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Deuteronomy 15:12 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— If thy brother, a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, and serve thee six years; then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— [And] if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, and serve thee six years; then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “If your kinsman, a Hebrew man or woman, is sold to you, then he shall serve you six years, but in the seventh year you shall set him free.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— [And] if thy brother, a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew woman, shall be sold to thee, and serve thee six years; then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— If thy brother, a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew woman, have been sold unto thee, he shall serve thee six years, and in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— When thy brother, a Hebrew man (or a Hebrew woman) selleth himself unto thee, then shall he serve thee six years,—and, in the seventh year, shalt thou let him go out free, from thee;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'When thy brother is sold to thee, a Hebrew or a Hebrewess, and he hath served thee six years—then in the seventh year thou dost send him away free from thee.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— When thy brother a Hebrew man, or Hebrew woman is sold to thee, and hath served thee six years, in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— [And] if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold vnto thee, and serue thee sixe yeres, then in the seuenth yeere thou shalt let him goe free from thee.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And if thy brother [or sister], a Hebrew man or a Hebrew woman, be sold to thee, he shall serve thee six years, and in the seventh year thou shalt send him out free from thee.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— [And] if thy brother, an Ivri man, or an Ivri woman, be sold unto thee, and serve thee six years; then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
[And] if x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
thy brother, 251
{0251} Prime
אָח
'ach
{awkh}
A primitive word; a brother (used in the widest sense of literal relationship and metaphorical affinity or resemblance (like H0001)).
an `IvrÓ עִברִי man, 5680
{5680} Prime
עִבְרִי
`Ibriy
{ib-ree'}
Patronymic from H5677; an Eberite (that is, Hebrew) or descendant of Eber.
or x176
(0176) Complement
אוֹ
'ow
{o}
The first form is presumed to be the 'constructive' or genitival form of the second form which is short for H0185; desire (and so probably in Proverbs 31:4); hence (by way of alternative) or, also if.
an `IvrÓ עִברִי woman, 5680
{5680} Prime
עִבְרִי
`Ibriy
{ib-ree'}
Patronymic from H5677; an Eberite (that is, Hebrew) or descendant of Eber.
be sold 4376
{4376} Prime
מָכַר
makar
{maw-kar'}
A primitive root; to sell, literally (as merchandise, a daughter in marriage, into slavery), or figuratively (to surrender).
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
unto thee, and serve 5647
{5647} Prime
עָבַד
`abad
{aw-bad'}
A primitive root; to work (in any sense); by implication to serve, till, (causatively) enslave, etc.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
thee six 8337
{8337} Prime
שֵׁשׁ
shesh
{shaysh}
(The second form is masculine); a primitive number; six (as an overplus (see H7797) beyond five or the fingers of the hand); as ordinal sixth.
years; 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
then in the seventh 7637
{7637} Prime
שְׁבִיעִי
sh@biy`iy
{sheb-ee-ee'}
Ordinal from H7657; seventh.
year 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
thou shalt let him go 7971
{7971} Prime
שָׁלַח
shalach
{shaw-lakh'}
A primitive root; to send away, for, or out (in a great variety of applications).
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
free 2670
{2670} Prime
חָפְשִׁי
chophshiy
{khof-shee'}
From H2666; exempt (from bondage, tax or care).
from x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
x5973
(5973) Complement
עִם
`im
{eem}
From H6004; adverb or preposition, with (that is, in conjunction with), in varied applications; specifically equally with; often with prepositional prefix (and then usually unrepresented in English).
thee.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Deuteronomy 15:12

_ _ Deuteronomy 15:12-19. Hebrew servants’ freedom.

