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Ephesians 2:3 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest: --
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Among them we too all formerly lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Among whom also we all had our manner of life in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— among whom *we* also all once had our conversation in the lusts of our flesh, doing what the flesh and the thoughts willed to do, and were children, by nature, of wrath, even as the rest:
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Among whom also, we all, had our behaviour, at one time, in the covetings of our flesh, doing the things desired by the flesh and the mind, and were children, by nature, of anger—even as the rest,—
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— among whom also we all did walk once in the desires of our flesh, doing the wishes of the flesh and of the thoughts, and were by nature children of wrath—as also the others,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— In which also we all conversed in time past, in the desires of our flesh, fulfilling the will of the flesh and of our thoughts, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Among whom also we all had our conuersation in times past, in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh, and of the minde, and were by nature the children of wrath, euen as others:
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— in those works in which we also walked from the first in the lusts of our flesh, doing the will of our flesh and of our mind, and were the sons of wrath fully as the rest.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— in which deeds we also, formerly, were conversant, in the cravings of our flesh; and we did the pleasure of our flesh, and of our mind, and were altogether the children of wrath, like the rest.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Among 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
whom 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
also 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
we 2249
{2249} Prime
ἡμεῖς
hemeis
{hay-mice'}
Nomitive plural of G1473; we (only used when emphatic).
all 3956
{3956} Prime
πᾶς
pas
{pas}
Including all the forms of declension; apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole.
had our conversation 390
{0390} Prime
ἀναστρέφω
anastrepho
{an-as-tref'-o}
From G0303 and G4762; to overturn; also to return; by implication to busy oneself, that is, remain, live.
z5648
<5648> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 72
in times past 4218
{4218} Prime
ποτέ
pote
{pot-eh'}
From the base of G4225 and G5037; indefinite adverb, at some time, ever.
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
lusts 1939
{1939} Prime
ἐπιθυμία
epithumia
{ep-ee-thoo-mee'-ah}
From G1937; a longing (especially for what is forbidden).
of our 2257
{2257} Prime
ἡμῶν
hemon
{hay-mone'}
Genitive plural of G1473; of (or from) us.
flesh, 4561
{4561} Prime
σάρξ
sarx
{sarx}
Probably from the base of G4563; flesh (as stripped of the skin), that is, (strictly) the meat of an animal (as food), or (by extension) the body (as opposed to the soul (or spirit), or as the symbol of what is external, or as the means of kindred, or (by implication) human nature (with its frailties (physically or morally) and passions), or (specifically) a human being (as such).
fulfilling 4160
{4160} Prime
ποιέω
poieo
{poy-eh'-o}
Apparently a prolonged form of an obsolete primary; to make or do (in a very wide application, more or less direct).
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
desires 2307
{2307} Prime
θέλημα
thelema
{thel'-ay-mah}
From the prolonged form of G2309; a determination (properly the thing), that is, (actively) choice (specifically purpose, decree; abstractly volition) or (passively) inclination.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
flesh 4561
{4561} Prime
σάρξ
sarx
{sarx}
Probably from the base of G4563; flesh (as stripped of the skin), that is, (strictly) the meat of an animal (as food), or (by extension) the body (as opposed to the soul (or spirit), or as the symbol of what is external, or as the means of kindred, or (by implication) human nature (with its frailties (physically or morally) and passions), or (specifically) a human being (as such).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
mind; 1271
{1271} Prime
διάνοια
dianoia
{dee-an'-oy-ah}
From G1223 and G3563; deep thought, properly the faculty (mind or its disposition), by implication its exercise.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
were 2258
{2258} Prime
ἦν
en
{ane}
Imperfect of G1510; I (thou, etc.) was (wast or were).
z5713
<5713> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 532
by nature 5449
{5449} Prime
φύσις
phusis
{foo'-sis}
From G5453; growth (by germination or expansion), that is, (by implication) natural production (lineal descent); by extension a genus or sort; figuratively native disposition, constitution or usage.
the children 5043
{5043} Prime
τέκνον
teknon
{tek'-non}
From the base of G5098; a child (as produced).
of wrath, 3709
{3709} Prime
ὀργή
orge
{or-gay'}
From G3713; properly desire (as a reaching forth or excitement of the mind), that is, (by analogy) violent passion (ire, or [justifiable] abhorrence); by implication punishment.
even 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
as 5613
{5613} Prime
ὡς
hos
{hoce}
Probably adverb of comparative from G3739; which how, that is, in that manner (very variously used as shown).
others. 3062
{3062} Prime
λοιποί
loipoy
{loy-poy'}
Masculine plural of a derivative of G3007; remaining ones.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Ephesians 2:3

_ _ also we — that is, we also. Paul here joins himself in the same category with them, passing from the second person (Ephesians 2:1, Ephesians 2:2) to the first person here.

