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— During that night the king could not sleep so he gave an order to bring the book of records, the chronicles, and they were read before the king.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— In that night the king could not sleep, and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles; and they were read before the king.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— On that night sleep fled from the king. And he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles; and they were read before the king.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— During that night, the sleep of the king fled,—and he commanded to bring in the book of remembrance, the chronicles, and they were read before the king.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— On that night hath the sleep of the king fled away, and he saith to bring in the book of memorials of the Chronicles, and they are read before the king,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— That night the king passed without sleep, and he commanded the histories and chronicles of former times to be brought him. And when they were reading them before him,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— On that night could not the King sleepe, and hee commaunded to bring the booke of Records of the chronicles; and they were read before the king.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— But the Lord removed sleep from the king that night: and he told his servant to bring in the books, the registers of daily events, to read to him.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— On that night could not the king sleep, and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles; and they were read before the king.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
On that x1931
(1931) Complement
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
night 3915
{3915} Prime
From the same as H3883; properly a twist (away of the light), that is, night; figuratively adversity.
could not 5074
{5074} Prime
A primitive root; properly to wave to and fro (rarely to flap up and down); figuratively to rove, flee, or (causatively) to drive away.
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
the king 4428
{4428} Prime
From H4427; a king.
sleep, 8142
{8142} Prime
(The second form used in Psalms 127:2); from H3462; sleep.
and he commanded 559
{0559} Prime
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to bring 935
{0935} Prime
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
(0853) Complement
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the book 5612
{5612} Prime
From H5608; properly writing (the art or a document); by implication a book.
of records 2146
{2146} Prime
From H2142; a memento (or memorable thing, day or writing).
of the chronicles; 1697
{1697} Prime
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
{3117} Prime
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
and they were x1961
(1961) Complement
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
read 7121
{7121} Prime
A primitive root (rather identical with H7122 through the idea of accosting a person met); to call out to (that is, properly address by name, but used in a wide variety of applications).
<8737> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 793
before 6440
{6440} Prime
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
the king. 4428
{4428} Prime
From H4427; a king.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Esther 6:1

_ _ Esther 6:1-14. Ahasuerus rewards Mordecai for former service.

_ _ the king ... commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles — In Eastern courts, there are scribes or officers whose duty it is to keep a journal of every occurrence worthy of notice. A book of this kind, abounding with anecdotes, is full of interest. It has been a custom with Eastern kings, in all ages, frequently to cause the annals of the kingdom to be read to them. It is resorted to, not merely as a pastime to while away the tedium of an hour, but as a source of instruction to the monarch, by reviewing the important incidents of his own life, as well as those of his ancestors. There was, therefore, nothing uncommon in this Persian monarch calling for the court journal. But, in his being unable to sleep at that particular juncture, in his ordering the book then to be read to him, and in his attention having been specially directed to the important and as yet unrewarded services of Mordecai, the immediate interposition of Providence is distinctly visible.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Esther 6:1-3

_ _ Now Satan put it into the heart of Haman to contrive Mordecai's death we read in the foregoing chapter; how God put it into the heart of the king to contrive Mordecai's honour we are here told. Now, if the king's word will prevail above Haman's (for, though Haman be a great man, the king in the throne must be above him), much more will the counsel of God stand, whatever devices there are in men's hearts. It is to no purpose therefore for Haman to oppose it, when both God and the king will have Mordecai honoured, and in this juncture too, when his preferment, and Haman's disappointment, would help to ripen the great affair of the Jewish deliverance for the effort that Esther was to make towards it the next day. Sometimes delay may prove to have been good conduct. Stay awhile, and we may have done the sooner. Cunctando restituit remHe conquered by delay. Let us trace the steps which Providence took towards the advancement of Mordecai.

_ _ I. On that night could not the king sleep. His sleep fled away (so the word is); and perhaps, like a shadow, the more carefully he pursued it the further it went from him. Sometimes we cannot sleep because we fain would sleep. Even after a banquet of wine he could not sleep when Providence had a design to serve in keeping him waking. We read of no bodily indisposition he was under, that might break his sleep; but God, whose gift sleep is, withheld it from him. Those that are ever so much resolved to cast away care cannot always do it; they find it in their pillows when they neither expect nor welcome it. He that commanded 127 provinces could not command one hour's sleep. Perhaps the charms of Esther's conversation the day before gave occasion to his heart to reproach him for neglecting her, and banishing her from his presence, though she was the wife of his bosom, for above thirty days; and that might keep him waking. An offended conscience can find a time to speak when it will be heard.

_ _ II. When he could not sleep he called to have the book of records, the Journals of his reign, read to him, Esther 6:1. Surely he did not design that that should lull him asleep; it would rather fill his head with cares, and drive away sleep. But God put it into his heart to call for it, rather than for music or songs, which the Persian kings used to be attended with (Daniel 6:18) and which would have been more likely to compose him to rest. When men do that which is unaccountable we know not what God intends by it. Perhaps he would have this book of business read to him that he might improve time and be forming some useful projects. Had it been king David's case, he would have found some other entertainment for his thoughts; when he could not sleep he would have remembered God and meditated upon him (Psalms 64:6), and, if he would have had any book read to him, it would have been his Bible; for in that law did he meditate day and night.

