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Deuteronomy 17:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Thou shalt not sacrifice unto Jehovah thy God an ox, or a sheep, wherein is a blemish, [or] anything evil; for that is an abomination unto Jehovah thy God.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Thou shalt not sacrifice unto the LORD thy God [any] bullock, or sheep, wherein is blemish, [or] any evilfavouredness: for that [is] an abomination unto the LORD thy God.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “You shall not sacrifice to the LORD your God an ox or a sheep which has a blemish [or] any defect, for that is a detestable thing to the LORD your God.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Thou shalt not sacrifice to the LORD thy God [any] bullock, or sheep, in which is blemish, [or] any evil favoredness: for that [is] an abomination to the LORD thy God.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Thou shalt not sacrifice to Jehovah thy God an ox or sheep wherein is a defect, or anything bad; for it is an abomination to Jehovah thy God.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Thou shalt not sacrifice unto Yahweh thy God, a bullock or a sheep wherein is a blemish, any unseemly thing: for, an abomination unto Yahweh thy God, it would be.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'Thou dost not sacrifice to Jehovah thy God ox or sheep in which there is a blemish—any evil thing; for it [is] the abomination of Jehovah thy God.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Thou shalt not sacrifice to the Lord thy God a sheep, or an ox, wherein there is blemish, or any fault: for that is an abomination to the Lord thy God.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Thou shalt not sacrifice vnto the LORD thy God any bullocke, or sheepe wherein is blemish, [or] any euilfauourednes: for that is an abomination vnto the LORD thy God.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Thou shalt not sacrifice to the Lord thy God a calf or a sheep, in which there is a blemish, [or] any evil thing; for it is an abomination to the Lord thy God.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Thou shalt not sacrifice unto Yahweh thy Elohim [any] bullock, or sheep, wherein is blemish, [or] any evilfavouredness: for that [is] an abomination unto Yahweh thy Elohim.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Thou shalt not x3808
(3808) Complement
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
sacrifice 2076
{2076} Prime
A primitive root; to slaughter an animal (usually in sacrifice).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
unto Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
thy lhm אֱלֹהִים 430
{0430} Prime
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
[any] bullock, 7794
{7794} Prime
From H7788; a bullock (as a traveller). wall used by mistake for H7791.
or sheep, 7716
{7716} Prime
Probably from H7582 through the idea of pushing out to graze; a member of a flock, that is, a sheep or goat.
wherein x834
(0834) Complement
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
is x1961
(1961) Complement
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
blemish, 3971
{3971} Prime
As if passive participle from an unused root probably meaning to stain; a blemish (physical or moral).
[or] any x3605
(3605) Complement
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
evilfavouredness: 7451
{7451} Prime
From H7489; bad or (as noun) evil (naturally or morally). This includes the second (feminine) form; as adjective or noun.
{1697} Prime
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
for x3588
(3588) Complement
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
that x1931
(1931) Complement
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
[is] an abomination 8441
{8441} Prime
Feminine active participle of H8581; properly something disgusting (morally), that is, (as noun) an abhorrence; especially idolatry or (concretely) an idol.
unto Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
thy lhm אֱלֹהִים. 430
{0430} Prime
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Deuteronomy 17:1

_ _ Deuteronomy 17:1. Things sacrificed must be sound.

_ _ Thou shalt not sacrifice ... any bullock, or sheep, wherein is blemish — Under the name of bullock were comprehended bulls, cows, and calves; under that of sheep, rams, lambs, kids, he- and she-goats. An ox, from mutilation, was inadmissible. The qualifications required in animals destined for sacrifice are described (Exodus 12:5; Leviticus 1:3).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Deuteronomy 17:1-7