_ _ all — Jews and Gentiles.

_ _ our conversation — “our way of life” (2 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Peter 1:18). This expression implies an outwardly more decorous course, than the open “walk” in gross sins on the part of the majority of Ephesians in times past, the Gentile portion of whom may be specially referred to in Ephesians 2:2. Paul and his Jewish countrymen, though outwardly more seemly than the Gentiles (Acts 26:4, Acts 26:5, Acts 26:18), had been essentially like them in living to the unrenewed flesh, without the Spirit of God.

_ _ fulfillingGreek, doing.

_ _ mindGreek, “our thoughts.” Mental suggestions and purposes (independent of God), as distinguished from the blind impulses of “the flesh.”

_ _ and were by nature — He intentionally breaks off the construction, substituting “and we were” for “and being,” to mark emphatically his and their past state by nature, as contrasted with their present state by grace. Not merely is it, we had our way of life fulfilling our fleshly desires, and so being children of wrath; but we were by nature originally “children of wrath,” and so consequently had our way of life fulfilling our fleshly desires. “Nature,” in Greek, implies that which has grown in us as the peculiarity of our being, growing with our growth, and strengthening with our strength, as distinguished from that which has been wrought on us by mere external influences: what is inherent, not acquired (Job 14:4; Psalms 51:5). An incidental proof of the doctrine of original sin.

_ _ children of wrath — not merely “sons,” as in the Greek, “sons of disobedience” (Ephesians 2:2), but “children” by generation; not merely by adoption, as “sons” might be. The Greek order more emphatically marks this innate corruption: “Those who in their (very) nature are children of wrath”; Ephesians 2:5, “grace” is opposed to “nature” here; and salvation (implied in Ephesians 2:5, Ephesians 2:8, “saved”) to “wrath.” Compare Article IX, Church of England Common Prayer Book. “Original sin (birth-sin), standeth not in the following of Adam, but is the fault and corruption of the nature of every man, naturally engendered of Adam [Christ was supernaturally conceived by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin], whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined to evil; and therefore, in every person born into this world, it deserveth God’s wrath and damnation.” Paul shows that even the Jews, who boasted of their birth from Abraham, were by natural birth equally children of wrath as the Gentiles, whom the Jews despised on account of their birth from idolaters (Romans 3:9; Romans 5:12-14). “Wrath abideth” on all who disobey the Gospel in faith and practice (John 3:36). The phrase, “children of wrath,” is a Hebraism, that is, objects of God’s wrath from childhood, in our natural state, as being born in the sin which God hates. So “son of death” (2 Samuel 12:5, Margin); “son of perdition” (John 17:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:3).

_ _ as othersGreek, “as the rest” of mankind are (1 Thessalonians 4:13).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Ephesians 2:1-3.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Ephesians 2:3

Among whom we — Jews. Also, formerly had our conversation: doing the will of the flesh — In gross, brutal sins. And of the mind — By spiritual, diabolical wickedness. In the former clause, flesh denotes the whole evil nature; in the latter, the body opposed to the soul. And were by nature — That is, in our natural state. Children of wrath — Having the wrath of God abiding on us, even as the gentiles. This expression, by nature, occurs also, Galatians 4:8; Romans 2:14; and thrice in Romans 11:24. But in none of these places does it signify, by custom, or practice, or customary practice, as a late writer affirms. Nor can it mean so here For this would make the apostle guilty of gross tautology, their customary sinning having been expressed already, in the former part of the verse. But all these passages agree in expressing what belongs to the nature of the persons spoken of.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Ephesians 2:3

(6) Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our (d) flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and (7) were by nature the (e) children of wrath, even as (f) others.

(6) After he has separately condemned the Gentiles, he confesses that the Jews (among whom he numbers himself) are not the least bit better.

(d) By the name of flesh in the first place, he means the whole man, which he divides into two parts: into the flesh, which is the part that the philosophers consider to be without reason, and into the thought, which they call reasonable. And so he leaves nothing in man half dead, but concludes that the whole man is by nature the son of wrath. (7) The conclusion: all men are born subject to the wrath and curse of God.

(e) Men are said to be the children of wrath passively, that is to say, guilty of everlasting death by the judgment of God, who is angry with them.

