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Esther 1:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus (this is Ahasuerus who reigned from India even unto Ethiopia, over a hundred and seven and twenty provinces),
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus, (this [is] Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, [over] an hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now it took place in the days of Ahasuerus, the Ahasuerus who reigned from India to Ethiopia over 127 provinces,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus, (this [is] Ahasuerus who reigned from India even to Cush, [over] a hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus (that is, the Ahasuerus that reigned from India even to Ethiopia, over a hundred and twenty-seven provinces),
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And it came to pass, in the days of Ahasuerus,—the same, Ahasuerus that reigned from India even unto Ethiopia, a hundred and twenty-seven provinces:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass, in the days of Ahasuerus—he [is] Ahasuerus who is reigning from Hodu even unto Cush, seven and twenty and a hundred provinces—
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— In the days of Assuerus, who reigned from India to Ethiopia over a hundred and twenty seven provinces:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Now it came to passe in the dayes of Ahasuerus, (this [is] Ahasuerus which reigned from India, euen vnto Ethiopia, ouer an hundred, and seuen and twentie prouinces.)
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— In the second year of the reign of Artaxerxes the great king, on the first [day] of Nisan, Mordecai{gr.Mardochaeus} the [son] of Jairus, the [son] of Semeias, the [son] of Chisaeus, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Jew dwelling in the city Shushan{gr.Susa}, a great man, serving in the king's palace, saw a vision. Now he was of the captivity which Nebuchadnezzar{gr.Nabuchodonosor} king of Babylon had carried captive from Jerusalem, with Jeconiah{gr.Jechonias} the king of Judah{gr.Judea}. And this [was] his dream: Behold, voices and a noise, thunders and earthquake, tumult upon the earth. And, behold, two great serpents came forth, both ready for conflict, and there came from them a great voice, and by their voice of every nation was prepared for battle, even to fight against the nation of the just. And, behold, a day of darkness and blackness, tribulation and anguish, affliction and great tumult upon the earth. And all the righteous nation was troubled, fearing their own afflictions; and they prepared to die, and cried to God: and from their cry there came as it were a great river from a little fountain, [even] much water. And light and the sun arose, and the lowly were exalted, and devoured the honourable. And Mordecai{gr.Mardochaeus} who had seen this vision and what God designed to do, having awoke, kept in his heart, and desired by all means to interpret it, even till night. And Mordecai{gr.Mardochaeus} rested quiet in the palace with Gabatha and Terah{gr.Tharrha} the king's two chamberlains, eunuchs who guarded the palace. And he heard their reasonings and searched out their plans, and learnt that they were preparing to lay hands on king Artaxerxes: and he informed the king concerning them. And the king examined the two chamberlains, and they confessed, and were executed. And the king wrote these things for a memorial; also Mordecai{gr.Mardochaeus} wrote concerning these matters. And the king commanded Mordecai{gr.Mardochaeus} to attend in the palace, and gave him gifts for this service. And Haman{gr.Aman} the son of Amadathes the Bugaean was honourable in the sight of the two kings, and he endeavoured to hurt Mordecai{gr.Mardochaeus} and his people, because of the two chamberlains of the king. And it came to pass after these things in the days of Artaxerxes.-- (this Artaxerxes ruled over a hundred and twenty-seven provinces from India)--
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Now it came to pass in the days of Achashwerosh, (this [is] Achashwerosh which reigned, from Hoddu even unto Kush, [over] an hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now it came to pass x1961
(1961) Complement
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
in the days 3117
{3117} Prime
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
of awr אֲחַשׁוֵרוֹשׁ, 325
{0325} Prime
Of Persian origin; Achashverosh (that is, Ahasuerus or Artaxerxes, but in this case Xerxes), the title (rather than name) of a Persian king.
(this x1931
(1931) Complement
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
[is] awr אֲחַשׁוֵרוֹשׁ 325
{0325} Prime
Of Persian origin; Achashverosh (that is, Ahasuerus or Artaxerxes, but in this case Xerxes), the title (rather than name) of a Persian king.
which reigned, 4427
{4427} Prime
A primitive root; to reign; inceptively to ascend the throne; causatively to induct into royalty; hence (by implication) to take counsel.
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
from Hdd הֹדּוּ 1912
{1912} Prime
Of foreign origin; Hodu (that is, Hindustan).
(4480) Complement
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
even unto x5704
(5704) Complement
Properly the same as H5703 (used as a preposition, adverb or conjugation; especially with a preposition); as far (or long, or much) as, whether of space (even unto) or time (during, while, until) or degree (equally with).
C כּוּשׁ, 3568
{3568} Prime
Probably of foreign origin; Cush (or Ethiopia), the name of a son of Ham, and of his territory; also of an Israelite.
[over] an hundred 3967
{3967} Prime
Probably a primitive numeral; a hundred; also as a multiplicative and a fraction.
and seven 7651
{7651} Prime
From H7650; a primitive cardinal number; seven (as the sacred full one); also (adverbially) seven times; by implication a week; by extension an indefinite number.
and twenty 6242
{6242} Prime
From H6235; twenty; also (ordinal) twentieth.
provinces:) 4082
{4082} Prime
From H1777; properly a judgeship, that is, jurisdiction; by implication a district (as ruled by a judge); generally a region.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Esther 1:1

