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Ephesians 2:2 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— wherein ye once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, of the spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— in which you formerly walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— In which in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— in which ye once walked according to the age of this world, according to the ruler of the authority of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience:
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— In which at one time ye walked, according to the age of the world, according to the prince of the authority of the air, of the spirit that now energiseth in the sons of disobedience,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— in which once ye did walk according to the age of this world, according to the ruler of the authority of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Wherein in time past you walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of this air, of the spirit that now worketh on the children of unbelief:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the aire, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience,
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— in which from the first you walked according to the worldliness of this age, and according to the will of the prince of the power of the air, of that Spirit who urgeth in the sons of disobedience;
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— in the which ye before walked, according to the worldliness of this world, and according to the pleasure of the prince potentate of the air, that spirit which is active in the children of disobedience:

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Wherein 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
in time past 4218
{4218} Prime
ποτέ
pote
{pot-eh'}
From the base of G4225 and G5037; indefinite adverb, at some time, ever.
ye walked 4043
{4043} Prime
περιπατέω
peripateo
{per-ee-pat-eh'-o}
From G4012 and G3961; to tread all around, that is, walk at large (especially as proof of ability); figuratively to live, deport oneself, follow (as a companion or votary).
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
according x2596
(2596) Complement
κατά
kata
{kat-ah'}
A primary particle; (preposition) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case [genitive, dative or accusative] with which it is joined).
to y2596
[2596] Standard
κατά
kata
{kat-ah'}
A primary particle; (preposition) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case [genitive, dative or accusative] with which it is joined).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
course 165
{0165} Prime
αἰών
aion
{ahee-ohn'}
From the same as G0104; properly an age; by extension perpetuity (also past); by implication the world; specifically (Jewish) a Messianic period (present or future).
of this 5127
{5127} Prime
τούτου
toutou
{too'-too}
Genitive singular masculine or neuter of G3778; of (from or concerning) this (person or thing).
world, 2889
{2889} Prime
κόσμος
kosmos
{kos'-mos}
Probably from the base of G2865; orderly arrangement, that is, decoration; by implication the world (in a wide or narrow sense, including its inhabitants, literally or figuratively [morally]).
according x2596
(2596) Complement
κατά
kata
{kat-ah'}
A primary particle; (preposition) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case [genitive, dative or accusative] with which it is joined).
to y2596
[2596] Standard
κατά
kata
{kat-ah'}
A primary particle; (preposition) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case [genitive, dative or accusative] with which it is joined).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
prince 758
{0758} Prime
ἄρχων
archon
{ar'-khone}
Present participle of G0757; a first (in rank or power).
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
power 1849
{1849} Prime
ἐξουσία
exousia
{ex-oo-see'-ah}
From G1832 (in the sense of ability); privilege, that is, (subjectively) force, capacity, competency, freedom, or (objectively) mastery (concretely magistrate, superhuman, potentate, token of control), delegated influence.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
air, 109
{0109} Prime
ἀήρ
aer
{ah-ayr'}
From ἄημι [[aemi]] (to breathe unconsciously, that is, respire; by analogy to blow); 'air' (as naturally circumambient).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
spirit 4151
{4151} Prime
πνεῦμα
pneuma
{pnyoo'-mah}
From G4154; a current of air, that is, breath (blast) or a breeze; by analogy or figuratively a spirit, that is, (human) the rational soul, (by implication) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel, daemon, or (divine) God, Christ's spirit, the Holy spirit.
that now y3568
[3568] Standard
νῦν
nun
{noon}
A primary particle of present time; 'now' (as adverb of date, a transition or emphasis); also as noun or adjective present or immediate.
worketh 1754
{1754} Prime
ἐνεργέω
energeo
{en-erg-eh'-o}
From G1756; to be active, efficient.
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
x3568
(3568) Complement
νῦν
nun
{noon}
A primary particle of present time; 'now' (as adverb of date, a transition or emphasis); also as noun or adjective present or immediate.
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
children 5207
{5207} Prime
υἱός
huios
{hwee-os'}
Apparently a primary word; a 'son' (sometimes of animals), used very widely of immediate, remote or figurative kinship.
of disobedience: 543
{0543} Prime
ἀπείθεια
apeitheia
{ap-i'-thi-ah}
From G0545; disbelief (obstinate and rebellious).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Ephesians 2:2

_ _ the course of this world — the career (literally, “the age,” compare Galatians 1:4), or present system of this world (1 Corinthians 2:6, 1 Corinthians 2:12; 1 Corinthians 3:18, 1 Corinthians 3:19, as opposed to “the world to come”): alien from God, and lying in the wicked one (1 John 5:19). “The age” (which is something more external and ethical) regulates “the world” (which is something more external).