_ _ Here is, I. A law for preserving the honour of God's worship, by providing that no creature that had any blemish should be offered in sacrifice to him, Deuteronomy 17:1. This caveat we have often met with: Thou shalt not sacrifice that which has any blemish, which renders it unsightly, or any evil matter or thing (as the following word night better be rendered), any sickness or weakness, though not discernible at first view; it is an abomination to God. God is the best of beings, and therefore whatsoever he is served with ought to be the best in its kind. And the Old Testament sacrifices in a special manner must be so, because they were types of Christ, who is a Lamb without blemish or spot (1 Peter 1:19), perfectly pure from all sin and all appearance of it. In the latter times of the Jewish church, when by the captivity in Babylon they were cured of idolatry, yet they were charged with profaneness in the breach of this law, with offering the blind, and the lame, and the sick for sacrifice, Malachi 1:8.

_ _ II. A law for the punishing of those that worshipped false gods. It was made a capital crime to seduce others to idolatry (ch. 13), here it is made no less to be seduced. If the blind thus mislead the blind, both must fall into the ditch. Thus God would possess them with a dread of that sin, which they must conclude exceedingly sinful when so many sanguinary laws were made against it, and would deter those from it that would not otherwise be persuaded against it; and yet the law, which works death, proved ineffectual. See here,

_ _ 1. What the crime was against which this law was levelled, serving or worshipping other gods, Deuteronomy 17:3. That which was the most ancient and plausible idolatry is specified, worshipping the sun, moon, and stars; and, if that was so detestable a thing, much more was it so to worship stocks and stones, or the representations of mean and contemptible animals. Of this it is said, (1.) That it is what God had not commanded. He had again and again forbidden it; but it is thus expressed to intimate that, if there had been no more against it, this had been enough (for in the worship of God his institution and appointment must be our rule and warrant), and that God never commanded his worshippers to debase themselves so far as to do homage to their fellow-creatures: had God commanded them to do it, they might justly have complained of it as a reproach and disparagement to them; yet, when he has forbidden it, they will, from a spirit of contradiction, put this indignity upon themselves. (2.) That it is wickedness in the sight of God, Deuteronomy 17:2. Be it ever so industriously concealed, he sees it, and, be it ever so ingeniously palliated, he hates it: it is a sin in itself exceedingly heinous, and the highest affront that can be offered to Almighty God. (3.) That it is a transgression of the covenant. It was on this condition that God took them to be his peculiar people, that they should serve and worship him only as their God, so that if they gave to any other the honour which was due to him alone that covenant was void, and all the benefit of it forfeited. Other sins were transgressions of the command, but this was a transgression of the covenant. It was spiritual adultery, which breaks them marriage bond. (4.) That it is abomination in Israel, Deuteronomy 17:4. Idolatry was bad enough in any, but it was particularly abominable in Israel, a people so blessed with peculiar discoveries of the will and favour of the only true and living God.

_ _ 2. How it must be tried. Upon information given of it, or any ground of suspicion that any person whatsoever, man or woman, had served other gods, (1.) Enquiry must be made, Deuteronomy 17:4. Though it appears not certain at first, it may afterwards upon search appear so; and, if it can possibly be discovered, it must not be unpunished; if not, yet the very enquiry concerning it would possess the country with a dread of it. (2.) Evidence must be given in, Deuteronomy 17:6. How heinous and dangerous soever the crime is, yet they must not punish any for it, unless there were good proof against them, by two witnesses at least. They must not, under pretence of honouring God, wrong an innocent man. This law, which requires two witnesses in case of life, we had before, Numbers 35:30; it is quoted, Matthew 18:16.