(f) Profane people who did not know God.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
we:

Isaiah 53:6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.
Isaiah 64:6-7 But we are all as an unclean [thing], and all our righteousnesses [are] as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away. ... And [there is] none that calleth upon thy name, that stirreth up himself to take hold of thee: for thou hast hid thy face from us, and hast consumed us, because of our iniquities.
Daniel 9:5-9 We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from thy precepts and from thy judgments: ... To the Lord our God [belong] mercies and forgivenesses, though we have rebelled against him;
Romans 3:9-19 What then? are we better [than they]? No, in no wise: for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin; ... Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
1 Corinthians 6:9-11 Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, ... And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.
Galatians 2:15-16 We [who are] Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles, ... Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.
Galatians 3:22 But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.
Titus 3:3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, [and] hating one another.
1 Peter 4:3 For the time past of [our] life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abominable idolatries:
1 John 1:8-10 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. ... If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us.

in times:

Ephesians 4:17-19 This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their mind, ... Who being past feeling have given themselves over unto lasciviousness, to work all uncleanness with greediness.
Acts 14:16 Who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways.
Acts 17:30-31 And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now commandeth all men every where to repent: ... Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by [that] man whom he hath ordained; [whereof] he hath given assurance unto all [men], in that he hath raised him from the dead.
Romans 11:30 For as ye in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief:
1 Peter 2:10 Which in time past [were] not a people, but [are] now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.
1 John 2:8 Again, a new commandment I write unto you, which thing is true in him and in you: because the darkness is past, and the true light now shineth.

in the:

Ephesians 4:22 That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;
Mark 4:19 And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.
John 8:44 Ye are of [your] father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.
Romans 1:24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves:
Romans 6:12 Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that ye should obey it in the lusts thereof.
Romans 13:14 But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to [fulfil] the lusts [thereof].
Galatians 5:16-24 [This] I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh. ... And they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.
1 Timothy 6:9 But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and [into] many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition.
James 4:1-3 From whence [come] wars and fightings among you? [come they] not hence, [even] of your lusts that war in your members? ... Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye may consume [it] upon your lusts.
1 Peter 1:14 As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance:
1 Peter 2:11 Dearly beloved, I beseech [you] as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul;
1 Peter 4:2 That he no longer should live the rest of [his] time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God.
2 Peter 2:18 For when they speak great swelling [words] of vanity, they allure through the lusts of the flesh, [through much] wantonness, those that were clean escaped from them who live in error.
1 John 2:16 For all that [is] in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world.
Jude 1:16-18 These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts; and their mouth speaketh great swelling [words], having men's persons in admiration because of advantage. ... How that they told you there should be mockers in the last time, who should walk after their own ungodly lusts.

fulfilling:

Romans 8:7-8 Because the carnal mind [is] enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. ... So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God.
2 Corinthians 7:1 Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.
Galatians 5:19-21 Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are [these]; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, ... Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told [you] in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.

desires:
Gr. wills,
John 1:13 Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.

by:

Genesis 5:3 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat [a son] in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth:
Genesis 6:5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man [was] great in the earth, and [that] every imagination of the thoughts of his heart [was] only evil continually.
Genesis 8:21 And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart [is] evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.
Job 14:4 Who can bring a clean [thing] out of an unclean? not one.
Job 15:14-16 What [is] man, that he should be clean? and [he which is] born of a woman, that he should be righteous? ... How much more abominable and filthy [is] man, which drinketh iniquity like water?
Job 25:4 How then can man be justified with God? or how can he be clean [that is] born of a woman?
Psalms 51:5 Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me.
Mark 7:21-22 For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, ... Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness:
John 3:1-6 There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews: ... That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.
Romans 5:12-19 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: ... For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.
Romans 7:18 For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but [how] to perform that which is good I find not.
Galatians 2:15-16 We [who are] Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles, ... Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.

children:

Ephesians 2:2 Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:
Romans 9:22 [What] if God, willing to shew [his] wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction:

even:

Romans 3:9 What then? are we better [than they]? No, in no wise: for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin;
Romans 3:22-23 Even the righteousness of God [which is] by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference: ... For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;
1 Corinthians 4:7 For who maketh thee to differ [from another]? and what hast thou that thou didst not receive? now if thou didst receive [it], why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not received [it]?
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Gn 5:3; 6:5; 8:21. Jb 14:4; 15:14; 25:4. Ps 51:5. Is 53:6; 64:6. Dn 9:5. Mk 4:19; 7:21. Jn 1:13; 3:1; 8:44. Ac 14:16; 17:30. Ro 1:24; 3:9, 22; 5:12; 6:12; 7:18; 8:7; 9:22; 11:30; 13:14. 1Co 4:7; 6:9. 2Co 7:1. Ga 2:15; 3:22; 5:16, 19. Ep 2:2; 4:17, 22. 1Ti 6:9. Tit 3:3. Jm 4:1. 1P 1:14; 2:10, 11; 4:2, 3. 2P 2:18. 1Jn 1:8; 2:8, 16. Jde 1:16.

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