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Ephesians 4:18 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardening of their heart;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— being darkened in their understanding, excluded from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart;
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— being darkened in understanding, estranged from the life of God by reason of the ignorance which is in them, by reason of the hardness of their hearts,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God—by reason of the ignorance that existeth within them, by reason of their hearts being turned into stone,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— being darkened in the understanding, being alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Having their understanding darkened: being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their hearts.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Hauing the vnderstanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God, through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindnesse of their heart:
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— and are darkened in their understandings, and are alienated from the life of Aloha on account of their ignorance, and on account of the blindness of their hearts;
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— and they are dark in their understandings, and are alienated from the life of God, because there is not in them knowledge, and because of the blindness of their heart.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Having the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
understanding 1271
{1271} Prime
διάνοια
dianoia
{dee-an'-oy-ah}
From G1223 and G3563; deep thought, properly the faculty (mind or its disposition), by implication its exercise.
darkened, 4654
{4654} Prime
σκοτίζω
skotizo
{skot-id'-zo}
From G4655; to obscure (literally or figuratively).
z5772
<5772> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 463
being 5607
{5607} Prime
ὤν
on
{oan}
The feminine, the neuter and the present participle of G1510; being.
z5752
<5752> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 186
alienated 526
{0526} Prime
ἀπαλλοτριόω
apallotrioo
{ap-al-lot-ree-o'-o}
From G0575 and a derivative of G0245; to estrange away, that is, (passively and figuratively) to be non participant.
z5772
<5772> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 463
from the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
life 2222
{2222} Prime
ζωή
zoe
{dzo-ay'}
From G2198; life (literally or figuratively).
of God 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
through 1223
{1223} Prime
διά
dia
{dee-ah'}
A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through (in very wide applications, local, causal or occasional). In composition it retains the same general import.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
ignorance 52
{0052} Prime
ἄγνοια
agnoia
{ag'-noy-ah}
From G0050; ignorance (properly the quality).
that is 5607
{5607} Prime
ὤν
on
{oan}
The feminine, the neuter and the present participle of G1510; being.
z5752
<5752> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 186
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
them, 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
because 1223
{1223} Prime
διά
dia
{dee-ah'}
A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through (in very wide applications, local, causal or occasional). In composition it retains the same general import.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
blindness 4457
{4457} Prime
πώρωσις
porosis
{po'-ro-sis}
From G4456; stupidity or callousness.
of their 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
heart: 2588
{2588} Prime
καρδία
kardia
{kar-dee'-ah}
Prolonged from a primary κάρ [[kar]] (Latin cor, 'heart'); the heart, that is, (figuratively) the thoughts or feelings (mind); also (by analogy) the middle.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Ephesians 4:18

_ _ More literally, “Being darkened in their understanding,” that is, their intelligence, or perceptions (compare Ephesians 5:8; Acts 26:18; 1 Thessalonians 5:4, 1 Thessalonians 5:5).

_ _ alienated — This and “darkened,” imply that before the fall they (in the person of their first father) had been partakers of life and light: and that they had revolted from the primitive revelation (compare Ephesians 2:12).

_ _ life of God — that life whereby God lives in His own people: as He was the life and light in Adam before the irruption of death and darkness into human nature; and as He is the life in the regenerate (Galatians 2:20). “Spiritual life in believers is kindled from the life itself of God” [Bengel].

_ _ through — rather as Greek,on account of the ignorance,” namely, of God. Willful ignorance in the first instance, their fathers not “choosing to retain God in their knowledge.” This is the beginning point of their misery (Acts 17:30; Romans 1:21, Romans 1:23, Romans 1:28; 1 Peter 1:14).

_ _ because of — “on account of.”

_ _ blindnessGreek, “hardness,” literally, the hardening of the skin so as not to be sensible of touch. Hence a soul’s callousness to feeling (Mark 3:5). Where there is spiritual “life” (“the life of God”) there is feeling; where there is not, there is “hardness.”

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Ephesians 4:17-32.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Ephesians 4:18

Having their understanding darkened, through the ignorance that is in them — So that they are totally void of the light of God, neither have they any knowledge of his will. Being alienated from the life of God — Utter strangers to the divine, the spiritual life. Through the hardness of their hearts — Callous and senseless. And where there is no sense, there can be no life.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Ephesians 4:18

Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the (a) life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:

(a) By which God lives in them.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the understanding:

Psalms 74:20 Have respect unto the covenant: for the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty.
Psalms 115:4-8 Their idols [are] silver and gold, the work of men's hands. ... They that make them are like unto them; [so is] every one that trusteth in them.
Isaiah 44:18-20 They have not known nor understood: for he hath shut their eyes, that they cannot see; [and] their hearts, that they cannot understand. ... He feedeth on ashes: a deceived heart hath turned him aside, that he cannot deliver his soul, nor say, [Is there] not a lie in my right hand?
Isaiah 46:5-8 To whom will ye liken me, and make [me] equal, and compare me, that we may be like? ... Remember this, and shew yourselves men: bring [it] again to mind, O ye transgressors.
Acts 17:30 And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now commandeth all men every where to repent:
Acts 26:17-18 Delivering thee from the people, and [from] the Gentiles, unto whom now I send thee, ... To open their eyes, [and] to turn [them] from darkness to light, and [from] the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me.
Romans 1:21-23 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified [him] not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. ... And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.
Romans 1:28 And even as they did not like to retain God in [their] knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;
1 Corinthians 1:21 For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.
2 Corinthians 4:4 In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.
Galatians 4:8 Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods.
1 Thessalonians 4:5 Not in the lust of concupiscence, even as the Gentiles which know not God:

alienated:

Ephesians 2:12 That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:
Romans 8:7-8 Because the carnal mind [is] enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. ... So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God.
Galatians 4:8 Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods.
Colossians 1:21 And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in [your] mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled
1 Thessalonians 4:5 Not in the lust of concupiscence, even as the Gentiles which know not God:
James 4:4 Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God.

because:

Romans 1:21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified [him] not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
Romans 2:19 And art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light of them which are in darkness,
1 John 2:11 But he that hateth his brother is in darkness, and walketh in darkness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, because that darkness hath blinded his eyes.

blindness:
or, hardness,
Daniel 5:20 But when his heart was lifted up, and his mind hardened in pride, he was deposed from his kingly throne, and they took his glory from him:
Matthew 13:15 For this people's heart is waxed gross, and [their] ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with [their] eyes, and hear with [their] ears, and should understand with [their] heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.
John 12:40 He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with [their] eyes, nor understand with [their] heart, and be converted, and I should heal them.
Romans 11:25 For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.
*marg.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ps 74:20; 115:4. Is 44:18; 46:5. Dn 5:20. Mt 13:15. Jn 12:40. Ac 17:30; 26:17. Ro 1:21, 28; 2:19; 8:7; 11:25. 1Co 1:21. 2Co 4:4. Ga 4:8. Ep 2:12. Col 1:21. 1Th 4:5. Jm 4:4. 1Jn 2:11.

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