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Deuteronomy 25:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— If there be a controversy between men, and they come unto judgment, and [the judges] judge them; then they shall justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— If there be a controversy between men, and they come unto judgment, that [the judges] may judge them; then they shall justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “If there is a dispute between men and they go to court, and the judges decide their case, and they justify the righteous and condemn the wicked,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— If there shall be a controversy between men, and they come to judgment, that [the judges] may judge them; then they shall justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— If there be a controversy between men, and they resort to judgment, and they judge [their case]; then they shall justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— When there ariseth a controversy between men, and they come nigh unto judgment, and judgment is granted them, then shall they justify the righteous man, and condemn the lawless.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'When there is a strife between men, and they have come nigh unto the judgment, and they have judged, and declared righteous the righteous, and declared wrong the wrong-doer,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— If there be a controversy between men, and they call upon the judges: they shall give the prize of justice to him whom they perceive to be just: and him whom they find to be wicked, they shall condemn of wickedness.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— If there bee a controuersie betweene men, and they come vnto iudgment, that [the Iudges] may iudge them, then they shall iustifie the righteous, and condemne the wicked.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And if there should be a dispute between men, and they should come forward to judgment, and [the judges] judge, and justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked:
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— If there be a controversy between men, and they come unto judgment, that [the judges] may judge them; then they shall justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
If x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
there be x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
a controversy 7379
{7379} Prime
רִיב
riyb
{reeb}
From H7378; a contest (personal or legal).
between x996
(0996) Complement
בַּיִן
beyn
{bane}
(Sometimes in the plural masculine or feminine); properly the constructively contracted form of an otherwise unused noun from H0995; a distinction; but used only as a preposition, between (repeated before each noun, often with other particles); also as a conjugation, either... or.
men, y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
and they come 5066
{5066} Prime
נגשׁ
nagash
{naw-gash'}
A primitive root; to be or come (causatively bring) near (for any purpose); euphemistically to lie with a woman; as an enemy, to attack; religiously to worship; causatively to present; figuratively to adduce an argument; by reversal, to stand back.
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
judgment, 4941
{4941} Prime
מִשְׁפָּט
mishpat
{mish-pawt'}
From H8199; properly a verdict (favorable or unfavorable) pronounced judicially, especially a sentence or formal decree (human or (particularly) divine law, individual or collectively), including the act, the place, the suit, the crime, and the penalty; abstractly justice, including a particular right, or privilege (statutory or customary), or even a style.
that [the judges] may judge 8199
{8199} Prime
שָׁפַט
shaphat
{shaw-fat'}
A primitive root; to judge, that is, pronounce sentence (for or against); by implication to vindicate or punish; by extension to govern; passively to litigate (literally or figuratively).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
them; then they shall justify 6663
{6663} Prime
צָדַק
tsadaq
{tsaw-dak'}
A primitive root; to be (causatively make) right (in a moral or forensic sense).
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the righteous, 6662
{6662} Prime
צַדִּיק
tsaddiyq
{tsad-deek'}
From H6663; just.
and condemn 7561
{7561} Prime
רָשַׁע
rasha`
{raw-shah'}
A primitive root; to be (causatively do or declare) wrong; by implication to disturb, violate.
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the wicked. 7563
{7563} Prime
רָשָׁע
rasha`
{raw-shaw'}
From H7561; morally wrong; concretely an (actively) bad person.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Deuteronomy 25:1

_ _ Deuteronomy 25:1-19. Stripes must not exceed forty.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Deuteronomy 25:1-4

_ _ Here is, I. A direction to the judges in scourging malefactors, Deuteronomy 25:1-3. 1. It is here supposed that, if a man be charged with a crime, the accuser and the accused (Actor and Reus) should be brought face to face before the judges, that the controversy may be determined. 2. If a man were accused of a crime, and the proof fell short, so that the charge could not be made out against him by the evidence, then he was to be acquitted: “Thou shalt justify the righteous,” that is, “him that appears to the court to be so.” If the accusation be proved, then the conviction of the accused is a justification of the accuser, as righteous in the prosecution. 3. If the accused were found guilty, judgment must be given against him: “Thou shalt condemn the wicked;” for to justify the wicked is as much an abomination to the Lord as it is to condemn the righteous, Proverbs 17:15. 4. If the crime were not made capital by the law, then the criminal must be beaten. A great many precepts we have met with which have not any particular penalty annexed to them, the violation of most of which, according to the constant practice of the Jews, was punished by scourging, from which no person's rank or quality did exempt him if he were a delinquent, but with this proviso, that he should never be upbraided with it, nor should it be looked upon as leaving any mark of infamy or disgrace upon him. The directions here given for the scourging of criminals are, (1.) That it be done solemnly; not tumultuously through the streets, but in open court before the judge's face, and with so much deliberation as that the stripes might be numbered. The Jews say that while execution was in doing the chief justice of the court read with a loud voice Deuteronomy 28:58, Deuteronomy 28:59, and Deuteronomy 29:9, and concluded with those words (Psalms 78:38), But he, being full of compassion, forgave their iniquity. Thus it was made a sort of religious act, and so much the more likely to reform the offender himself and to be a warning to others. (2.) That it be done in proportion to the crime, according to his fault, that some crimes might appear, as they are, more heinous than others, the criminal being beaten with many stripes, to which perhaps there is an allusion, Luke 12:47, Luke 12:48. (3.) That how great soever the crime were the number of stripes should never exceed forty, Deuteronomy 25:3. Forty save one was the common usage, as appears, 2 Corinthians 11:24. It seems, they always gave Paul as many stripes as ever they gave to any malefactor whatsoever. They abated one for fear of having miscounted (though one of the judges was appointed to number the stripes), or because they would never go to the utmost rigour, or because the execution was usually done with a whip of three lashes, so that thirteen stripes (each one being counted for three) made up thirty-nine, but one more by that reckoning would have been forty-two. The reason given for this is, lest thy brother should seem vile unto thee. He must still be looked upon as a brother (2 Thessalonians 3:15), and his reputation as such was preserved by this merciful limitation of his punishment. It saves him from seeming vile to his brethren, when God himself by his law takes this care of him. Men must not be treated as dogs; nor must those seem vile in our sight to whom, for aught we know, God may yet give grace to make them precious in his sight.

