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Deuteronomy 16:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto Jehovah thy God; for in the month of Abib Jehovah thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “Observe the month of Abib and celebrate the Passover to the LORD your God, for in the month of Abib the LORD your God brought you out of Egypt by night.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Observe the month Abib, and keep the passover to the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth from Egypt by night.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Keep the month of Abib, and celebrate the passover to Jehovah thy God; for in the month of Abib Jehovah thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Observe the month of Abib, when thou shalt keep a passover unto Yahweh thy God,—for, in the month of Abib, did Yahweh thy God bring thee forth out of Egypt, by night:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'Observe the month of Abib—and thou hast made a passover to Jehovah thy God, for in the month of Abib hath Jehovah thy God brought thee out of Egypt by night;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Observe the month of new corn, which is the first of the spring, that thou mayst celebrate the phase to the Lord thy God: because in this month the Lord thy God brought thee out of Egypt by night.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Obserue the moneth of Abib, and keepe the Passeouer vuto the LORD thy God: for in the moneth of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee foorth out of Egypt by night.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Observe the month of new [corn], and thou shalt sacrifice the passover to the Lord thy God; because in the month of new corn thou camest out of Mizraim{gr.Egypt} by night.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Observe the month of Aviv, and keep the passover unto Yahweh thy Elohim: for in the month of Aviv Yahweh thy Elohim brought thee forth out of Mitzrayim by night.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Observe 8104
{8104} Prime
שָׁמַר
shamar
{shaw-mar'}
A primitive root; properly to hedge about (as with thorns), that is, guard; generally to protect, attend to, etc.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the month 2320
{2320} Prime
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
of vv אָבִיב, 24
{0024} Prime
אָבִיב
'abiyb
{aw-beeb'}
From an unused root (meaning to be tender); green, that is a young ear of grain; hence the name of the month Abib or Nisan.
and keep 6213
{6213} Prime
עָשָׂה
`asah
{aw-saw'}
A primitive root; to do or make, in the broadest sense and widest application.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
the passover 6453
{6453} Prime
פֶּסַה
pecach
{peh'-sakh}
From H6452; a pretermission, that is, exemption; used only technically of the Jewish Passover (the festival or the victim).
unto Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
thy lhm אֱלֹהִים: 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
for x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
in the month 2320
{2320} Prime
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
of vv אָבִיב 24
{0024} Prime
אָבִיב
'abiyb
{aw-beeb'}
From an unused root (meaning to be tender); green, that is a young ear of grain; hence the name of the month Abib or Nisan.
Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
thy lhm אֱלֹהִים 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
brought thee forth 3318
{3318} Prime
יָצָא
yatsa'
{yaw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; to go (causatively bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proximate.
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
out of Mixrayim מִצרַיִם 4714
{4714} Prime
מִצְרַיִם
Mitsrayim
{mits-rah'-yim}
Dual of H4693; Mitsrajim, that is, Upper and Lower Egypt.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
by night. 3915
{3915} Prime
לַיִל
layil
{lah'-yil}
From the same as H3883; properly a twist (away of the light), that is, night; figuratively adversity.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Deuteronomy 16:1

_ _ Deuteronomy 16:1-22. The Feast of the Passover.

_ _ Observe the month of Abib — or first-fruits. It comprehended the latter part of our March and the beginning of April. Green ears of the barley, which were then full, were offered as first-fruits, on the second day of the passover.

_ _ for in the month of Abib the Lord thy God brought thee out of Egypt by night — This statement is apparently at variance with the prohibition (Exodus 12:22) as well as with the recorded fact that their departure took place in the morning (Exodus 13:3; Numbers 33:3). But it is susceptible of easy reconciliation. Pharaoh’s permission, the first step of emancipation, was extorted during the night, the preparations for departure commenced, the rendezvous at Rameses made, and the march entered on in the morning.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Deuteronomy 16:1-17

_ _ Much of the communion between God and his people Israel was kept up, and a face of religion preserved in the nation, by the three yearly feasts, the institution of which, and the laws concerning them, we have several times met with already; and here they are repeated.

