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Deuteronomy 20:5 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And the officers shall speak unto the people, saying, What man is there that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And the officers shall speak unto the people, saying, What man [is there] that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “The officers also shall speak to the people, saying, ‘Who is the man that has built a new house and has not dedicated it? Let him depart and return to his house, otherwise he might die in the battle and another man would dedicate it.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And the officers shall speak to the people, saying, What man [is there] that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he should die in the battle, and another man should dedicate it.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And the officers shall speak unto the people, saying, What man is there that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Then shall the officers speak unto the people, saying, Who is the man that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go, and return unto his house,—lest he die in the battle, and, another man, dedicate it.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'And the authorities have spoken unto the people, saying, Who [is] the man that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it?—let him go and turn back to his house, lest he die in battle, and another man dedicate it.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the captains shall proclaim through every band in the hearing of the army: What man is there, that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And the Officers shall speake vnto the people, saying, What man is there that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him goe and returne to his house, lest hee die in the battell, and an other man dedicate it.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the scribes shall speak to the people, saying, What man [is] he that has built a new house, and has not dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the war, and another man dedicate it.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And the officers shall speak unto the people, saying, What man [is there] that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And the officers 7860
{7860} Prime
שֹׁטֵר
shoter
{sho-tare'}
Active participle of an otherwise unused root probably meaning to write; properly a scribe, that is, (by analogy or implication) an official superintendent or magistrate.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
shall speak 1696
{1696} Prime
דִּבֵּר
dabar
{daw-bar'}
A primitive root; perhaps properly to arrange; but used figuratively (of words) to speak; rarely (in a destructive sense) to subdue.
z8765
<8765> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2121
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
the people, 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
saying, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
What x4310
(4310) Complement
מִי
miy
{me}
An interrogitive pronoun of persons, as H4100 is of things, who? (occasionally, by a peculiar idiom, of things); also (indefinitely) whoever; often used in oblique construction with prefix or suffix.
man 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
[is there] that x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
hath built 1129
{1129} Prime
בָּנָה
banah
{baw-naw'}
A primitive root; to build (literally and figuratively).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
a new 2319
{2319} Prime
חָדָשׁ
chadash
{khaw-dawsh'}
From H2318; new.
house, 1004
{1004} Prime
בַּיִת
bayith
{bah'-yith}
Probably from H1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest variation of applications, especially family, etc.).
and hath not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
dedicated 2596
{2596} Prime
חָנַךְ
chanak
{khaw-nak'}
A primitive root; properly to narrow (compare H2614); figuratively to initiate or discipline.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
it? let him go y3212
[3212] Standard
יָלַך
yalak
{yaw-lak'}
A primitive root (compare H1980); to walk (literally or figuratively); causatively to carry (in various senses).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x1980
(1980) Complement
הָלַךְ
halak
{haw-lak'}
Akin to H3212; a primitive root; to walk (in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively).
and return 7725
{7725} Prime
שׁוּב
shuwb
{shoob}
A primitive root; to turn back (hence, away) transitively or intransitively, literally or figuratively (not necessarily with the idea of return to the starting point); generally to retreat; often adverbially again.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to his house, 1004
{1004} Prime
בַּיִת
bayith
{bah'-yith}
Probably from H1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest variation of applications, especially family, etc.).
lest x6435
(6435) Complement
פֵּן
pen
{pane}
From H6437; properly removal; used only (in the constructive) adverbially as conjugation lest.
he die 4191
{4191} Prime
מָמוֹת
muwth
{mooth}
A primitive root; to die (literally or figuratively); causatively to kill.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
in the battle, 4421
{4421} Prime
מִלְחָמָה
milchamah
{mil-khaw-maw'}
From H3898 (in the sense of fighting); a battle (that is, the engagement); generally war (that is, warfare).
and another 312
{0312} Prime
אַחֵר
'acher
{akh-air'}
From H0309; properly hinder; generally next, other, etc.
man 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
dedicate 2596
{2596} Prime
חָנַךְ
chanak
{khaw-nak'}
A primitive root; properly to narrow (compare H2614); figuratively to initiate or discipline.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
it.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Deuteronomy 20:5-8

_ _ And the officers shall speak unto the people — literally, Shoterim, who are called “scribes” or “overseers” (Exodus 5:6). They might be keepers of the muster-roll, or perhaps rather military heralds, whose duty it was to announce the orders of the generals (2 Chronicles 26:11). This proclamation (Deuteronomy 20:5-8) must have been made previous to the priest’s address, as great disorder and inconvenience must have been occasioned if the serried ranks were broken by the departure of those to whom the privilege was granted. Four grounds of exemption are expressly mentioned: (1) The dedication of a new house, which, as in all Oriental countries still, was an important event, and celebrated by festive and religious ceremonies (Nehemiah 12:27); exemption for a year. (2) The planting of a vineyard. The fruit of the first three years being declared unfit for use, and the first-fruits producible on the fourth, the exemption in this case lasted at least four years. (3) The betrothal of a wife, which was always a considerable time before marriage. It was deemed a great hardship to leave a house unfinished, a new property half cultivated, and a recently contracted marriage; and the exemptions allowed in these cases were founded on the principle that a man’s heart being deeply engrossed by something at a distance, he would not be very enthusiastic in the public service. (4) The ground of exemption was cowardice. From the composition of the Israelitish army, which was an irregular militia, all above twenty years being liable to serve, many totally unfit for war must have been called to the field; and it was therefore a prudential arrangement to rid the army of such unwarlike elements — persons who could render no efficient service, and the contagion of whose craven spirit might lead to panic and defeat.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Deuteronomy 20:1-9.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Deuteronomy 20:5

What man — This and the following exceptions are to be understood only of a war allowed by God, not in a war commanded by God, not in the approaching war with the Canaanites, from which even the bridegroom was not exempted, as the Jewish writers note.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Deuteronomy 20:5

And the officers shall speak unto the people, saying, What man [is there] that hath built a new house, and hath not (c) dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it.

(c) For when they first entered to dwell in a house, they gave thanks to God, acknowledging that they had that benefit by his grace.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the officers:

Deuteronomy 1:15 So I took the chief of your tribes, wise men, and known, and made them heads over you, captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, and captains over fifties, and captains over tens, and officers among your tribes.
Deuteronomy 16:18 Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just judgment.
Numbers 31:14 And Moses was wroth with the officers of the host, [with] the captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle.
Numbers 31:48 And the officers which [were] over thousands of the host, the captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds, came near unto Moses:
1 Samuel 17:18 And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of [their] thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge.

dedicated:

Nehemiah 12:27 And at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem they sought the Levites out of all their places, to bring them to Jerusalem, to keep the dedication with gladness, both with thanksgivings, and with singing, [with] cymbals, psalteries, and with harps.
Psalms 30:1 [[A Psalm [and] Song [at] the dedication of the house of David.]] I will extol thee, O LORD; for thou hast lifted me up, and hast not made my foes to rejoice over me.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Nu 31:14, 48. Dt 1:15; 16:18. 1S 17:18. Ne 12:27. Ps 30:1.

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