_ _ III. The servant that read to him either lighted first on that article which concerned Mordecai, or, reading long, came to it at length. Among other things it was found written that Mordecai had discovered a plot against the life of the king which prevented the execution of it, Esther 6:2. Mordecai was not in such favour at court that the reader should designedly pitch upon that place; but Providence directed him to it; nay, if we may believe the Jews' tradition (as bishop Patrick relates it), opening the book at this place he turned over the leaves, and would have read another part of the book, but the leaves flew back again to the same place where he opened it; so that he was forced to read that paragraph. How Mordecai's good service was recorded we read Esther 2:23, and here it is found upon record.

_ _ IV. The king enquired what honour and dignity had been done to Mordecai for this, suspecting that this good service had gone unrewarded, and, like Pharaoh's butler, remembering it as his fault this day, Genesis 41:9. Note, The law of gratitude is a law of nature. We ought particularly to be grateful to our inferiors, and not to think all their services such debts to us but that they make us indebted to them. Two rules of gratitude may be gathered from the king's enquiry here: — 1. Better honour than nothing. If we cannot, or need not, make recompence to those who have been kind to us, yet let us do them honour by acknowledging their kindnesses and owning our obligations to them. 2. Better late than never. If we have long neglected to make grateful returns for good offices done us, let us at length bethink ourselves of our debts.

_ _ V. The servants informed him that nothing had been done to Mordecai for that eminent service; in the king's gate he sat before, and there he still sat. Note, 1. It is common for great men to take little notice of their inferiors. The king knew not whether Mordecai was preferred or no till his servants informed him. High spirits take a pride in being careless and unconcerned about those that are below them and ignorant of their state. The great God takes cognizance of the meanest of his servants, knows what dignity is done them and what disgrace. 2. Humility, modesty, and self-denial, though in God's account of great price, yet commonly hinder men's preferment in the world. Mordecai rises no higher than the king's gate, while proud ambitious Haman gets the king's ear and heart; but, though the aspiring rise fast, the humble stand fast. Honour makes proud men giddy, but upholds the humble in spirit, Proverbs 29:23. 3. Honour and dignity are rated high in the king's books. He does not ask, What reward has been given Mordecai? what money? what estate? but only, What honour? — a poor thing, and which, if he had not wherewith to support it, would be but a burden. 4. The greatest merits and the best services are often overlooked and go unrewarded among men. Little honour is done to those who best deserve it, and fittest for it, and would do most good with it. See Ecclesiastes 9:14-16. The acquisition of wealth and honour is usually a perfect lottery, in which those that venture least commonly carry off the best prize. Nay, 5. Good services are sometimes so far from being a man's preferment that they will not be his protection. Mordecai is at this time, by the king's edict, doomed to destruction, with all the Jews, though it is owned that he deserved dignity. Those that faithfully serve God need not fear being thus ill paid.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Esther 6:1

Sleep — How vain are all the contrivances of foolish man against the wise and omnipotent God, who hath the hearts and hands of kings and all men perfectly at his disposal, and can by such trivial accidents (as they are accounted) change their minds, and produce such terrible effects. Were read — His mind being troubled he knew not how, nor why, he chuses this for a diversion, God putting this thought into him, for otherwise he might have diverted himself, as he used to do, with his wives or concubines, or voices and instruments of musick, which were far more agreeable to his temper.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
that night:

Esther 5:8 If I have found favour in the sight of the king, and if it please the king to grant my petition, and to perform my request, let the king and Haman come to the banquet that I shall prepare for them, and I will do to morrow as the king hath said.
Genesis 22:14 And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said [to] this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.
1 Samuel 23:26-27 And Saul went on this side of the mountain, and David and his men on that side of the mountain: and David made haste to get away for fear of Saul; for Saul and his men compassed David and his men round about to take them. ... But there came a messenger unto Saul, saying, Haste thee, and come; for the Philistines have invaded the land.
Isaiah 41:17 [When] the poor and needy seek water, and [there is] none, [and] their tongue faileth for thirst, I the LORD will hear them, I the God of Israel will not forsake them.
Romans 11:33 O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable [are] his judgments, and his ways past finding out!

could not the king sleep:
Heb. the king's sleep fled away,
Daniel 2:1 And in the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams, wherewith his spirit was troubled, and his sleep brake from him.
Daniel 6:18 Then the king went to his palace, and passed the night fasting: neither were instruments of musick brought before him: and his sleep went from him.

the book of records:
As chronicles were composed among the Persians, a more instructive and interesting work could not be brought before the king; because they were all written in verse, and were generally the work of the most eminent poets of the empire.
Esther 2:23 And when inquisition was made of the matter, it was found out; therefore they were both hanged on a tree: and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king.
Malachi 3:16 Then they that feared the LORD spake often one to another: and the LORD hearkened, and heard [it], and a book of remembrance was written before him for them that feared the LORD, and that thought upon his name.
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Gn 22:14. 1S 23:26. Es 2:23; 5:8. Is 41:17. Dn 2:1; 6:18. Mal 3:16. Ro 11:33.

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