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Esther 3:7 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— In the first month, which is the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that is, the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, [to] the twelfth [month], which is the month Adar.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— In the first month, that [is], the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that [is], the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, [to] the twelfth [month], that [is], the month Adar.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— In the first month, which is the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of King Ahasuerus, Pur, that is the lot, was cast before Haman from day to day and from month [to month], until the twelfth month, that is the month Adar.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— In the first month, (that [is], the month Nisan,) in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that [is], the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, [to] the twelfth [month], that [is], the month Adar.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— In the first month, that is, the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that is, the lot, before Haman for each day and for each month, to the twelfth [month], that is, the month Adar.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— In the first month—the same, was the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, was Pur cast—the same, is the Lot, before Haman, from day to day, and from month to month,—and the lot fell on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, the same, is the month Adar.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— In the first month—it [is] the month of Nisan—in the twelfth year of the king Ahasuerus, hath one caused to fall Pur (that [is] the lot) before Haman, from day to day, and from month to month, [to] the twelfth, it [is] the month of Adar.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— In the first month (which is called Nisan) in the twelfth year of the reign of Assuerus, the lot was cast into an urn, which in Hebrew is called Phur, before Aman, on what day and what month the nation of the Jews should be destroyed: and there came out the twelfth month, which is called Adar.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— In the first moneth (that is, the moneth Nisan) in the twelfth yeere of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that [is], the lot, before Haman, from day to day, and from moneth to moneth, [to] the twelfth moneth, that is the moneth Adar.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And he made a decree in the twelfth year of the reign of Artaxerxes, and cast lots daily and monthly, to slay in one day the race of Mordecai{gr.Mardochaeus}: and the lot fell on the fourteenth [day] of the month which is Adar.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— In the first month, that [is], the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Achashwerosh, they cast Pur, that [is], the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, [to] the twelfth [month], that [is], the month Adar.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
In the first 7223
{7223} Prime
רִאשׁוֹן
ri'shown
{ree-shone'}
From H7221; first, in place, time or rank (as adjective or noun).
month, 2320
{2320} Prime
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
that x1931
(1931) Complement
הוּא
huw'
{hoo}
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
[is], the month 2320
{2320} Prime
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
Nsn נִיסָן, 5212
{5212} Prime
נִיסָן
Niycan
{nee-sawn'}
Probably of foreign origin; Nisan, the first month of the Jewish sacred year.
in the twelfth 8147
{8147} Prime
שְׁתַּיִם
sh@nayim
{shen-ah'-yim}
(The first form being dual of H8145; the second form being feminine); two; also (as ordinal) twofold.
6240
{6240} Prime
עָשָׂר
`asar
{aw-sawr'}
For H6235; ten (only in combination), that is, the 'teens'; also (ordinal) a 'teenth'.
year 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
of king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
awr אֲחַשׁוֵרוֹשׁ, 325
{0325} Prime
אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ
'Achashverowsh
{akh-ash-vay-rosh'}
Of Persian origin; Achashverosh (that is, Ahasuerus or Artaxerxes, but in this case Xerxes), the title (rather than name) of a Persian king.
they cast 5307
{5307} Prime
נָפַל
naphal
{naw-fal'}
A primitive root; to fall, in a great variety of applications (intransitively or causatively, literally or figuratively).
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
Pr פּוּר, 6332
{6332} Prime
פּוּר
Puwr
{poor}
From H6331; a lot (as by means of a broken piece).
that x1931
(1931) Complement
הוּא
huw'
{hoo}
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
[is], the lot, 1486
{1486} Prime
גּוֹרָל
gowral
{go-rawl'}
From an unused root meaning to be rough (as stone); properly a pebble, that is, a lot (small stones being used for that purpose); figuratively a portion or destiny (as if determined by lot).
before 6440
{6440} Prime
פָּנִים
paniym
{paw-neem'}
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
Hmn הָמָן 2001
{2001} Prime
הָמָן
Haman
{haw-mawn'}
Of foreign derivation; Haman, a Persian vizier.
from day 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
to day, 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
and from month 2320
{2320} Prime
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
to month, 2320
{2320} Prime
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
[to] the twelfth 8147
{8147} Prime
שְׁתַּיִם
sh@nayim
{shen-ah'-yim}
(The first form being dual of H8145; the second form being feminine); two; also (as ordinal) twofold.
6240
{6240} Prime
עָשָׂר
`asar
{aw-sawr'}
For H6235; ten (only in combination), that is, the 'teens'; also (ordinal) a 'teenth'.
[month], that x1931
(1931) Complement
הוּא
huw'
{hoo}
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
[is], the month 2320
{2320} Prime
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
r אֲדָר. 143
{0143} Prime
אֲדָר
'Adar
{ad-awr'}
Probably of foreign derivation; perhaps meaning fire; Adar, the H0012 th Hebrew month.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Esther 3:7

