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Ephesians 2:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And you [did he make alive], when ye were dead through your trespasses and sins,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And you [hath he quickened], who were dead in trespasses and sins;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— And you were dead in your trespasses and sins,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And you [hath he revived], who were dead in trespasses and sins;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— and *you*, being dead in your offences and sins—
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— [Unto] you also—being dead by your offences and sins,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Also you—being dead in the trespasses and the sins,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And you, when you were dead in your offences and sins,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And you [hath hee quickned] who were dead in trespasses, and sinnes,
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— You also who were dead in your sins and in your transgressions,
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— and also you, [he filleth,] who were dead in your sins, and in your offences,

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
you 5209
{5209} Prime
ὑμᾶς
humas
{hoo-mas'}
Accusative of G5210; you (as the object of a verb or preposition).
[hath he quickened], who were 5607
{5607} Prime
ὤν
on
{oan}
The feminine, the neuter and the present participle of G1510; being.
z5752
<5752> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 186
dead 3498
{3498} Prime
νεκρός
nekros
{nek-ros'}
From an apparently primary word νέκυς [[nekus]] (a corpse); dead (literally or figuratively; also as noun).
in trespasses 3900
{3900} Prime
παράπτωμα
paraptoma
{par-ap'-to-mah}
From G3895; a side slip (lapse or deviation), that is, (unintentional) error or (wilful) transgression.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
sins; 266
{0266} Prime
ἁμαρτία
hamartia
{ham-ar-tee'-ah}
From G0264; sin (properly abstract).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Ephesians 2:1

_ _ Ephesians 2:1-22. God’s love and grace in quickening us, once dead, through Christ. His purpose in doing so: Exhortation based on our privileges as built together, an Holy Temple, in Christ, through the Spirit.

_ _ And you — “You also,” among those who have experienced His mighty power in enabling them to believe (Ephesians 1:19-23).

_ _ hath he quickened — supplied from the Greek (Ephesians 2:5).

_ _ dead — spiritually. (Colossians 2:13). A living corpse: without the gracious presence of God’s Spirit in the soul, and so unable to think, will, or do aught that is holy.

_ _ in trespasses ... sinsin them, as the element in which the unbeliever is, and through which he is dead to the true life. Sin is the death of the soul. Isaiah 9:2; John 5:25, “dead” (spiritually), 1 Timothy 5:6. “Alienated from the life of God” (Ephesians 4:18). Translate, as Greek, “in your trespasses,” etc. “Trespass” in Greek, expresses a FALL or LAPSE, such as the transgression of Adam whereby he fell. “Sin.” (Greek,hamartia”) implies innate corruption and ALIENATION from God (literally, erring of the mind from the rule of truth), exhibited in acts of sin (Greek,hamartemata”). Bengel, refers “trespasses” to the Jews who had the law, and yet revolted from it; “sins,” to the Gentiles who know not God.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Ephesians 2:1-3

_ _ The miserable condition of the Ephesians by nature is here in part described. Observed, 1. Unregenerate souls are dead in trespasses and sins. All those who are in their sins, are dead in sins; yea, in trespasses and sins, which may signify all sorts of sins, habitual and actual, sins of heart and of life. Sin is the death of the soul. Wherever that prevails there is a privation of all spiritual life. Sinners are dead in state, being destitute of the principles, and powers of spiritual life; and cut off from God, the fountain of life: and they are dead in law, as a condemned malefactor is said to be a dead man. 2. A state of sin is a state of conformity to this world, Ephesians 2:2. In the first verse he speaks of their internal state, in this of their outward conversation: Wherein, in which trespasses and sins, in time past you walked, you lived and behaved yourselves in such a manner as the men of the world are used to do. 3. We are by nature bond-slaves to sin and Satan. Those who walk in trespasses and sins, and according to the course of this world, walk according to the prince of the power of the air. The devil, or the prince of devils, is thus described. See Matthew 12:24, Matthew 12:26. The legions of apostate angels are as one power united under one chief; and therefore what is called the powers of darkness elsewhere is here spoken of in the singular number. The air is represented as the seat of his kingdom: and it was the opinion of both Jews and heathens that the air is full of spirits, and that there they exercise and exert themselves. The devil seems to have some power (by God's permission) in the lower region of the air; there he is at hand to tempt men, and to do as much mischief to the world as he can: but it is the comfort and joy of God's people that he who is head over all things to the church has conquered the devil and has him in his chain. But wicked men are slaves to Satan, for they walk according to him; they conform their lives and actions to the will and pleasure of this great usurper. The course and tenour of their lives are according to his suggestions, and in compliance with his temptations; they are subject to him, and are led captive by him at his will, whereupon he is called the god of this world, and the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience. The children of disobedience are such as choose to disobey God, and to serve the devil; in these he works very powerfully and effectually. As the good Spirit works that which is good in obedient souls, so this evil spirit works that which is evil in wicked men; and he now works, not only heretofore, but even since the world has been blessed with the light of the glorious gospel. The apostle adds, Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past, which words refer to the Jews, whom he signifies here to have been in the like sad and miserable condition by nature, and to have been as vile and wicked as the unregenerate Gentiles themselves, and whose natural state he further describes in the next words. 4. We are by nature drudges to the flesh, and to our corrupt affections, Ephesians 2:3. By fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind, men contract that filthiness of flesh and spirit from which the apostle exhorts Christians to cleanse themselves, 2 Corinthians 7:1. The fulfilling of the desires of the flesh and of the mind includes all the sin and wickedness that are acted in and by both the inferior and the higher or nobler powers of the soul. We lived in the actual commission of all those sins to which corrupt nature inclined us. The carnal mind makes a man a perfect slave to his vicious appetite. — The fulfilling of the wills of the flesh, so the words may be rendered, denoting the efficacy of these lusts, and what power they have over those who yield themselves up unto them. 5. We are by nature the children of wrath, even as others. The Jews were so, as well as the Gentiles; and one man is as much so as another by nature, not only by custom and imitation, but from the time when we began to exist, and by reason of our natural inclinations and appetites. All men, being naturally children of disobedience, are also by nature children of wrath: God is angry with the wicked every day. Our state and course are such as deserve wrath, and would end in eternal wrath, if divine grace did not interpose. What reason have sinners then to be looking out for that grace that will make them, of children of wrath, children of God and heirs of glory! Thus far the apostle has described the misery of a natural state in these verses, which we shall find him pursuing again in some following ones.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Ephesians 2:1

