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Deuteronomy 25:13 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Thou shalt not have in thy bag diverse weights, a great and a small.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers weights, a great and a small.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “You shall not have in your bag differing weights, a large and a small.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers weights, a great and a small:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers weights, a great and a small.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers weights,—a great and a small.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'Thou hast not in thy bag a stone and a stone, a great and a small.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Thou shalt not have divers weights in thy bag, a greater and a less:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Thou shalt not haue in thy bagge diuers weights, a great, and a small.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers weights, a great and a small.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers weights, a great and a small.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Thou shalt not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
have x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
in thy bag 3599
{3599} Prime
כִּיס
kiyc
{keece}
A form for H3563; a cup; also a bag for money or weights.
divers weights, 68
{0068} Prime
אֶבֶן
'eben
{eh'-ben}
From the root of H1129 through the meaning, to build; a stone.
a great 1419
{1419} Prime
גָּדוֹל
gadowl
{gaw-dole'}
From H1431; great (in any sense); hence older; also insolent.
and a small. 6996
{6996} Prime
קָטָן
qatan
{kaw-tawn'}
From H6962; abbreviated, that is, diminutive, literally (in quantity, size or number) or figuratively (in age or importance).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Deuteronomy 25:13-16

_ _ Thou shalt not have ... divers weights — Weights were anciently made of stone and are frequently used still by Eastern shopkeepers and traders, who take them out of the bag and put them in the balance. The man who is not cheated by the trader and his bag of divers weights must be blessed with more acuteness than most of his fellows [Roberts]. (Compare Proverbs 16:11; Proverbs 20:10).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Deuteronomy 25:13-19

_ _ Here is, I. A law against deceitful weights and measures: they must not only not use them, but they must not have them, not have them in the bag, not have them in the house (Deuteronomy 25:13, Deuteronomy 25:14); for, if they had them, they would be strongly tempted to use them. They must not have a great weight and measure to buy by and a small one to sell by, for that was to cheat both ways, when either was bad enough; as we read of those that made the ephah small, in which they measured the corn they sold, and the shekel great, by which they weighed the money they received for it, Amos 8:5. But thou shalt have a perfect and just weight, v. 15. That which is the rule of justice must itself be just; if that be otherwise, it is a constant cheat. This had been taken care of before, Leviticus 19:35, Leviticus 19:36. This law is enforced with two very good reasons: — 1. That justice and equity will bring down upon us the blessing of God. The way to have our days lengthened, and to prosper, is to be just and fair in all our dealings Honesty is the best policy. 2. That fraud and injustice will expose us to the curse of God, Deuteronomy 25:16. Not only unrighteousness itself, but all that do unrighteously, are an abomination to the Lord. And miserable is that man who is abhorred by his Maker. How hateful, particularly, all the arts of deceit are to God, Solomon several times observes, Proverbs 11:1; Proverbs 20:10, Proverbs 20:23; and the apostle tells us that the Lord is the avenger of all such as overreach and defraud in any matter, 1 Thessalonians 4:6.

_ _ II. A law for the rooting out of Amalek. Here is a just weight and a just measure, that, as Amalek had measured to Israel, so it should be measure to Amalek again.

_ _ 1. The mischief Amalek did to Israel must be here remembered, Deuteronomy 25:17, Deuteronomy 25:18. When it was first done it was ordered to be recorded (Exodus 17:14-16), and here the remembrance of it is ordered to be preserved, not in personal revenge (for that generation which suffered by the Amalekites was gone, so that those who now lived, and their posterity, could not have any personal resentment of the injury), but in a zeal for the glory of God (which was insulted by the Amalekites), that throne of the Lord against which the hand of Amalek was stretched out. The carriage of the Amalekites towards Israel is here represented, (1.) As very base and disingenuous. They had no occasion at all to quarrel with Israel, nor did they give them any notice, by a manifesto or declaration of war; but took them at an advantage, when they had just come out of the house of bondage, and, for aught that appeared to them, were only going to sacrifice to God in the wilderness. (2.) As very barbarous and cruel; for they smote those that were more feeble, whom they should have succoured. The greatest cowards are commonly the most cruel; while those that have the courage of a man will have the compassion of a man. (3.) As very impious and profane: they feared not God. If they had had any reverence for the majesty of the God of Israel, which they saw a token of in the cloud, or any dread of his wrath, which they lately heard of the power of over Pharaoh, they durst not have made this assault upon Israel. Well, here was the ground of the quarrel: and it shows how God takes what is done against his people as done against himself, and that he will particularly reckon with those that discourage and hinder young beginners in religion, that (as Satan's agents) set upon the weak and feeble, either to divert them or to disquiet them, and offend his little ones.

_ _ 2. This mischief must in due time be revenged, Deuteronomy 25:19. When their wars were finished, by which they were to settle their kingdom and enlarge their coast, then they must make war upon Amalek (Deuteronomy 25:19), not merely to chase them, but to consume them, to blot out the remembrance of Amalek. It was an instance of God's patience that he deferred the vengeance so long, which should have led the Amalekites to repentance; yet an instance of fearful retribution that the posterity of Amalek, so long after, were destroyed for the mischief done by their ancestors to the Israel of God, that all the world might see, and say, that he who toucheth them toucheth the apple of his eye. It was nearly 400 years after this that Saul was ordered to put this sentence in execution (1 Sa. 15), and was rejected of God because he did not do it effectually, but spared some of that devoted nation, in contempt, not only of the particular orders he received from Samuel, but of this general command here given by Moses, which he could not be ignorant of. David afterwards made some destruction of them; and the Simeonites, in Hezekiah's time, smote the rest that remained (1 Chronicles 4:43); for when God judges he will overcome.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Deuteronomy 25:13

A great and a small — The great to buy with, the small for selling.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
in thy bag:

Leviticus 19:35-36 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard, in weight, or in measure. ... Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall ye have: I [am] the LORD your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt.
Proverbs 11:1 A false balance [is] abomination to the LORD: but a just weight [is] his delight.
Proverbs 16:11 A just weight and balance [are] the LORD'S: all the weights of the bag [are] his work.
Proverbs 20:10 Divers weights, [and] divers measures, both of them [are] alike abomination to the LORD.
Ezekiel 45:10-11 Ye shall have just balances, and a just ephah, and a just bath. ... The ephah and the bath shall be of one measure, that the bath may contain the tenth part of an homer, and the ephah the tenth part of an homer: the measure thereof shall be after the homer.
Amos 8:5 Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?
Micah 6:11-12 Shall I count [them] pure with the wicked balances, and with the bag of deceitful weights? ... For the rich men thereof are full of violence, and the inhabitants thereof have spoken lies, and their tongue [is] deceitful in their mouth.

divers weights:
Heb. a stone and a stone, Aivenwaaiven; because weights were anciently made of stone. Hence the expression, a stone weight, which is still in use, though the matter of which it is made be lead or iron, and the name itself shews us that a stone of a certain weight was formerly used.
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Lv 19:35. Pv 11:1; 16:11; 20:10. Ezk 45:10. Am 8:5. Mi 6:11.

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