_ _ Esther 1:1-22. Ahasuerus makes royal feasts.

_ _ Ahasuerus — It is now generally agreed among learned men that the Ahasuerus mentioned in this episode is the Xerxes who figures in Grecian history.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Esther 1:1-9

_ _ Which of the kings of Persia this Ahasuerus was the learned are not agreed. Mordecai is said to have been one of those that were carried captive from Jerusalem (Esther 2:5, Esther 2:6), whence it should seem that this Ahasuerus was one of the first kings of that empire. Dr. Lightfoot thinks that he was that Artaxerxes who hindered the building of the temple, who is called also Ahasuerus (Ezra 4:6, Ezra 4:7), after his great-grandfather of the Medes, Daniel 9:1. We have here an account,

_ _ I. Of the vast extent of his dominion. In the time of Darius and Cyrus there were but 120 princes (Daniel 6:1); now there were 127, from India to Ethiopia, Esther 1:1. It had become an over-grown kingdom, which in time would sink with its own weight, and, as usual, would lose its provinces as fast as it got them. If such vast power be put into a bad hand, it is able to do so much the more mischief; but, if into a good hand, it is able to do so much the more good. Christ's kingdom is, or shall be, far larger than this, when the kingdoms of the world shall all become his; and it shall be everlasting.

_ _ II. Of the great pomp and magnificence of his court. When he found himself fixed in his throne, the pride of his heart rising with the grandeur of his kingdom, he made a most extravagant feast, wherein he put himself to vast expense and trouble only to show the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honour of his excellent majesty, Esther 1:4. This was vain glory, an affection of pomp to no purpose at all; for none questioned the riches of his kingdom, nor offered to vie with him for honour. If he had shown the riches of his kingdom and the honour of his majesty, as some of his successors did, in contributing largely towards the building of the temple and the maintaining of the temple service (Ezra 6:8, Ezra 7:22), it would have turned to a much better account. Two feasts Ahasuerus made: — 1. One for his nobles and princes, which lasted a hundred and eighty days, Esther 1:3, Esther 1:4. Not that he feasted the same persons every day for all that time, but perhaps the nobles and princes of one province one day, of another province another day, while thus he and his constant attendants fared sumptuously every day. The Chaldee paraphrast (who is very bold in his additions to the story of this book) says that there had been a rebellion among his subjects and that this feast was kept for joy of the quashing of it. 2. Another was made for all the people, both great and small, which lasted seven days, some one day and some another; and, because no house would hold them, they were entertained in the court of the garden, Esther 1:5. The hangings with which the several apartments were divided or the tents which were there pitched for the company, were very fine and rich; so were the beds or benches on which they sat, and the pavement under their feet, Esther 1:6. Better is a dinner of herbs with quietness, and the enjoyment of one's self and a friend, than this banquet of wine with all the noise and tumult that must needs attend it.