_ _ In the first month ... they cast Pur, that is, the lot — In resorting to this method of ascertaining the most auspicious day for putting his atrocious scheme into execution, Haman acted as the kings and nobles of Persia have always done, never engaging in any enterprise without consulting the astrologers, and being satisfied as to the lucky hour. Vowing revenge but scorning to lay hands on a single victim, he meditated the extirpation of the whole Jewish race, who, he knew, were sworn enemies of his countrymen; and by artfully representing them as a people who were aliens in manners and habits, and enemies to the rest of his subjects, he procured the king’s sanction of the intended massacre. One motive which he used in urging his point was addressed to the king’s cupidity. Fearing lest his master might object that the extermination of a numerous body of his subjects would seriously depress the public revenue, Haman promised to make up the loss.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Esther 3:7-15

_ _ Haman values himself upon that bold and daring thought, which he fancied well became his great spirit, of destroying all the Jews — an undertaking worthy of its author, and which he promised himself would perpetuate his memory. He doubts not but to find desperate and bloody hands enough to cut all their throats if the king will but give him leave. How he obtained leave, and commission to do it, we are here told. He had the king's ear, let him alone to manage him.

_ _ I. He makes a false and malicious representation of Jews, and their character, to the king, Esther 3:8. The enemies of God's people could not give them such bad treatment as they do if they did not first give them a bad name. He would have the king believe, 1. That the Jews were a despicable people, and that it was not for his credit to harbour them:”A certain people there is,” without name, as if nobody knew whence they came and what they were; “they are not incorporated, but scattered abroad and dispersed in all the provinces as fugitives and vagabonds on the earth, and inmates in all countries, the burden and scandal of the places where they live.” 2. That they were a dangerous people, and that it was not safe to harbour them. “They have laws and usages of their own, and conform not to the statutes of the kingdom and the customs of the country; and therefore they may be looked upon as disaffected to the government and likely to infect others with their singularities, which may end in a rebellion.” It is no new thing for the best of men to have such invidious characters as these given of them; if it be no sin to kill them, it is no sin to belie them.

_ _ II. He bids high for leave to destroy them all, Esther 3:9. He knew there were many that hated the Jews, and would willingly fall upon them if they might but have a commission: Let it be written therefore that they may be destroyed. Give but orders for a general massacre of all the Jews, and Haman will undertake it shall be easily done. If the king will gratify him in this matter, he will make him a present of ten thousand talents, which shall be paid into the king's treasuries. This, he thought, would be a powerful inducement to the king to consent, and would obviate the strongest objection against him, which was that the government must needs sustain loss in its revenues by the destruction of so many of its subjects; so great a sum, he hoped, would be equivalent for that. Proud and malicious men will not stick at the expenses of their revenge, nor spare any cost to gratify it. Yet no doubt Haman knew how to re-imburse himself out of the spoil of the Jews, which his janizaries were to seize for him (Esther 3:13), and so to make them bear the charges of their own ruin; while he himself hoped to be not only a saver but a gainer by the bargain.

_ _ III. He obtains what he desired, a full commission to do what he would with the Jews, Esther 3:10, Esther 3:11. The king was so inattentive to business, and so bewitched with Haman, that he took no time to examine the truth of his allegations, but was as willing as Haman could wish to believe the worst concerning the Jews, and therefore he gave them up into his hands, as lambs to the lion: The people are thine, do with them as it seemeth good unto thee. He does not say, “Kill them, slay them” (hoping Haman's own cooler thoughts would abate the rigour of that sentence and induce him to sell them for slaves); but “Do what thou wilt with them.” And so little did he consider how much he should lose in his tribute, and how much Haman would gain in the spoil, that he gave him withal the ten thousand talents: The silver is thine. Such an implicit confidence likewise he had in Haman, and so perfectly had he abandoned all care of his kingdom, that he gave Haman his ring, his privy-seal, or sign-manual, wherewith to confirm whatever edict he pleased to draw up for this purpose. Miserable is the kingdom that is at the disposal of such a head as this, which has one ear only, and a nose to be led by, but neither eyes nor brains, nor scarcely a tongue of its own.

_ _ IV. He then consults with his soothsayers to find out a lucky day for the designed massacre, Esther 3:7. The resolve was taken up in the first month, in the twelfth year of the king, when Esther had been his wife about five years. Some day or other in that year must be pitched upon; and, as if he doubted not but that Heaven would favour his design and further it, he refers it to the lot, that is, to the divine Providence, to choose the day for him; but that, in the decision, proved a better friend to the Jews than to him, for the lot fell upon the twelfth month, so that Mordecai and Esther had eleven months to turn themselves in for the defeating of the design, or, if they could not defeat it, space would be left for the Jews to make their escape and shift for their safety. Haman, though eager to have the Jews cut off, yet will submit to the laws of his superstition, and not anticipate the supposed fortunate day, no, not to gratify his impatient revenge. Probably he was in some fear lest the Jews should prove too hard for their enemies, and therefore durst not venture on such a hazardous enterprise but under the smiles of a good omen. This may shame us, who often acquiesce not in the directions and disposals of Providence when they cross our desires and intentions. He that believeth the lot, much more that believeth the promise, will not make haste. But see how God's wisdom serves its own purposes by men's folly. Haman has appealed to the lot, and to the lot he shall go, which, by adjourning the execution, gives judgment against him and breaks the neck of the plot.

