Parallel Bible VersionsGreek Bible Study Tools

Ephesians 2:12 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— that ye were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— [remember] that you were at that time separate from Christ, excluded from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— that ye were at that time without Christ, aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— That ye were, in that season, separate from Christ, alienated from the citizenship of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and godless in the world;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— that ye were at that time apart from Christ, having been alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of the promise, having no hope, and without God, in the world;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— That you were at that time without Christ, being aliens from the conversation of Israel and strangers to the testament, having no hope of the promise and without God in this world.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— That at that time yee were without Christ, being aliens from the common wealth of Israel, and strangers from the couenants of promise, hauing no hope, & without God in the world.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— and were at that time without the Meshiha, and were aliens from the polity of Israel, and strangers to the covenant of the promise, and, without hope, were without Aloha in the world.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And ye were, at that time, without the Messiah; and were aliens from the regulations of Israel; and strangers to the covenant of the promise; and were without hope, and without God, in the world.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
That 3754
{3754} Prime
ὅτι
hoti
{hot'-ee}
Neuter of G3748 as conjugation; demonstrative that (sometimes redundant); causatively because.
at 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
that 1565
{1565} Prime
ἐκεῖνος
ekeinos
{ek-i'-nos}
From G1563; that one (or [neuter] thing); often intensified by the article prefixed.
time 2540
{2540} Prime
καιρός
kairos
{kahee-ros'}
Of uncertain affinity; an occasion, that is, set or proper time.
ye were 2258
{2258} Prime
ἦν
en
{ane}
Imperfect of G1510; I (thou, etc.) was (wast or were).
z5713
<5713> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 532
without 5565
{5565} Prime
χωρίς
choris
{kho-rece'}
Adverb from G5561; at a space, that is, separately or apart from (often as preposition).
Christ, 5547
{5547} Prime
Χριστός
Christos
{khris-tos'}
From G5548; anointed, that is, the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus.
being aliens 526
{0526} Prime
ἀπαλλοτριόω
apallotrioo
{ap-al-lot-ree-o'-o}
From G0575 and a derivative of G0245; to estrange away, that is, (passively and figuratively) to be non participant.
z5772
<5772> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 463
from the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
commonwealth 4174
{4174} Prime
πολιτεία
politeia
{pol-ee-ti'-ah}
From G4177 ('polity'); citizenship; concretely a community.
of Israel, 2474
{2474} Prime
Ἰσραήλ
Israel
{is-rah-ale'}
Of Hebrew origin [H3478]; Israel (that is, Jisrael), the adopted name of Jacob, including his descendants (literally or figuratively).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
strangers 3581
{3581} Prime
ξένος
xenos
{xen'-os}
Apparently a primary word; foreign (literally alien, or figuratively novel); by implication a guest or (vice-versa) entertainer.
from the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
covenants 1242
{1242} Prime
διαθήκη
diatheke
{dee-ath-ay'-kay}
From G1303; properly a disposition, that is, (specifically) a contract (especially a devisory will).
of promise, 1860
{1860} Prime
ἐπαγγελία
epaggelia
{ep-ang-el-ee'-ah}
From G1861; an announcement (for information, assent or pledge; especially a divine assurance of good).
having 2192
{2192} Prime
ἔχω
echo
{ekh'-o}
A primary verb (including an alternate form σχέω [[scheo]], {skheh'-o}; used in certain tenses only); to hold (used in very various applications, literally or figuratively, direct or remote; such as possession, ability, contiguity, relation or condition).
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
no 3361
{3361} Prime
μή
me
{may}
A primary particle of qualified negation (whereas G3756 expresses an absolute denial); (adverbially) not, (conjugationally) lest; also (as interrogitive implying a negative answer [whereas G3756 expects an affirmative one]); whether.
hope, 1680
{1680} Prime
ἐλπίς
elpis
{el-pece'}
From ἔλπω [[elpo]] which is a primary word (to anticipate, usually with pleasure); expectation (abstract or concrete) or confidence.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
without God 112
{0112} Prime
ἄθεος
atheos
{ath'-eh-os}
From G0001 (as a negative particle) and G2316; godless.
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
world: 2889
{2889} Prime
κόσμος
kosmos
{kos'-mos}
Probably from the base of G2865; orderly arrangement, that is, decoration; by implication the world (in a wide or narrow sense, including its inhabitants, literally or figuratively [morally]).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Ephesians 2:12

_ _ without ChristGreek,separate from Christ”; having no part in Him; far from Him. A different Greek word (aneu) would be required to express, “Christ was not present with you” [Tittmann].

