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Daniel 9:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of Median descent, who was made king over the kingdom of the Chaldeans—
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— In the first year of Darius son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes,—who was made king over the kingdom of the Chaldeans:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— In the first year of Darius, son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who hath been made king over the kingdom of the Chaldeans,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— In the first year of Darius, the son of Assuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who reigned over the kingdom of the Chaldeans:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— In the first yeere of Darius the sonne of Ahasuerus, of the seede of the Medes, which was made King ouer the realme of the Caldeans,
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— In the first year of Darius the son of Assuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who reigned over the kingdom of the Chaldeans,
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— In the first year of Daryawesh the son of Achashwerosh, of the seed of the Madim, which was made king over the realm of the Kasdim;

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
In the first 259
{0259} Prime
A numeral from H0258; properly united, that is, one; or (as an ordinal) first.
year 8141
{8141} Prime
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
of Drywe דָּריָוֶשׁ 1867
{1867} Prime
Of Persian origin; Darejavesh, a title (rather than name) of several Persian kings.
the son 1121
{1121} Prime
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of awr אֲחַשׁוֵרוֹשׁ, 325
{0325} Prime
Of Persian origin; Achashverosh (that is, Ahasuerus or Artaxerxes, but in this case Xerxes), the title (rather than name) of a Persian king.
of the seed 2233
{2233} Prime
From H2232; seed; figuratively fruit, plant, sowing time, posterity.
(4480) Complement
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
of the Mm מָדִים, 4074
{4074} Prime
Of foreign derivation; Madai, a country of central Asia.
which x834
(0834) Complement
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
was made king 4427
{4427} Prime
A primitive root; to reign; inceptively to ascend the throne; causatively to induct into royalty; hence (by implication) to take counsel.
<8717> Grammar
Stem - Hophal (See H8825)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 123
over x5921
(5921) Complement
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
the realm 4438
{4438} Prime
From H4427; a rule; concretely a dominion.
of the Ca$dm כַּשׂדִּים; 3778
{3778} Prime
(Occasionally shown as the second form with enclitic; meaning towards the Kasdites); patronymic from H3777 (only in the plural); a Kasdite, or descendant of Kesed; by implication a Chaldaean (as if so descended); also an astrologer (as if proverbial of that people).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Daniel 9:1

_ _ Daniel 9:1-27. Daniel’s confession and prayer for Jerusalem: Gabriel comforts him by the prophecy of the seventy weeks.

_ _ The world powers here recede from view; Israel, and the salvation by Messiah promised to it, are the subject of revelation. Israel had naturally expected salvation at the end of the captivity. Daniel is therefore told, that, after the seventy years of the captivity, seventy times seven must elapse, and that even then Messiah would not come in glory as the Jews might through misunderstanding expect from the earlier prophets, but by dying would put away sin. This ninth chapter (Messianic prophecy) stands between the two visions of the Old Testament Antichrist, to comfort “the wise.” In the interval between Antiochus and Christ, no further revelation was needed; therefore, as in the first part of the book, so in the second, Christ and Antichrist in connection are the theme.

_ _ first year of Darius — Cyaxares II, in whose name Cyrus, his nephew, son-in-law, and successor, took Babylon, 538 b.c. The date of this chapter is therefore 537 b.c., a year before Cyrus permitted the Jews to return from exile, and sixty-nine years after Daniel had been carried captive at the beginning of the captivity, 606 b.c.

_ _ son of Ahasuerus — called Astyages by Xenophon. Ahasuerus was a name common to many of the kings of Medo-Persia.

_ _ made king — The phrase implies that Darius owed the kingdom not to his own prowess, but to that of another, namely, Cyrus.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Daniel 9:1-3