_ _ V. The bloody edict is hereupon drawn up, signed, and published, giving orders to the militia of every province to be ready against the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, and, on that day, to murder all the Jews, men, women, and children, and seize their effects, Esther 3:12-14. Had the decree been to banish all the Jews and expel them out of the king's dominions, it would have been severe enough; but surely never any act of cruelty appeared so barefaced as this, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all the Jews, appointing them as sheep for the slaughter without showing any cause for so doing. No crime is laid to their charge; it is not pretended that they were obnoxious to the public justice, nor is any condition offered, upon performance of which they might have their lives spared; but die they must, without mercy. Thus have the church's enemies thirsted after blood, the blood of the saints and the martyrs of Jesus, and drunk of it till they have been perfectly intoxicated (Revelation 17:6); yet still, like the horse-leech, they cry, Give, give. This cruel offer is ratified with the king's seal, directed to the king's lieutenants, and drawn up in the king's name, and yet the king knows not what he does. Posts are sent out, with all expedition, to carry copies of the decree to the respective provinces, Esther 3:15. See how restless the malice of the church's enemies is: it will spare no pains; it will lose no time.

_ _ VI. The different temper of the court and city hereupon. 1. The court was very merry upon it: The king and Haman sat down to drink, perhaps to drink “Confusion to all the Jews.” Haman was afraid lest the king's conscience should smite him for what he had done and he should begin to wish it undone again, to prevent which he engrossed him to himself, and kept him drinking. This cursed method many take to drown their convictions, and harden their own hearts and the hearts of others in sin. 2. The city was very sad upon it (and the other cities of the kingdom, no doubt, when they had notice of it): The city Shushan was perplexed, not only the Jews themselves, but all their neighbours that had any principles of justice and compassion. It grieved them to see their king so abused, to see wickedness in the place of judgment (Ecclesiastes 3:16), to see men that lived peaceably treated so barbarously; and what would be the consequences of it to themselves they knew not. But the king and Haman cared for none of these things. Note, It is an absurd and impious thing to indulge ourselves in mirth and pleasure when the church is in distress and the public are perplexed.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Esther 3:7

They cast — The diviners cast lots, according to the custom of those people, what day, and what month would be most lucky, not for his success with the king (of which he made no doubt) but for the most effectual extirpation of the Jews. Wherein appears likewise both his implacable malice, and unwearied diligence in seeking vengeance of them with so much trouble to himself; and God's singular providence in disposing the lot to that time, that the Jews might have space to get the decree reversed.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Esther 3:7

In the first month, that [is], the month (c) Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that [is], the lot, (d) before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, [to] the twelfth [month], that [is], the month (e) Adar.

(c) Which contains part of March and part of April.

(d) To know what month and day would be good to attempt this thing, that it might be successful: but God disappointed their lots and expectations.

(e) Containing part of February and part of March.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the first month:

Nehemiah 2:1 And it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, [that] wine [was] before him: and I took up the wine, and gave [it] unto the king. Now I had not been [beforetime] sad in his presence.

in the twelfth:

Esther 1:3 In the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants; the power of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, [being] before him:
Esther 2:16 So Esther was taken unto king Ahasuerus into his house royal in the tenth month, which [is] the month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign.

they cast Pur:

Esther 9:24-26 Because Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, the enemy of all the Jews, had devised against the Jews to destroy them, and had cast Pur, that [is], the lot, to consume them, and to destroy them; ... Wherefore they called these days Purim after the name of Pur. Therefore for all the words of this letter, and [of that] which they had seen concerning this matter, and which had come unto them,
Proverbs 16:33 The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof [is] of the LORD.
Ezekiel 21:21-22 For the king of Babylon stood at the parting of the way, at the head of the two ways, to use divination: he made [his] arrows bright, he consulted with images, he looked in the liver. ... At his right hand was the divination for Jerusalem, to appoint captains, to open the mouth in the slaughter, to lift up the voice with shouting, to appoint [battering] rams against the gates, to cast a mount, [and] to build a fort.
Matthew 27:35 And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.

Adar:

Esther 9:1 Now in the twelfth month, that [is], the month Adar, on the thirteenth day of the same, when the king's commandment and his decree drew near to be put in execution, in the day that the enemies of the Jews hoped to have power over them, (though it was turned to the contrary, that the Jews had rule over them that hated them;)
Esther 9:5 Thus the Jews smote all their enemies with the stroke of the sword, and slaughter, and destruction, and did what they would unto those that hated them.
Esther 9:17-19 On the thirteenth day of the month Adar; and on the fourteenth day of the same rested they, and made it a day of feasting and gladness. ... Therefore the Jews of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns, made the fourteenth day of the month Adar [a day of] gladness and feasting, and a good day, and of sending portions one to another.
Esther 9:21 To stablish [this] among them, that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and the fifteenth day of the same, yearly,
Ezra 6:15 And this house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king.
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Ezr 6:15. Ne 2:1. Es 1:3; 2:16; 9:1, 5, 17, 21, 24. Pv 16:33. Ezk 21:21. Mt 27:35.

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