_ _ the prince of the power of the air — the unseen God who lies underneath guiding “the course of this world” (2 Corinthians 4:4); ranging through the air around us: compare Mark 4:4, “fowls of the air” (Greek, “heaven”) that is, (Ephesians 2:15), “Satan” and his demons. Compare Ephesians 6:12; John 12:31. Christ’s ascension seems to have cast Satan out of heaven (Revelation 12:5, Revelation 12:9, Revelation 12:10, Revelation 12:12, Revelation 12:13), where he had been heretofore the accuser of the brethren (Job 1:6-11). No longer able to accuse in heaven those justified by Christ, the ascended Savior (Romans 8:33, Romans 8:34), he assails them on earth with all trials and temptations; and “we live in an atmosphere poisonous and impregnated with deadly elements. But a mighty purification of the air will be effected by Christ’s coming” [Auberlen], for Satan shall be bound (Revelation 12:12, Revelation 12:13, Revelation 12:15, Revelation 12:17; Revelation 20:2, Revelation 20:3). “The power” is here used collectively for the “powers of the air”; in apposition with which “powers” stand the “spirits,” comprehended in the singular, “the spirit,” taken also collectively: the aggregate of the “seducing spirits” (1 Timothy 4:1) which “work now (still; not merely, as in your case, ‘in time past’) in the sons of disobedience” (a Hebraism: men who are not merely by accident disobedient, but who are essentially sons of disobedience itself: compare Matthew 3:7), and of which Satan is here declared to be “the prince.” The Greek does not allow “the spirit” to refer to Satan, “the prince” himself, but to “the powers of the air” of which he is prince. The powers of the air are the embodiment of that evil “spirit” which is the ruling principle of unbelievers, especially the heathen (Acts 26:18), as opposed to the spirit of the children of God (Luke 4:33). The potency of that “spirit” is shown in the “disobedience” of the former. Compare Deuteronomy 32:20, “children in whom is no faith” (Isaiah 30:9; Isaiah 57:4). They disobey the Gospel both in faith and practice (2 Thessalonians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 2:12).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Ephesians 2:1-3.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Ephesians 2:2

According to the course of this world — The word translated course properly means a long series of times, wherein one corrupt age follows another. According to the prince of the power of the air — The effect of which power all may perceive, though all do not understand the cause of it: a power unspeakably penetrating and widely diffused; but yet, as to its baneful influences, beneath the orb of believers. The evil spirits are united under one head, the seat of whose dominion is in the air. Here he sometimes raises storms, sometimes makes visionary representations, and is continually roving to and fro. The spirit that now worketh — With mighty power; and so he did, and doth in all ages. In the sons of disobedience — In all who do not believe and obey the gospel.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Ephesians 2:2

(3) Wherein in time past ye walked (4) according to the course of this world, (b) according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now (5) worketh in the (c) children of disobedience:

(3) He proves by the effects that all were spiritually dead. (4) He proves this evil to be universal, insomuch that all are slaves of Satan.

(b) At the pleasure of the prince. (5) Men are therefore slaves to Satan, because they are willingly rebellious against God.

(c) They are called the children of disobedience, who are given to disobedience.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
in time:

Ephesians 2:3 Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.
Ephesians 4:22 That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;
Job 31:7 If my step hath turned out of the way, and mine heart walked after mine eyes, and if any blot hath cleaved to mine hands;
Acts 19:35 And when the townclerk had appeased the people, he said, [Ye] men of Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper of the great goddess Diana, and of the [image] which fell down from Jupiter?
1 Corinthians 6:11 And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.
Colossians 1:21 And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in [your] mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled
Colossians 3:7 In the which ye also walked some time, when ye lived in them.
1 Peter 4:3 For the time past of [our] life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abominable idolatries:
1 John 5:19 [And] we know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness.

walked according:

