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Deuteronomy 24:5 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— When a man taketh a new wife, he shall not go out in the host, neither shall he be charged with any business: he shall be free at home one year, and shall cheer his wife whom he hath taken.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— When a man hath taken a new wife, he shall not go out to war, neither shall he be charged with any business: [but] he shall be free at home one year, and shall cheer up his wife which he hath taken.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “When a man takes a new wife, he shall not go out with the army nor be charged with any duty; he shall be free at home one year and shall give happiness to his wife whom he has taken.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— When a man hath newly taken a wife, he shall not go out to war, neither shall he be charged with any business: [but] he shall be free at home one year, and shall cheer his wife which he hath taken.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— When a man hath newly taken a wife, he shall not go out with the army, neither shall any kind of business be imposed upon him; he shall be free for his house one year, and shall gladden his wife whom he hath taken.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— When a man taketh a new wife, he shall not go forth to war, neither shall he be charged with any business,—free, shall he be for his own house one year, and shall rejoice with his wife whom he hath taken.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'When a man taketh a new wife, he doth not go out into the host, and [one] doth not pass over unto him for anything; free he is at his own house one year, and hath rejoiced his wife whom he hath taken.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— When a man hath lately taken a wife, he shall not go out to war, neither shall any public business be enjoined him, but he shall be free at home without fault, that for one year he may rejoice with his wife.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— When a man hath taken a new wife, he shal not goe out to warre, neither shall hee be charged with any businesse: [but] hee shall be free at home one yeere, and shall cheere vp his wife which he hath taken.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And if any one should have recently taken a wife, he shall not go out to war, neither shall any thing be laid upon him; he shall be free in his house; for one year he shall cheer his wife whom he has taken.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— When a man hath taken a new wife, he shall not go out to war, neither shall he be charged with any business: [but] he shall be free at home one year, and shall cheer up his wife which he hath taken.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
When x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
a man 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
hath taken 3947
{3947} Prime
לָקַח
laqach
{law-kakh'}
A primitive root; to take (in the widest variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
a new 2319
{2319} Prime
חָדָשׁ
chadash
{khaw-dawsh'}
From H2318; new.
wife, 802
{0802} Prime
אִשָּׁה
'ishshah
{ish-shaw'}
The first form is the feminine of H0376 or H0582; the second form is an irregular plural; a woman (used in the same wide sense as H0582).
he shall not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
go out 3318
{3318} Prime
יָצָא
yatsa'
{yaw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; to go (causatively bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proximate.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to war, 6635
{6635} Prime
צָבָא
tsaba'
{tsaw-baw'}
From H6633; a mass of persons (or figurative things), especially regularly organized for war (an army); by implication a campaign, literally or figuratively (specifically hardship, worship).
neither x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
shall he be charged 5674
{5674} Prime
עָבַר
`abar
{aw-bar'}
A primitive root; to cross over; used very widely of any transition (literally or figuratively; transitively, intransitively, intensively or causatively); specifically to cover (in copulation).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
with x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
any x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
business: 1697
{1697} Prime
דָּבָר
dabar
{daw-baw'}
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
[but] he shall be x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
free 5355
{5355} Prime
נָקִי
naqiy
{naw-kee'}
From H5352; innocent.
at home 1004
{1004} Prime
בַּיִת
bayith
{bah'-yith}
Probably from H1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest variation of applications, especially family, etc.).
one 259
{0259} Prime
אֶחָד
'echad
{ekh-awd'}
A numeral from H0258; properly united, that is, one; or (as an ordinal) first.
year, 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
and shall cheer up 8055
{8055} Prime
שָׂמַח
samach
{saw-makh'}
A primitive root; probably to brighten up, that is, (figuratively) be (causatively make) blithe or gleesome.
z8765
<8765> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2121
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
his wife 802
{0802} Prime
אִשָּׁה
'ishshah
{ish-shaw'}
The first form is the feminine of H0376 or H0582; the second form is an irregular plural; a woman (used in the same wide sense as H0582).
which x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
he hath taken. 3947
{3947} Prime
לָקַח
laqach
{law-kakh'}
A primitive root; to take (in the widest variety of applications).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Deuteronomy 24:5

