Parallel Bible VersionsHebrew Bible Study Tools

Esther 3:2 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And all the king's servants, that were in the king's gate, bowed down, and did reverence to Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not down, nor did him reverence.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And all the king's servants, that [were] in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor did [him] reverence.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— All the king’s servants who were at the king’s gate bowed down and paid homage to Haman; for so the king had commanded concerning him. But Mordecai neither bowed down nor paid homage.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And all the king's servants that [were] in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor did [him] reverence.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And all the king's servants that were in the king's gate bowed and did Haman reverence, for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor did [him] reverence.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, all the kings servants who were in the kings gate, used to bend and bow themselves down unto Haman, for, so, had the king given command concerning him,—but, Mordecai, bent not nor bowed himself down.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and all servants of the king, who [are] in the gate of the king, are bowing and doing obeisance to Haman, for so hath the king commanded for him; and Mordecai doth not bow nor do obeisance.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And all the king's servants, that were at the doors of the palace, bent their knees, and worshipped Aman: for so the emperor had commanded them, only Mardochai did not bend his knee, nor worship him.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And all the kings seruants, that [were] in the kings gate, bowed, and reuerenced Haman, for the king had so commanded concerning him: but Mordecai bowed not, nor did [him] reuerence.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And all in the palace did him obeisance, for so the king had given orders to do: but Mordecai{gr.Mardochaeus} did not do him obeisance.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And all the king's servants, that [were] in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordokhay bowed not, nor did [him] reverence.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the king's 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
servants, 5650
{5650} Prime
עֶבֶד
`ebed
{eh'-bed}
From H5647; a servant.
that x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
[were] in the king's 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
gate, 8179
{8179} Prime
שַׁעַר
sha`ar
{shah'-ar}
From H8176 in its original sense; an opening, that is, door or gate.
bowed, 3766
{3766} Prime
כָּרַע
kara`
{kaw-rah'}
A primitive root; to bend the knee; by implication to sink, to prostrate.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
and reverenced 7812
{7812} Prime
שָׁחָה
shachah
{shaw-khaw'}
A primitive root; to depress, that is, prostrate (especially reflexively in homage to royalty or God).
z8693
<8693> Grammar
Stem - Hithpael (See H8819)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 139
Hämän הָמָן: 2001
{2001} Prime
הָמָן
Haman
{haw-mawn'}
Of foreign derivation; Haman, a Persian vizier.
for x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
the king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
had so x3651
(3651) Complement
כֵּן
ken
{kane}
From H3559; properly set upright; hence (figuratively as adjective) just; but usually (as adverb or conjugation) rightly or so (in various applications to manner, time and relation; often with other particles).
commanded 6680
{6680} Prime
צוּה
tsavah
{tsaw-vaw'}
A primitive root; (intensively) to constitute, enjoin.
z8765
<8765> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2121
concerning him. But Mordó¢ay מָרדֳּכַי 4782
{4782} Prime
מָרְדֳּכַי
Mord@kay
{mor-dek-ah'-ee}
Of foreign derivation; Mordecai, an Israelite.
bowed 3766
{3766} Prime
כָּרַע
kara`
{kaw-rah'}
A primitive root; to bend the knee; by implication to sink, to prostrate.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
not, x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
nor x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
did [him] reverence. 7812
{7812} Prime
שָׁחָה
shachah
{shaw-khaw'}
A primitive root; to depress, that is, prostrate (especially reflexively in homage to royalty or God).
z8691
<8691> Grammar
Stem - Hithpael (See H8819)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 533
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Esther 3:2

_ _ all the king’s servants, that were in the king’s gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman — Large mansions in the East are entered by a spacious vestibule, or gateway, along the sides of which visitors sit, and are received by the master of the house; for none, except the nearest relatives or special friends, are admitted farther. There the officers of the ancient king of Persia waited till they were called, and did obeisance to the all-powerful minister of the day.