_ _ We left Daniel, in the close of the foregoing chapter, employed in the king's business; but here we have him employed in better business than any king had for him, speaking to God and hearing from him, not for himself only, but for the church, whose mouth he was to God, and for whose use the oracles of God were committed to him, relating to the days of the Messiah. Observe, 1. When it was that Daniel had this communion with God (Daniel 9:1), in the first year of Darius the Mede, who was newly made king of the Chaldeans, Babylon being conquered by him and his nephew, or grandson, Cyrus. In this year the seventy years of the Jews' captivity ended, but the decree for their release was not yet issued out; so that this address of Daniel's to God seems to have been ready in that year, and, probably, before he was cast into the lions' den. And one powerful inducement, perhaps, it was to him then to keep so close to the duty of prayer, though it cost him his life, that he had so lately experienced the benefit and comfort of it. 2. What occasioned his address to God by prayer (Daniel 9:2): He understood by books that seventy years was the time fixed for the continuance of the desolations of Jerusalem. Daniel 9:2. The book by which he understood this was the book of the prophecies of Jeremiah, in which he found it expressly foretold (Jeremiah 29:10), After seventy years be accomplished in Babylon (and therefore they must be reckoned from the first captivity, in the third year of Jehoiakim, which Daniel had reason to remember by a good token, for it was in that captivity that he was carried away himself, Daniel 1:1), I will visit you, and perform my good word towards you. It was likewise said (Jeremiah 25:11), This whole land shall be seventy years a desolation (chorbath), the same word that Daniel here uses for the desolations of Jerusalem, which shows that he had that prophecy before him when he wrote this. Though Daniel was himself a great prophet, and one that was well acquainted with the visions of God, yet he was a diligent student in the scripture, and thought it no disparagement to him to consult Jeremiah's prophecies. He was a great politician, and prime-minister of state to one of the greatest monarchs upon earth, and yet could find both heart and time to converse with the word of God. The greatest and best men in the world must not think themselves above their Bibles. 3. How serious and solemn his address to God was when he understood that the seventy years were just upon expiring (for it appears, by Ezekiel's dating of his prophecies, that they exactly computed the years of their captivity), then he set his face to seek God by prayer. Note, God's promises are intended, not to supersede, but to excite and encourage, our prayers; and, when we see the day of the performance of them approaching, we should the more earnestly plead them with God and put them in suit. So Daniel did here; he prayed three times a day, and, no doubt, in every prayer made mention of the desolations of Jerusalem; yet he did not think that enough, but even in the midst of his business set time apart for an extraordinary application to Heaven on Jerusalem's behalf. God had said to Ezekiel that though Daniel, among others, stood before him, his intercession should not prevail to prevent the judgment (Ezekiel 14:14), yet he hopes, now that the warfare is accomplished (Isaiah 40:2), his prayer may be heard for the removing of the judgment. When the day of deliverance dawns it is time for God's praying people to bestir themselves; something extraordinary is then expected and required from them, besides their daily sacrifice. Now Daniel sought by prayer and supplications, for fear lest the sins of the people should provoke him to defer their deliverance longer than was intended, or rather that the people might be prepared by the grace of God for the deliverance now that the providence of God was about to work it out for them. Now observe, (1.) The intenseness of his mind in this prayer; I set my face unto the Lord God to seek him, which denotes the fixedness of his thoughts, the firmness of his faith, and the fervour of his devout affections, in the duty. We must, in prayer, set God before us, an set ourselves as in his presence; to him we must direct our prayer and must look up. Probably, in token of his setting his face towards God, he did, as usual, set his face towards Jerusalem, to affect his own heart the more with the desolations of it. (2.) The mortification of his body in this prayer. In token of his deep humiliation before God for his own sins, and the sins of his people, and the sense he had of his unworthiness, when he prayed he fasted, put on sackcloth, and lay in ashes, the more to affect himself with the desolations of Jerusalem, which he was praying for the repair of, and to make himself sensible that he was now about an extraordinary work.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Daniel 9:1

In the first year of Darius — That is, immediately after the overthrow of the kingdom of Babylon, which was the year of the Jews deliverance from captivity. Of the Medes — This Darius was not Darius the Persian, under whom the temple was built, as some have asserted, to invalidate the credibility of this book; but Darius the Mede, who lived in the time of Daniel.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Daniel 9:1

In the first year of Darius the son of (a) Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the (b) realm of the Chaldeans;

(a) Who was also called Astyages.

(b) For Cyrus led with ambition, and went about wars in other countries, and therefore Darius had the title of the kingdom, even though Cyrus was king in effect.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 3466, bc 538


Daniel 1:21 And Daniel continued [even] unto the first year of king Cyrus.
Daniel 5:31 And Darius the Median took the kingdom, [being] about threescore and two years old.
Daniel 6:1 It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom an hundred and twenty princes, which should be over the whole kingdom;
Daniel 6:28 So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian.
Daniel 11:1 Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, [even] I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.

This was the Astyages of the heathen historians; as we learn from Tobit 14:15, where the taking of Nineveh is ascribed to Nebuchadnezzar and Assuerus, who were the same with Nabopolassar and Astyages.

or, in which he, etc
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Dn 1:21; 5:31; 6:1, 28; 11:1.

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