And he hath quickened you — In Ephesians 1:19-20, St. Paul spoke of God's working in them by the same almighty power whereby he raised Christ from the dead. On the mention of this he, in the fulness of his heart, runs into a flow of thought concerning the glory of Christ's exaltation in the three following verses. He here resumes the thread of his discourse. Who were dead — Not only diseased, but dead; absolutely void of all spiritual life; and as incapable of quickening yourselves, as persons literally dead. In trespasses and sins — Sins seem to be spoken chiefly of the gentiles, who knew not God; trespasses, of the Jews, who had his law, and yet regarded it not, Ephesians 2:5. The latter herein obeyed the flesh; the former, the prince of the power of the air.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Ephesians 2:1

And (1) you [hath he quickened], who were (a) dead in (2) trespasses and sins;

(1) He declares again the greatness of God's good will by comparing that miserable state in which we are born, with that dignity unto which we are advanced by God the Father in Christ. So he describes that condition in such a way that he says, that with regard to spiritual motions we are not only born half dead, but wholly and altogether dead.

(a) See (Romans 6:2). So then he calls those dead who are not regenerated: for as the immortality of those who are damned is not life, so this knitting together of body and soul is properly not life, but death in those who are not ruled by the Spirit of God. (2) He shows the cause of death, that is, sins.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
you:

Ephesians 2:5-6 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;) ... And hath raised [us] up together, and made [us] sit together in heavenly [places] in Christ Jesus:
Ephesians 1:19-20 And what [is] the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, ... Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set [him] at his own right hand in the heavenly [places],
John 5:25 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live.
John 10:10 The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I am come that they might have life, and that they might have [it] more abundantly.
John 11:25-26 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: ... And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this?
John 14:6 Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.
Romans 8:2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death.
1 Corinthians 15:45 And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam [was made] a quickening spirit.
Colossians 2:13 And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses;
Colossians 3:1-4 If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God. ... When Christ, [who is] our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory.

dead:

Ephesians 2:5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;)
Ephesians 4:18 Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:
Ephesians 5:14 Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.
Matthew 8:22 But Jesus said unto him, Follow me; and let the dead bury their dead.
Luke 15:24 For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry.
Luke 15:32 It was meet that we should make merry, and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.
John 5:21 For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth [them]; even so the Son quickeneth whom he will.
2 Corinthians 5:14 For the love of Christ constraineth us; because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead:
1 Timothy 5:6 But she that liveth in pleasure is dead while she liveth.
1 John 3:14 We know that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not [his] brother abideth in death.
Revelation 3:1 And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write; These things saith he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Mt 8:22. Lk 15:24, 32. Jn 5:21, 25; 10:10; 11:25; 14:6. Ro 8:2. 1Co 15:45. 2Co 5:14. Ep 1:19; 2:5; 4:18; 5:14. Col 2:13; 3:1. 1Ti 5:6. 1Jn 3:14. Rv 3:1.

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