Psalms 17:14 From men [which are] thy hand, O LORD, from men of the world, [which have] their portion in [this] life, and whose belly thou fillest with thy hid [treasure]: they are full of children, and leave the rest of their [substance] to their babes.
Jeremiah 23:10 For the land is full of adulterers; for because of swearing the land mourneth; the pleasant places of the wilderness are dried up, and their course is evil, and their force [is] not right.
Luke 16:8 And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light.
John 7:7 The world cannot hate you; but me it hateth, because I testify of it, that the works thereof are evil.
John 8:23 And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world.
John 15:19 If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you.
Romans 12:2 And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what [is] that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God.
1 Corinthians 5:10 Yet not altogether with the fornicators of this world, or with the covetous, or extortioners, or with idolaters; for then must ye needs go out of the world.
Galatians 1:4 Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father:
2 Timothy 4:10 For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is departed unto Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus unto Dalmatia.
James 1:7 For let not that man think that he shall receive any thing of the Lord.
James 4:4 Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God.
1 John 2:15-17 Love not the world, neither the things [that are] in the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him. ... And the world passeth away, and the lust thereof: but he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever.
1 John 5:4 For whatsoever is born of God overcometh the world: and this is the victory that overcometh the world, [even] our faith.

the prince:

Ephesians 6:12 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high [places].
John 8:44 Ye are of [your] father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.
John 12:31 Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out.
John 14:30 Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in me.
John 16:11 Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged.
1 John 5:19 [And] we know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness.
Revelation 12:9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
Revelation 13:8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.
Revelation 13:14 And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by [the means of] those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live.
Revelation 20:2 And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years,

of the air:

Job 1:7 And the LORD said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.
Job 1:16 While he [was] yet speaking, there came also another, and said, The fire of God is fallen from heaven, and hath burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.
Job 1:19 And, behold, there came a great wind from the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.
Revelation 16:17 And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It is done.

the spirit:

Matthew 12:43-45 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none. ... Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last [state] of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked generation.
Luke 11:21-26 When a strong man armed keepeth his palace, his goods are in peace: ... Then goeth he, and taketh [to him] seven other spirits more wicked than himself; and they enter in, and dwell there: and the last [state] of that man is worse than the first.
Luke 22:2-3 And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people. ... Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.
Luke 22:31 And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired [to have] you, that he may sift [you] as wheat:
John 13:2 And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's [son], to betray him;
John 13:27 And after the sop Satan entered into him. Then said Jesus unto him, That thou doest, do quickly.
Acts 5:3 But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back [part] of the price of the land?
2 Corinthians 4:4 In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.
1 John 3:8 He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil.
1 John 4:4 Ye are of God, little children, and have overcome them: because greater is he that is in you, than he that is in the world.

the children:

Ephesians 2:3 Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.
Ephesians 5:6 Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience.
Isaiah 30:1 Woe to the rebellious children, saith the LORD, that take counsel, but not of me; and that cover with a covering, but not of my spirit, that they may add sin to sin:
Isaiah 57:4 Against whom do ye sport yourselves? against whom make ye a wide mouth, [and] draw out the tongue? [are] ye not children of transgression, a seed of falsehood,
Hosea 10:9 O Israel, thou hast sinned from the days of Gibeah: there they stood: the battle in Gibeah against the children of iniquity did not overtake them.
Matthew 11:19 The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But wisdom is justified of her children.
Matthew 13:38 The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked [one];
Colossians 3:6 For which things' sake the wrath of God cometh on the children of disobedience:
1 Peter 1:14 As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance:
*Gr:
2 Peter 2:14 Having eyes full of adultery, and that cannot cease from sin; beguiling unstable souls: an heart they have exercised with covetous practices; cursed children:
*Gr:
1 John 3:10 In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the devil: whosoever doeth not righteousness is not of God, neither he that loveth not his brother.
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Jb 1:7, 16, 19; 31:7. Ps 17:14. Is 30:1; 57:4. Jr 23:10. Ho 10:9. Mt 11:19; 12:43; 13:38. Lk 11:21; 16:8; 22:2, 31. Jn 7:7; 8:23, 44; 12:31; 13:2, 27; 14:30; 15:19; 16:11. Ac 5:3; 19:35. Ro 12:2. 1Co 5:10; 6:11. 2Co 4:4. Ga 1:4. Ep 2:3; 4:22; 5:6; 6:12. Col 1:21; 3:6, 7. 2Ti 4:10. Jm 1:7; 4:4. 1P 1:14; 4:3. 2P 2:14. 1Jn 2:15; 3:8, 10; 4:4; 5:4, 19. Rv 12:9; 13:8, 14; 16:17; 20:2.

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