_ _ When a man hath taken a new wife, he shall not go out to war — This law of exemption was founded on good policy and was favorable to matrimony, as it afforded a full opportunity for the affections of the newly married pair being more firmly rooted, and it diminished or removed occasions for the divorces just mentioned.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Deuteronomy 24:5-13

_ _ Here is, I. Provision made for the preservation and confirmation of love between new-married people, Deuteronomy 24:5. This fitly follows upon the laws concerning divorce, which would be prevented if their affection to each other were well settled at first. If the husband were much abroad from his wife the first year, his love to her would be in danger of cooling, and of being drawn aside to others whom he would meet with abroad; therefore his service to his country in war, embassies, or other public business that would call him from home, shall be dispensed with, that he may cheer up the wife that he has taken. Note, 1. It is of great consequence that love be kept up between husband and wife, and that every thing be very carefully avoided which might make them strange one to another, especially at first; for in that relation, where there is not the love that should be, there is an inlet ready to abundance of guilt and grief. 2. One of the duties of that relation is to cheer up one another under the cares and crosses that happen, as helpers of each other's joy; for a cheerful heart does good like a medicine.

_ _ II. A law against man-stealing, Deuteronomy 24:7. It was not death by the law of Moses to steal cattle or goods; but to steal a child, or a weak and simple man, or one that a man had in his power, and to make merchandize of him, this was a capital crime, and could not be expiated, as other thefts, by restitution — so much is a man better than a sheep, Matthew 12:12. It was a very heinous offence, for, 1. It was robbing the public of one of its members. 2. It was taking away a man's liberty, the liberty of a free-born Israelite, which was next in value to his life. 3. It was driving a man out from the inheritance of the land, to the privileges of which he was entitled, and bidding him go serve other gods, as David complains against Saul, 1 Samuel 26:19.

_ _ III. A memorandum concerning the leprosy, Deuteronomy 24:8, Deuteronomy 24:9. 1. The laws concerning it must be carefully observed. The laws concerning it we had, Leviticus 13:14. They are here said to be commanded to the priests and Levites, and therefore are not repeated in a discourse to the people; but the people are here charged, in case of leprosy, to apply to the priest according to the law, and to abide by his judgment, so far as it agreed with the law and the plain matter of fact. The plague of leprosy being usually a particular mark of God's displeasure for sin, he in whom the signs of it did appear ought not to conceal it, nor cut out the signs of it, nor apply to the physician for relief; but he must go to the priest, and follow his directions. Thus those that feel their consciences under guilt and wrath must not cover it, nor endeavour to shake off their convictions, but by repentance, and prayer, and humble confession, take the appointed way to peace and pardon. 2. The particular case of Miriam, who was smitten with leprosy for quarrelling with Moses, must not be forgotten. It was an explication of the law concerning the leprosy. Remember that, and, (1.) “Take heed of sinning after the similitude of her transgression, by despising dominions and speaking evil of dignities, lest you thereby bring upon yourselves the same judgment.” (2.) “If any of you be smitten with a leprosy, expect not that the law should be dispensed with, nor think it hard to be shut out of the camp and so made a spectacle; there is no remedy: Miriam herself, though a prophetess and the sister of Moses, was not exempted, but was forced to submit to this severe discipline when she was under this divine rebuke.” Thus David, Hezekiah, Peter, and other great men, when they had sinned, humbled themselves, and took to themselves shame and grief; let us not expect to be reconciled upon easier terms.