_ _ But Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence — The obsequious homage of prostration not entirely foreign to the manners of the East, had not been claimed by former viziers; but this minion required that all subordinate officers of the court should bow before him with their faces to the earth. But to Mordecai, it seemed that such an attitude of profound reverence was due only to God. Haman being an Amalekite, one of a doomed and accursed race, was, doubtless, another element in the refusal; and on learning that the recusant was a Jew, whose nonconformity was grounded on religious scruples, the magnitude of the affront appeared so much the greater, as the example of Mordecai would be imitated by all his compatriots. Had the homage been a simple token of civil respect, Mordecai would not have refused it; but the Persian kings demanded a sort of adoration, which, it is well known, even the Greeks reckoned it degradation to express. As Xerxes, in the height of his favoritism, had commanded the same honors to be given to the minister as to himself, this was the ground of Mordecai’s refusal.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Esther 3:1-6.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Esther 3:2

But, &c. — Probably the worship required was not only civil, but Divine: which as the kings of Persia arrogated to themselves, so they did sometimes impart this honour to some of their chief favourites, that they should be adored in like manner. And that it was so here, seems more than probable, because it was superfluous, to give an express command to all the kings servants, to pay a civil respect to so great a prince, which of course they used, and therefore a Divine honour must be here intended. And that a Jew should deny this honour, is not strange, seeing the wise Grecians did positively refuse to give this honour to the kings of Persia themselves, even when they were to make their addresses to them: and one Timocrates was put to death by the Athenians for worshipping Darius in that manner.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Esther 3:2

And all the king's servants, that [were] in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai (a) bowed not, nor did [him] reverence.

(a) The Persians custom was to kneel down and reverence their kings, and such as he anointed in chief authority, which Mordecai would not do to this ambitious and proud man.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the king's servants:
Dr. Shaw, speaking of the cities in the East, says, "If we quit the streets, and enter into any of the principal houses, we shall first pass through a porch, or gate-way, with benches on each side, where the master of the family receives visits, and despatches business; few persons, not even the nearest relations, having admission any farther, except upon extraordinary occasions." These servants were probably officers who here waited the king's call; and it is likely that Mordecai was one of them.
Esther 2:19 And when the virgins were gathered together the second time, then Mordecai sat in the king's gate.
Esther 2:21 In those days, while Mordecai sat in the king's gate, two of the king's chamberlains, Bigthan and Teresh, of those which kept the door, were wroth, and sought to lay hand on the king Ahasuerus.

bowed:

Genesis 41:43 And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him, Bow the knee: and he made him [ruler] over all the land of Egypt.
Philippians 2:10 That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of [things] in heaven, and [things] in earth, and [things] under the earth;

bowed not:
Yichra welo yishtachaweh, "bowed not down, nor prostrated himself," or worshipped him. Had this meant only civil reverence the king would not have needed to command it; nor would Mordecai have refused it; there was, therefore, some kind of divine honour intended, such as was paid to the Persian kings, and which even the Greeks refused, as express adoration.
Esther 3:1 After these things did king Ahasuerus promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes that [were] with him.
Esther 3:5 And when Haman saw that Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence, then was Haman full of wrath.
Exodus 17:14 And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this [for] a memorial in a book, and rehearse [it] in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.
Exodus 17:16 For he said, Because the LORD hath sworn [that] the LORD [will have] war with Amalek from generation to generation.
Deuteronomy 25:19 Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee [for] an inheritance to possess it, [that] thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget [it].
1 Samuel 15:3 Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.
Psalms 15:4 In whose eyes a vile person is contemned; but he honoureth them that fear the LORD. [He that] sweareth to [his own] hurt, and changeth not.
Random Bible VersesNew Quotes



Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 41:43. Ex 17:14, 16. Dt 25:19. 1S 15:3. Es 2:19, 21; 3:1, 5. Ps 15:4. Php 2:10.

Newest Chat Bible Comment
Comment HereComplete Biblical ResearchComplete Chat Bible Commentary
Please post your comment on Esther 3:2.
Name:

WWW Chat Bible Commentary

User-Posted Comments on Esther 3:2


Recent Chat Bible Comments