_ _ aliensGreek, “alienated from,” not merely “separated from.” The Israelites were cut off from the commonwealth of God, but it was as being self-righteous, indolent, and unworthy, not as aliens and strangers [Chrysostom]. The expression, “alienated from,” takes it for granted that the Gentiles, before they had apostatized from the primitive truth, had been sharers in light and life (compare Ephesians 4:18, Ephesians 4:23). The hope of redemption through the Messiah, on their subsequent apostasy, was embodied into a definite “commonwealth” or polity, namely, that “of Israel,” from which the Gentiles were alienated. Contrast Ephesians 2:13; Ephesians 3:6; Ephesians 4:4, Ephesians 4:5, with Psalms 147:20.

_ _ covenants of promise — rather, “... of the promise,” namely, “to thee and thy seed will I give this land” (Romans 9:4; Galatians 3:16). The plural implies the several renewals of the covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and with the whole people at Sinai [Alford]. “The promise” is singular, to signify that the covenant, in reality, and substantially, is one and the same at all times, but only different in its accidents and external circumstances (compare Hebrews 1:1, “at sundry times and in divers manners”).

_ _ having no ... hope — beyond this life (1 Corinthians 15:19). The CONJECTURES of heathen philosophers as to a future life were at best vague and utterly unsatisfactory. They had no divine “promise,” and therefore no sure ground of “hope.” Epicurus and Aristotle did not believe in it at all. The Platonists believed the soul passed through perpetual changes, now happy, and then again miserable; the Stoics, that it existed no longer than till the time of the general burning up of all things.

_ _ without GodGreek, “atheists,” that is, they had not “God” in the sense we use the word, the Eternal Being who made and governs all things (compare Acts 14:15, “Turn from these vanities unto the living God who made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things therein”), whereas the Jews had distinct ideas of God and immortality. Compare also Galatians 4:8, “Ye knew not God ... ye did service unto them which are no gods” (1 Thessalonians 4:5). So also pantheists are atheists, for an impersonal God is NO GOD, and an ideal immortality no immortality [Tholuck].

_ _ in the world — in contrast to belonging to “the commonwealth of Israel.” Having their portion and their all in this godless vain world (Psalms 17:14), from which Christ delivers His people (John 15:19; John 17:14; Galatians 1:4).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Ephesians 2:11-13.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Ephesians 2:12

Were at that time without Christ — Having no faith in, or knowledge of, him. Being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel — Both as to their temporal privileges and spiritual blessings. And strangers to the covenants of promise — The great promise in both the Jewish and Christian covenant was the Messiah. Having no hope — Because they had no promise whereon to ground their hope. And being without God — Wholly ignorant of the true God, and so in effect atheists. Such in truth are, more or less, all men, in all ages, till they know God by the teaching of his own Spirit. In the world — The wide, vain world, wherein ye wandered up and down, unholy and unhappy.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Ephesians 2:12

That at that time ye were (m) without Christ, being (n) aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:

(m) He begins first with Christ, who was the end of all the promises.

(n) You had no right or title to the commonwealth of Israel.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
without:

John 10:16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, [and] one shepherd.
John 15:5 I am the vine, ye [are] the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing.
Colossians 1:21 And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in [your] mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled

aliens:

Ephesians 4:18 Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:
Ezra 4:3 But Zerubbabel, and Jeshua, and the rest of the chief of the fathers of Israel, said unto them, Ye have nothing to do with us to build an house unto our God; but we ourselves together will build unto the LORD God of Israel, as king Cyrus the king of Persia hath commanded us.
Isaiah 61:5 And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and the sons of the alien [shall be] your plowmen and your vinedressers.
Ezekiel 13:9 And mine hand shall be upon the prophets that see vanity, and that divine lies: they shall not be in the assembly of my people, neither shall they be written in the writing of the house of Israel, neither shall they enter into the land of Israel; and ye shall know that I [am] the Lord GOD.
Hebrews 11:34 Quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of the aliens.

the covenants:

Genesis 15:18 In the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates:
Genesis 17:7-9 And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. ... And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations.
Exodus 24:3-11 And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice, and said, All the words which the LORD hath said will we do. ... And upon the nobles of the children of Israel he laid not his hand: also they saw God, and did eat and drink.
Numbers 18:19 All the heave offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the LORD, have I given thee, and thy sons and thy daughters with thee, by a statute for ever: it [is] a covenant of salt for ever before the LORD unto thee and to thy seed with thee.
Psalms 89:3-18 I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn unto David my servant, ... For the LORD [is] our defence; and the Holy One of Israel [is] our king.
Jeremiah 31:31-34 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: ... And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.
Jeremiah 33:20-26 Thus saith the LORD; If ye can break my covenant of the day, and my covenant of the night, and that there should not be day and night in their season; ... Then will I cast away the seed of Jacob, and David my servant, [so] that I will not take [any] of his seed [to be] rulers over the seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: for I will cause their captivity to return, and have mercy on them.
Ezekiel 37:26 Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them; it shall be an everlasting covenant with them: and I will place them, and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore.
Luke 1:72 To perform the mercy [promised] to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant;
Acts 3:25 Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed.
Romans 9:4-5 Who are Israelites; to whom [pertaineth] the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service [of God], and the promises; ... Whose [are] the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ [came], who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.
Romans 9:8 That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these [are] not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.
Galatians 3:16-17 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. ... And this I say, [that] the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.

having:

Jeremiah 14:8 O the hope of Israel, the saviour thereof in time of trouble, why shouldest thou be as a stranger in the land, and as a wayfaring man [that] turneth aside to tarry for a night?
Jeremiah 17:13 O LORD, the hope of Israel, all that forsake thee shall be ashamed, [and] they that depart from me shall be written in the earth, because they have forsaken the LORD, the fountain of living waters.
John 4:22 Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews.
Acts 28:20 For this cause therefore have I called for you, to see [you], and to speak with [you]: because that for the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain.
Colossians 1:5 For the hope which is laid up for you in heaven, whereof ye heard before in the word of the truth of the gospel;
Colossians 1:27 To whom God would make known what [is] the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; which is Christ in you, the hope of glory:
1 Thessalonians 4:13 But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope.
2 Thessalonians 2:16 Now our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God, even our Father, which hath loved us, and hath given [us] everlasting consolation and good hope through grace,
1 Timothy 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the commandment of God our Saviour, and Lord Jesus Christ, [which is] our hope;
Hebrews 6:18 That by two immutable things, in which [it was] impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us:
1 Peter 1:3 Blessed [be] the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,
1 Peter 1:21 Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God.
1 Peter 3:15 But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and [be] ready always to [give] an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear:
1 John 3:3 And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure.

without:

2 Chronicles 15:3 Now for a long season Israel [hath been] without the true God, and without a teaching priest, and without law.
Isaiah 44:6 Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I [am] the first, and I [am] the last; and beside me [there is] no God.
Isaiah 45:20 Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, ye [that are] escaped of the nations: they have no knowledge that set up the wood of their graven image, and pray unto a god [that] cannot save.
Hosea 3:4 For the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an ephod, and [without] teraphim:
Acts 14:15-16 And saying, Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein: ... Who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways.
Romans 1:28-32 And even as they did not like to retain God in [their] knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient; ... Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.
1 Corinthians 8:4-6 As concerning therefore the eating of those things that are offered in sacrifice unto idols, we know that an idol [is] nothing in the world, and that [there is] none other God but one. ... But to us [there is but] one God, the Father, of whom [are] all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom [are] all things, and we by him.
1 Corinthians 10:19-20 What say I then? that the idol is any thing, or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols is any thing? ... But I [say], that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God: and I would not that ye should have fellowship with devils.
Galatians 4:8 Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods.
1 Thessalonians 4:5 Not in the lust of concupiscence, even as the Gentiles which know not God:
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 15:18; 17:7. Ex 24:3. Nu 18:19. 2Ch 15:3. Ezr 4:3. Ps 89:3. Is 44:6; 45:20; 61:5. Jr 14:8; 17:13; 31:31; 33:20. Ezk 13:9; 37:26. Ho 3:4. Lk 1:72. Jn 4:22; 10:16; 15:5. Ac 3:25; 14:15; 28:20. Ro 1:28; 9:4, 8. 1Co 8:4; 10:19. Ga 3:16; 4:8. Ep 4:18. Col 1:5, 21, 27. 1Th 4:5, 13. 2Th 2:16. 1Ti 1:1. He 6:18; 11:34. 1P 1:3, 21; 3:15. 1Jn 3:3.

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