_ _ IV. Some necessary orders given about pledges for the security of money lent. They are not forbidden to take such securities as would save the lender from loss, and oblige the borrower to be honest; but, 1. They must not take the millstone for a pledge (Deuteronomy 24:6), for with that they ground the corn that was to be bread for their families, or, if it were a public mill, with it the miller got his livelihood; and so it forbids the taking of any thing for a pledge by the want of which a man was in danger of being undone. Consonant to this is the ancient common law of England, which provides that no man be distrained of the utensils or instruments of his trade or profession, as the axe of a carpenter, or the books of a scholar, or beasts belonging to the plough, as long as there are other beasts of which distress may be made (Coke, 1 Inst. fol. 47). This teaches us to consult the comfort and subsistence of others as much as our own advantage. That creditor who cares not though his debtor and his family starve, nor is at all concerned what become of them, so he may but get his money or secure it, goes contrary, not only to the law of Christ, but even to the law of Moses too. 2. They must not go into the borrower's house to fetch the pledge, but must stand without, and he must bring it, Deuteronomy 24:10, Deuteronomy 24:11. The borrower (says Solomon) is servant to the lender; therefore lest the lender should abuse the advantage he has against him, and improve it for his own interest, it is provided that he shall take not what he pleases, but what the borrower can best spare. A man's house is his castle, even the poor man's house is so, and is here taken under the protection of the law. 3. That a poor man's bed-clothes should never be taken for a pledge, Deuteronomy 24:12, Deuteronomy 24:13. This we had before, Exodus 22:26, Exodus 22:27. If they were taken in the morning, they must be brought back again at night, which is in effect to say that they must not be taken at all. “Let the poor debtor sleep in his own raiment, and bless thee,” that is, “pray for thee, and praise God for thy kindness to him.” Note, Poor debtors ought to be sensible (more sensible than commonly they are) of the goodness of those creditors that do not take all the advantage of the law against them, and to repay their kindnesses by their prayers for them, when they are not in a capacity to repay it in any other way. “Nay, thou shalt not only have the prayers and good wishes of thy poor brother, but it shall be righteousness to thee before the Lord thy God,” that is, “It shall be accepted and rewarded as an act of mercy to thy brother and obedience to thy God, and an evidence of thy sincere conformity to the law. Though it may be looked upon by men as an act of weakness to deliver up the securities thou hast for thy debt, yet it shall be looked upon by thy God as an act of goodness, which shall in no wise lose its reward.”

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Deuteronomy 24:5

Business — Any publick office or employment, which may cause an absence from or neglect of his wife. One year — That their affections may be firmly settled, so as there may be no occasions for the divorces last mentioned.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Deuteronomy 24:5

When a man hath taken a new wife, he shall not go out to war, (c) neither shall he be charged with any business: [but] he shall be free at home one year, and shall cheer up his wife which he hath taken.

(c) That they might learn to know one another's conditions, and so afterward live in godly peace.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
a man:

Deuteronomy 20:7 And what man [is there] that hath betrothed a wife, and hath not taken her? let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man take her.
Genesis 2:24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.
Matthew 19:4-6 And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made [them] at the beginning made them male and female, ... Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.
Mark 10:6-9 But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female. ... What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.
1 Corinthians 7:10-15 And unto the married I command, [yet] not I, but the Lord, Let not the wife depart from [her] husband: ... But if the unbelieving depart, let him depart. A brother or a sister is not under bondage in such [cases]: but God hath called us to peace.
Ephesians 5:28-29 So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself. ... For no man ever yet hated his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the church:
Titus 2:4-5 That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, ... [To be] discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.

neither:
etc. Heb. not anything shall pass upon him

cheer up:

Proverbs 5:18 Let thy fountain be blessed: and rejoice with the wife of thy youth.
Ecclesiastes 9:9 Live joyfully with the wife whom thou lovest all the days of the life of thy vanity, which he hath given thee under the sun, all the days of thy vanity: for that [is] thy portion in [this] life, and in thy labour which thou takest under the sun.
1 Corinthians 7:29 But this I say, brethren, the time [is] short: it remaineth, that both they that have wives be as though they had none;
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Gn 2:24. Dt 20:7. Pv 5:18. Ec 9:9. Mt 19:4. Mk 10:6. 1Co 7:10, 29. Ep 5:28. Tit 2:4.

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