_ _ II. A charge to husbandmen not to hinder their cattle from eating when they were working, if meat were within their reach, Deuteronomy 25:4. This instance of the beast that trod out the corn (to which there is an allusion in that of the prophet, Hosea 10:11) is put for all similar instances. That which makes this law very remarkable above its fellows (and which countenances the like application of other such laws) is that it is twice quoted in the New Testament to show that it is the duty of the people to give their ministers a comfortable maintenance, 1 Corinthians 9:9, 1 Corinthians 9:10, and 1 Timothy 5:17, 1 Timothy 5:18. It teaches us in the letter of it to make much of the brute-creatures that serve us, and to allow them not only the necessary supports for their life, but the advantages of their labour; and thus we must learn not only to be just, but kind, to all that are employed for our good, not only to maintain but to encourage them, especially those that labour among us in the word and doctrine, and so are employed for the good of our better part.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Deuteronomy 25:1

Justify — Acquit him from guilt and false accusations, and free him from punishment.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Deuteronomy 25:1

If there be a controversy between men, and they come unto judgment, (a) that [the judges] may judge them; then they shall justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked.

(a) Whether there is a plaintiff or not, the magistrates should try our faults, and punish according to the crime.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

Deuteronomy 16:18-20 Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just judgment. ... That which is altogether just shalt thou follow, that thou mayest live, and inherit the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
Deuteronomy 17:8-9 If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, [being] matters of controversy within thy gates: then shalt thou arise, and get thee up into the place which the LORD thy God shall choose; ... And thou shalt come unto the priests the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days, and enquire; and they shall shew thee the sentence of judgment:
Deuteronomy 19:17-19 Then both the men, between whom the controversy [is], shall stand before the LORD, before the priests and the judges, which shall be in those days; ... Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you.
Exodus 23:6-7 Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause. ... Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked.
2 Samuel 23:3 The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men [must be] just, ruling in the fear of God.
2 Chronicles 19:6-10 And said to the judges, Take heed what ye do: for ye judge not for man, but for the LORD, who [is] with you in the judgment. ... And what cause soever shall come to you of your brethren that dwell in their cities, between blood and blood, between law and commandment, statutes and judgments, ye shall even warn them that they trespass not against the LORD, and [so] wrath come upon you, and upon your brethren: this do, and ye shall not trespass.
Job 29:7-17 When I went out to the gate through the city, [when] I prepared my seat in the street! ... And I brake the jaws of the wicked, and plucked the spoil out of his teeth.
Psalms 58:1-2 [[To the chief Musician, Altaschith, Michtam of David.]] Do ye indeed speak righteousness, O congregation? do ye judge uprightly, O ye sons of men? ... Yea, in heart ye work wickedness; ye weigh the violence of your hands in the earth.
Psalms 82:2-4 How long will ye judge unjustly, and accept the persons of the wicked? Selah. ... Deliver the poor and needy: rid [them] out of the hand of the wicked.
Proverbs 17:15 He that justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the just, even they both [are] abomination to the LORD.
Proverbs 31:8-9 Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction. ... Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy.
Isaiah 1:17 Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.
Isaiah 1:23 Thy princes [are] rebellious, and companions of thieves: every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards: they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.
Isaiah 5:23 Which justify the wicked for reward, and take away the righteousness of the righteous from him!
Isaiah 11:4 But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.
Isaiah 32:1-2 Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment. ... And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land.
Jeremiah 21:12 O house of David, thus saith the LORD; Execute judgment in the morning, and deliver [him that is] spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor, lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench [it], because of the evil of your doings.
Ezekiel 44:24 And in controversy they shall stand in judgment; [and] they shall judge it according to my judgments: and they shall keep my laws and my statutes in all mine assemblies; and they shall hallow my sabbaths.
Micah 3:1-2 And I said, Hear, I pray you, O heads of Jacob, and ye princes of the house of Israel; [Is it] not for you to know judgment? ... Who hate the good, and love the evil; who pluck off their skin from off them, and their flesh from off their bones;
Habakkuk 1:4 Therefore the law is slacked, and judgment doth never go forth: for the wicked doth compass about the righteous; therefore wrong judgment proceedeth.
Habakkuk 1:13 [Thou art] of purer eyes than to behold evil, and canst not look on iniquity: wherefore lookest thou upon them that deal treacherously, [and] holdest thy tongue when the wicked devoureth [the man that is] more righteous than he?
Malachi 3:18 Then shall ye return, and discern between the righteous and the wicked, between him that serveth God and him that serveth him not.
Matthew 3:10 And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.
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Ex 23:6. Dt 16:18; 17:8; 19:17. 2S 23:3. 2Ch 19:6. Jb 29:7. Ps 58:1; 82:2. Pv 17:15; 31:8. Is 1:17, 23; 5:23; 11:4; 32:1. Jr 21:12. Ezk 44:24. Mi 3:1. Hab 1:4, 13. Mal 3:18. Mt 3:10.

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