_ _ III. Of the good order which in some respects was kept there notwithstanding. We do not find this like Belshazzar's feast, in which dunghill-gods were praised and the vessels of the sanctuary profaned, Daniel 5:3, Daniel 5:4. Yet the Chaldee paraphrase says that the vessels of the sanctuary were used in this feast, to the great grief of the pious Jews. It was not like Herod's feast, which reserved a prophet's head for the last dish. Two things which are laudable we may gather from the account here given of this feast: — 1. That there was no forcing of healths, nor urging of them: The drinking was according to the law, probably some law lately made; none did compel, no, not by continual proposing of it (as Josephus explains it); they did not send the glass about, but every man drank as he pleased (Esther 1:8), so that if there were any that drank to excess it was their own fault, a fault which few would commit when the king's order put an honour upon sobriety. This caution of a heathen prince, even when he would show his generosity, may shame many who are called Christians, who think they do not sufficiently show their good housekeeping, nor bid their friends welcome, unless they make them drunk, and, under pretence of sending the health round, send the sin round, and death with it. There is a woe to those that do so; let them read it and tremble, Habakkuk 2:15, Habakkuk 2:16. It is robbing men of their reason, their richest jewel, and making them fools, the greatest wrong that can be. 2. That there was no mixed dancing; for the gentlemen and ladies were entertained asunder, not as in the feast of Belshazzar, whose wives and concubines drank with him (Daniel 5:2), or that of Herod, whose daughter danced before him. Vashti feasted the women in her own apartment; not openly in the court of the garden, but in the royal house, Esther 1:9. Thus, while the king showed the honour of his majesty, she and her ladies showed the honour of their modesty, which is truly the majesty of the fair sex.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Esther 1:1

Ahasuerus — Many suppose this to be Darius Hystapas, for his kingdom was thus vast, and he subdued India, as Herodotus reports: and one of his wives was called Atossa, differing little from Hadassah, which is Esther's other name, Esther 2:7. Provinces — So seven new provinces were added to those hundred and twenty mentioned, Daniel 6:1.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Esther 1:1

Now it came to pass in the days of (a) Ahasuerus, (this [is] Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, [over] an (b) hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)

The Argument — Because of the variety of names, by which they used to call their kings, and the number of years in which the Hebrews and the Greeks vary, various authors write concerning that Ahasuerus but is seems in (Daniel 6:1, Daniel 9:1) that he was Darius king of the Medes and son of Astyages also called Ahasuerus which was a name of honour and signified great and chief as chief head. In this is declared the great mercies of God toward his church: who never fails them in their greatest dangers, but when all hope of worldly help fades, he stirs up some, by whom he sends comfort and deliverance. In this also is described the ambition, pride and cruelty of the wicked when they come to honour and their sudden fall when they are at their highest and how God preserves and prefers them who are zealous of his glory and have a care and love for their brethren.

(a) Also called Darius, who was now the favourite monarch and had the government of the Medes, Persians and Chaldeans. Some think he was Darius Hystaspis also called Artaxerxes.

(b) (Daniel 6:1) makes mention of only 120 leaving out the number that are imperfect as the scripture uses in various places.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Prideaux has shewn satisfactorily that Ahasuerus was the Artaxerxes Longimanus of the Greeks, agreeably to the Septuagint and Josephus. See note on
Ezra 6:14 And the elders of the Jews builded, and they prospered through the prophesying of Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo. And they builded, and finished [it], according to the commandment of the God of Israel, and according to the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia.
Ezra 4:6 And in the reign of Ahasuerus, in the beginning of his reign, wrote they [unto him] an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem.
Daniel 9:1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;

from India:

Esther 8:9 Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that [is], the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth [day] thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which [are] from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.
Isaiah 18:1 Woe to the land shadowing with wings, which [is] beyond the rivers of Ethiopia:
Isaiah 37:9 And he heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, He is come forth to make war with thee. And when he heard [it], he sent messengers to Hezekiah, saying,

an hundred:

Daniel 6:1 It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom an hundred and twenty princes, which should be over the whole kingdom;
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Ezr 4:6; 6:14. Es 8:9. Is 18:1; 37:9. Dn 6:1; 9:1.

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