_ _ I. The law of the passover, so great a solemnity that it made the whole month, in the midst of which it was placed, considerable: Observe the month Abib, Deuteronomy 16:1. Though one week only of this month was to be kept as a festival, yet their preparations before must be so solemn, and their reflections upon it and improvements of it afterwards so serious, as to amount to an observance of the whole month. The month of Abib, or of new fruits, as the Chaldee translates it, answers to our March (or part of March and part of April), and was by a special order from God, in remembrance of the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt, made the beginning of their year (Exodus 12:2), which before was reckoned to begin in September. This month they were to keep the passover, in remembrance of their being brought out of Egypt by night, Deuteronomy 16:1. The Chaldee paraphrasts expound it, “Because they came out of Egypt by daylight,” there being an express order that they should not stir out of their doors till morning, Exodus 12:22. One of them expounds it thus: “He brought thee out of Egypt, and did wonders by night.” The other, “and thou shalt eat the passover by night.” The laws concerning it are, 1. That they must be sure to sacrifice the passover in the place that God should choose (Deuteronomy 16:2), and in no other place, Deuteronomy 16:5-7. The passover was itself a sacrifice; hence Christ, as our passover, is said to be sacrificed for us (1 Corinthians 5:7), and many other sacrifices were offered during the seven days of the feast (Numbers 28:19, etc.), which are included here, for they are said to be sacrificed of the flock and the herd, whereas the passover itself was only of the flock, either a lamb or a kid: now no sacrifice was accepted but from the altar that sanctified it; it was therefore necessary that they should to up to the place of the altar, for, though the paschal lamb was entirely eaten by the owners, yet it must be killed in the court, the blood sprinkled, and the inwards burned upon the altar. By confining them to the appointed rule, from which they would have been apt to vary, and to introduce foolish inventions of their own, had they been permitted to offer these sacrifices within their own gates, from under the inspection of the priests. They were also hereby directed to have their eye up unto God in the solemnity, and the desire of their hearts towards the remembrance of his name, being appointed to attend where he had chosen to place his name, Deuteronomy 16:2 and Deuteronomy 16:6. But, when the solemnity was over, they might turn and go unto their tents, Deuteronomy 16:7. Some think that they might, if they pleased, return the very morning after the paschal lamb was killed and eaten, the priests and Levites being sufficient to carry on the rest of the week's work; but the first day of the seven is so far from being the day of their dispersion that it is expressly appointed for a holy convocation (Leviticus 23:7; Numbers 28:18); therefore we must take it as Jonathan's paraphrase expounds it, in the morning after the end of the feast thou shalt go to thy cities. And it was the practice to keep together the whole week, 2 Chronicles 35:17. 2. That they must eat unleavened bread for seven days, and no leavened bread must be seen in all their coasts, Deuteronomy 16:3, Deuteronomy 16:4, Deuteronomy 16:8. The bread they were confined to is here called bread of affliction, because neither grateful to the taste nor easy of digestion, and therefore proper to signify the heaviness of their spirits in their bondage and to keep in remembrance the haste in which they came out, the case being so urgent that they could not stay for the leavening of the bread they took with them for their march. The Jewish writers tell us that the custom at the passover supper was that the master of the family broke this unleavened bread, and gave to every one a piece of it, saying, This is (that is, this signifies, represents, or commemorates, which explains that saying of our Saviour, This is my body) the bread of affliction which your fathers did eat in the land of Egypt. The gospel meaning of this feast of unleavened bread the apostle gives us, 1 Corinthians 5:7. Christ our passover being sacrificed for us, and we having participated in the blessed fruits of that sacrifice to our comfort, let us keep the feast in a holy conversation, free from the leaven of malice towards our brethren and hypocrisy towards God, and with the unleavened bread of sincerity and love. Lastly, Observe, concerning the passover, for what end it was instituted: “That thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of Egypt, not only on the day of the passover, or during the seven days of the feast, but all the days of thy life (Deuteronomy 16:3), as a constant inducement to obedience.” Thus we celebrate the memorial of Christ's death at certain times, that we may remember it at all times, as a reason why we should live to him that died for us and rose again.

_ _ II. Seven weeks after the passover the feast of pentecost was to be observed, concerning which they are here directed, 1. Whence to number their seven weeks, from the time thou beginnest to put the sickle to the corn (Deuteronomy 16:9), that is, from the morrow after the first day of the feast of unleavened bread, for on that day (though it is probable the people did not begin their harvest till the feast was ended) messengers were sent to reap a sheaf of barley, which was to be offered to God as the first-fruits, Leviticus 23:10. Some think it implies a particular care which Providence would take of their land with respect to the weather, that their harvest should be always ripe and ready for the sickle just at the same time. 2. How they were to keep this feast. (1.) They must bring an offering unto God, Deuteronomy 16:10. It is here called a tribute of a free-will-offering. It was required of them as a tribute to their Sovereign Lord and owner, under whom they held all they had; and yet because the law did not determine the quantum, but it was left to every man's generosity to bring what he chose, and whatever he brought he must give cheerfully, it is therefore called a free-will offering. It was a grateful acknowledgment of the goodness of God to them in the mercies of these corn-harvests now finished, and therefore must be according as God had blessed them. Where God sows plentifully he expects to reap accordingly. (2.) They must rejoice before God, Deuteronomy 16:11. Holy joy is the heart and soul of thankful praises, which are as the language and expression of holy joy. They must rejoice in their receivings from God, and in their returns of service and sacrifice to him; our duty must be our delight as well as our enjoyments. They must have their very servants to rejoice with them, “for remember (Deuteronomy 16:12) that thou wast a bond-man, and wouldest have been very thankful if thy taskmasters would have given thee some time and cause for rejoicing; and thy God did bring thee out to keep a feast with gladness; therefore be pleasant with thy servants, and make them easy.” And, it should seem, those general words, thou shalt observe and do these statutes, are added here for a particular reason, because this feast was kept in remembrance of the giving of the law upon Mount Sinai, fifty days after they came out of Egypt; now the best way of expressing our thankfulness to God for his favour to us in giving us his law is to observe and do according to the precepts of it.