_ _ if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee — The last extremity of an insolvent debtor, when his house or land was not sufficient to cancel his debt, was to be sold as a slave with his family (Leviticus 25:39; 2 Kings 4:1; Nehemiah 5:1-13; Job 24:9; Matthew 18:25). The term of servitude could not last beyond six years. They obtained their freedom either after six years from the time of their sale or before the end of the seventh year. At the year of jubilee, such slaves were emancipated even if their six years of service were not completed [see on Leviticus 25:39].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Deuteronomy 15:12-18

_ _ Here is, I. A repetition of the law that had been given concerning Hebrew servants who had sold themselves for servants, or were sold by their parents through extreme poverty, or were sold by the court of judgment for some crime committed. The law was, 1. That they should serve but six years, and in the seventh should go out free, Deuteronomy 15:12. Compare Exodus 21:2. And, if the year of jubilee happened before they served out their time, that would be their discharge. God's Israel were a free people, and must not be compelled to perpetual slavery; thus are God's spiritual Israel called unto liberty. 2. That if, when their six years' service had expired, they had no mind to go out free, but would rather continue in service, as having less care, though taking more pains, than their masters, in this case they must lay themselves under an obligation to serve for ever, that is, for life, by having their ears bored to the door-posts, Deuteronomy 15:16, Deuteronomy 15:17. Compare Exodus 21:6. If hereby a man disgraced himself with some, as of a mean and servile spirit, that had not a due sense of the honour and pleasure of liberty, yet, we may suppose, with others he got reputation, as of a quiet contented spirit, humble, and diligent, and loving, and not given to change.

_ _ II. Here is an addition to this law, requiring them to put some small stock into their servants' hands to set up with for themselves, when they sent them out of their service, Deuteronomy 15:13, Deuteronomy 15:14. It was to be supposed that they had nothing of their own, and that their friends had little or nothing for them, else they else they would have been redeemed before they were discharged by law; they had no wages for their service, and all they got by their labour was their masters', so that their liberty would do them little good, having nothing to begin the world with; therefore their masters are here commanded to furnish them liberally with corn and cattle. No certain measure is prescribed: that is left to the generosity of the master, who probably would have respect to the servant's merit and necessity; but the Jewish writers say, “He could not give less than the value of thirty shekels of silver, but as much more as he pleased” The maid-servants, though they were not to have their ears bored if they were disposed to stay, yet, if they went out free, they were to have a gratuity given them; for to this those words refer, Unto thy maid-servant thou shalt do likewise, Deuteronomy 15:17. The reasons for this are taken from the law of gratitude. They must do it, 1. In gratitude to God, who had not only brought them out of Egypt (Deuteronomy 15:15), but brought them out greatly enriched with the spoils of the Egyptians. Let them not send their servants out empty, for they were not sent empty out of the house of bondage. God's tender care of us and kindness to us oblige us to be careful of, and kind to, those that have a dependence upon us. Thus we must render according to the benefit done unto us. 2. In gratitude to their servants, Deuteronomy 15:18. “Grudge not to give him a little out of thy abundance, for he has been worth a double hired servant unto thee. The days of the hireling at most were but three years (Isaiah 16:14), but he has served thee six years, and, unlike the hired servant, without any wages.” Masters and landlords ought to consider what need they have of, and what ease and advantage they have by, their servants and tenants, and should not only be just but kind to them. To these reasons it is added, as before in this chapter (Deuteronomy 15:4, Deuteronomy 15:6, Deuteronomy 15:10), The Lord they God shall bless thee. Then we may expect family blessings, the springs of family-prosperity, when we make conscience of our duty to our family-relations.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Deuteronomy 15:12

If thy brother be sold — Either by himself, or his parents, or as a criminal. Six years — To be computed from the beginning of his servitude, which is every where limited to the space of six years.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

Deuteronomy 15:1 At the end of [every] seven years thou shalt make a release.
Exodus 21:2-6 If thou buy an Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing. ... Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and he shall serve him for ever.
Leviticus 25:39-41 And if thy brother [that dwelleth] by thee be waxen poor, and be sold unto thee; thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bondservant: ... And [then] shall he depart from thee, [both] he and his children with him, and shall return unto his own family, and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return.
Jeremiah 34:14 At the end of seven years let ye go every man his brother an Hebrew, which hath been sold unto thee; and when he hath served thee six years, thou shalt let him go free from thee: but your fathers hearkened not unto me, neither inclined their ear.
John 8:35-36 And the servant abideth not in the house for ever: [but] the Son abideth ever. ... If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed.
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Ex 21:2. Lv 25:39. Dt 15:1. Jr 34:14. Jn 8:35.

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