_ _ 3. What sentence must be passed and executed. So great a punishment as death, so great a death as stoning, must be inflicted on the idolater, whether man or woman, for the infirmity of the weaker sex would be no excuse, Deuteronomy 17:5. The place of execution must be the gate of the city, that the shame might be the greater to the criminal and the warning the more public to all others. The hands of the witnesses, in this as in other cases, must be first upon him, that is, they must cast the first stone at him, thereby avowing their testimony, and solemnly imprecating the guilt of his blood upon themselves if their evidence were false. This custom might be of use to deter men from false-witness bearing. The witnesses are really, and therefore it was required that they should be actually, the death of the malefactor. But they must be followed, and the execution completed, by the hands of all the people, who were thus to testify their detestation of the crime and to put the evil away from among them, as before, Deuteronomy 13:9.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Deuteronomy 17:1

Bullock or sheep — Either greater or smaller sacrifices, all being comprehended under the two most eminent kinds.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Deuteronomy 17:1

Thou shalt not sacrifice unto the LORD thy God [any] bullock, or sheep, wherein is (a) blemish, [or] any evilfavouredness: for that [is] an abomination unto the LORD thy God.

(a) You shall not serve God for selfish means as the hypocrites do.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

Exodus 12:5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take [it] out from the sheep, or from the goats:
Leviticus 22:20-25 [But] whatsoever hath a blemish, [that] shall ye not offer: for it shall not be acceptable for you. ... Neither from a stranger's hand shall ye offer the bread of your God of any of these; because their corruption [is] in them, [and] blemishes [be] in them: they shall not be accepted for you.
Malachi 1:8 And if ye offer the blind for sacrifice, [is it] not evil? and if ye offer the lame and sick, [is it] not evil? offer it now unto thy governor; will he be pleased with thee, or accept thy person? saith the LORD of hosts.
Malachi 1:13-14 Ye said also, Behold, what a weariness [is it]! and ye have snuffed at it, saith the LORD of hosts; and ye brought [that which was] torn, and the lame, and the sick; thus ye brought an offering: should I accept this of your hand? saith the LORD. ... But cursed [be] the deceiver, which hath in his flock a male, and voweth, and sacrificeth unto the Lord a corrupt thing: for I [am] a great King, saith the LORD of hosts, and my name [is] dreadful among the heathen.
Hebrews 9:14 How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
1 Peter 1:19 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:

Thou shalt:

Deuteronomy 15:21 And if there be [any] blemish therein, [as if it be] lame, or blind, [or have] any ill blemish, thou shalt not sacrifice it unto the LORD thy God.

or, goat, any evil favouredness,
Genesis 41:3-4 And, behold, seven other kine came up after them out of the river, ill favoured and leanfleshed; and stood by the [other] kine upon the brink of the river. ... And the ill favoured and leanfleshed kine did eat up the seven well favoured and fat kine. So Pharaoh awoke.
Genesis 41:19 And, behold, seven other kine came up after them, poor and very ill favoured and leanfleshed, such as I never saw in all the land of Egypt for badness:

for that:

Deuteronomy 23:18 Thou shalt not bring the hire of a whore, or the price of a dog, into the house of the LORD thy God for any vow: for even both these [are] abomination unto the LORD thy God.
Deuteronomy 24:4 Her former husband, which sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that [is] abomination before the LORD: and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the LORD thy God giveth thee [for] an inheritance.
Deuteronomy 25:16 For all that do such things, [and] all that do unrighteously, [are] an abomination unto the LORD thy God.
Proverbs 6:16 These six [things] doth the LORD hate: yea, seven [are] an abomination unto him:
Proverbs 11:1 A false balance [is] abomination to the LORD: but a just weight [is] his delight.
Proverbs 15:8 The sacrifice of the wicked [is] an abomination to the LORD: but the prayer of the upright [is] his delight.
Proverbs 20:10 Divers weights, [and] divers measures, both of them [are] alike abomination to the LORD.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 41:3, 19. Ex 12:5. Lv 22:20. Dt 15:21; 23:18; 24:4; 25:16. Pv 6:16; 11:1; 15:8; 20:10. Mal 1:8, 13. He 9:14. 1P 1:19.

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How did they know if the sacrifice was pleasing to GOD or not.
- Min. Redden (8/8/2013 11:45:32 AM) []
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