_ _ III. They must keep the feast of tabernacles, Deuteronomy 16:13-15. Here is no repetition of the law concerning the sacrifices that were to be offered in great abundance at this feast (which we had at large, Numbers 29:12, etc.), because the care of these belonged to the priests and Levites, who had not so much need of a repetition as the people had, and because the spiritual part of the service, which consisted in holy joy, was most pleasing to God, and was to be the perpetual duty of a gospel conversation, of which this feast was typical. Observe what stress is laid upon it here: Thou shalt rejoice in thy feast (Deuteronomy 16:14), and, because the Lord shall bless thee, thou shalt surely rejoice, Deuteronomy 16:15. Note, 1. It is the will of God that his people should be a cheerful people. If those that were under the law must rejoice before God, much more must we that are under the grace of the gospel, which makes it our duty, not only as here to rejoice in our feasts, but to rejoice evermore, to rejoice in the Lord always. 2. When we rejoice in God ourselves we should do what we can to assist others also to rejoice in him, by comforting the mourners and supplying the necessitous, that even the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow may rejoice with us. See Job 29:13. 3. We must rejoice in God, not only because of what we have received and are receiving from him daily, but because of what he has promised, and we expect to receive yet further from him: because he shall bless thee, therefore thou shalt rejoice. Those that make God their joy may rejoice in hope, for he is faithful that has promised.

_ _ IV. The laws concerning the three solemn feasts are summed up (Deuteronomy 16:16, Deuteronomy 16:17), as often before, Exodus 23:16, Exodus 23:17; Exodus 34:23. The general commands concerning them are, 1. That all the males must then make their personal appearance before God, that by their frequent meeting to worship God, at the same place, and by the same rule, they might be kept faithful and constant to that holy religion which was established among them. 2. That none must appear before God empty, but every man must bring some offering or other, in token of a dependence upon God and gratitude to him. And God was not unreasonable in his demands; let every man but give as he was able, and no more was expected. The same is still the rule of charity, 1 Corinthians 16:2. Those that give to their power shall be accepted, but those that give beyond their power are accounted worthy of double honour (2 Corinthians 8:3), as the poor widow that gave all she had, Luke 21:4.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Deuteronomy 16:1

Observe the month of Abib — Or of new fruits, which answers to part of March and part of April, and was by a special order from God made the beginning of their year, in remembrance of their deliverance out of Egypt. By night — In the night Pharaoh was forced to give them leave to depart, and accordingly they made preparation for their departure, and in the morning they perfected the work.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Deuteronomy 16:1

Observe the month of (a) Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.

(a) Read (Exodus 13:4).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the month:

Exodus 12:2-20 This month [shall be] unto you the beginning of months: it [shall be] the first month of the year to you. ... Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.
Exodus 34:18 The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.
Leviticus 23:5 In the fourteenth [day] of the first month at even [is] the LORD'S passover.
Numbers 9:2-5 Let the children of Israel also keep the passover at his appointed season. ... And they kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the first month at even in the wilderness of Sinai: according to all that the LORD commanded Moses, so did the children of Israel.
Numbers 28:16 And in the fourteenth day of the first month [is] the passover of the LORD.

the passover:
This word comes from the Hebrew verb pasach, to pass, to leap or skip over. The destroying angel passed over the houses marked with the blood of the Paschal Lamb, so the wrath of God passes over those whose souls sprinkled with the blood of Christ.
1 Corinthians 5:7 Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us:
. As the paschal lamb was killed before Israel was delivered, so by the death of Christ, we have redemption through his blood. It was killed before the tables of the law were delivered to Moses, or Aaron's sacrifices were enjoined; thus deliverance comes to men, not by the works of the law, but by the only true passover, the Lamb of God.
Romans 3:25 Whom God hath set forth [to be] a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God;
Hebrews 9:14 How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
. It was killed the first month of the year, which prefigured that Christ should suffer death in that month.
John 18:28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.
. it was killed in the evening.
Exodus 12:6 And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.
. Christ suffered at that time of the day.
Matthew 27:46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
Hebrews 1:2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by [his] Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;
. At even the sun sets; at Christ's passion, universal darkness was upon the whole earth. The passover was roasted with fire, denoting the sharp and dreadful pains that Christ should suffer, not only from men, but God also. It was to be eaten with bitter herbs,
Exodus 12:8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; [and] with bitter [herbs] they shall eat it.
; not only to put them in remembrance of their bitter bondage in Egypt, but also to testify our mortification to sin, and readiness to undergo afflictions for Christ,
Colossians 1:24 Who now rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill up that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for his body's sake, which is the church:
; and likewise to teach us the absolute necessity of true repentance in all that would profitably feed by faith on Christ, the true paschal lamb.

for in:

Exodus 12:29-42 And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that [was] in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. ... It [is] a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this [is] that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
Exodus 13:4 This day came ye out in the month Abib.
Exodus 23:15 Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)
Exodus 34:18 The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.
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Ex 12:2, 6, 8, 29; 13:4; 23:15; 34:18. Lv 23:5. Nu 9:2; 28:16. Mt 27:46. Jn 18:28. Ro 3:25. 1Co 5:7. Col 1:24. He 1:2; 9:14.

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