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Amos 8:5 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell grain? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and dealing falsely with balances of deceit;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— saying, “When will the new moon be over, So that we may sell grain, And the sabbath, that we may open the wheat [market], To make the bushel smaller and the shekel bigger, And to cheat with dishonest scales,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat? making the ephah small and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances for deceit:
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Who say, When will the new moon, pass away, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath that we may open grain? who diminish the ephah, and increase the shekel, and who falsify by deceitful weights:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Saying, When doth the new moon pass, And we sell ground corn? And the sabbath, and we open out pure corn? To make little the ephah, And to make great the shekel, And to use perversely balances of deceit.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Saying: When will the month be over, and we shall sell our wares: and the sabbath, and we shall open the corn: that we may lessen the measure, and increase the sicle, and may convey in deceitful balances,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Saying, When will the newe Moone be gone, that we may sell corne? and the Sabbath, that wee may set forth wheat, making the Ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— saying, When will the month pass away, and we shall sell, and the sabbath, and we shall open the treasure, to make the measure small, and to enlarge the weight, and make the balance unfair?
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Saying, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
When x4970
(4970) Complement
מָתַי
mathay
{maw-thah'ee}
From an unused root meaning to extend; properly extent (of time); but used only adverbially (especially with other particles prefixed), when (either relative or interrogitive).
will the new moon 2320
{2320} Prime
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
be gone, 5674
{5674} Prime
עָבַר
`abar
{aw-bar'}
A primitive root; to cross over; used very widely of any transition (literally or figuratively; transitively, intransitively, intensively or causatively); specifically to cover (in copulation).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
that we may sell 7666
{7666} Prime
שָׁבַר
shabar
{shaw-bar'}
Denominative from H7668; to deal in grain.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
corn? 7668
{7668} Prime
שֶׁבֶר
sheber
{sheh'-ber}
The same as H7667; grain (as if broken into kernels).
and the sabbath, 7676
{7676} Prime
שַׁבָּת
shabbath
{shab-bawth'}
Intensive from H7673; intermission, that is, (specifically) the Sabbath.
that we may set forth 6605
{6605} Prime
פָּתַח
pathach
{paw-thakh'}
A primitive root; to open wide (literally or figuratively); specifically to loosen, begin, plough, carve.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
wheat, 1250
{1250} Prime
בָּר
bar
{bawr}
From H1305 (in the sense of winnowing); grain of any kind (even while standing in the field); by extension the open country.
making the ephah y374
[0374] Standard
אֵיפָה
'eyphah
{ay-faw'}
Of Egyptian derivation; an ephah or measure for grain; hence a measure in general.
small, 6994
{6994} Prime
קָטֹן
qaton
{kaw-tone'}
A primitive root (rather denominative from H6996); to diminish, that is, be (causatively make) diminutive or (figuratively) of no account.
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
x374
(0374) Complement
אֵיפָה
'eyphah
{ay-faw'}
Of Egyptian derivation; an ephah or measure for grain; hence a measure in general.
and the shekel 8255
{8255} Prime
שֶׁקֶל
sheqel
{sheh'-kel}
From H8254; probably a weight; used as a commercial standard.
great, 1431
{1431} Prime
גָּדַל
gadal
{gaw-dal'}
A primitive root; properly to twist (compare H1434), that is, to be (causatively make) large (in various senses, as in body, mind, estate or honor, also in pride).
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
and falsifying 5791
{5791} Prime
עָוַת
`avath
{aw-vath'}
A primitive root; to wrest.
z8763
<8763> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 790
the balances 3976
{3976} Prime
מֹאזֵן
mo'zen
{mo-zane'}
From H0239; (only in the dual) a pair of scales.
by deceit? 4820
{4820} Prime
מִרְמָה
mirmah
{meer-maw'}
From H7411 in the sense of deceiving; fraud.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Amos 8:5

_ _ So greedy are they of unjust gain that they cannot spare a single day, however sacred, from pursuing it. They are strangers to God and enemies to themselves, who love market days better than sabbath days; and they who have lost piety will not long keep honesty. The new moons (Numbers 10:10) and sabbaths were to be kept without working or trading (Nehemiah 10:31).

_ _ set forth wheat — literally, “open out” stores of wheat for sale.

_ _ ephah — containing three seahs, or above three pecks.

_ _ making ... small — making it below the just weight to purchasers.

_ _ shekel great — taking from purchasers a greater weight of money than was due. Shekels used to be weighed out in payments (Genesis 23:16). Thus they committed a double fraud against the law (Deuteronomy 25:13, Deuteronomy 25:14).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Amos 8:4-10.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Amos 8:5

When — Ye that could wish there were nothing to interrupt your marketing, that look on solemn times of worship as burdensome, such was the first day of every month, and the weekly sabbath. Small — So the ephah being too little, the poor buyer had not his due. The shekel great — They weighed the money which they received, and had no more justice, than to make their shekel weight greater than the standard; so the poor were twice oppressed, had less than was their right, and paid more than they ought to pay.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Amos 8:5

Saying, When will the (d) new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making (e) the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?

(d) When the scarcity had come they were so greedy for gain, that they thought the holy day to be a hindrance to them.

(e) That is, the measure small, and the price great.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
When:

Numbers 10:10 Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I [am] the LORD your God.
Numbers 28:11-15 And in the beginnings of your months ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the LORD; two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot; ... And one kid of the goats for a sin offering unto the LORD shall be offered, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
2 Kings 4:23 And he said, Wherefore wilt thou go to him to day? [it is] neither new moon, nor sabbath. And she said, [It shall be] well.
Psalms 81:3-4 Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day. ... For this [was] a statute for Israel, [and] a law of the God of Jacob.
Isaiah 1:13 Bring no more vain oblations; incense is an abomination unto me; the new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with; [it is] iniquity, even the solemn meeting.
Colossians 2:16 Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath [days]:

new moon:
or, month

be gone:

Malachi 1:13 Ye said also, Behold, what a weariness [is it]! and ye have snuffed at it, saith the LORD of hosts; and ye brought [that which was] torn, and the lame, and the sick; thus ye brought an offering: should I accept this of your hand? saith the LORD.

and the:

Exodus 20:8-10 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. ... But the seventh day [is] the sabbath of the LORD thy God: [in it] thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that [is] within thy gates:
Nehemiah 13:15-21 In those days saw I in Judah [some] treading wine presses on the sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and lading asses; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all [manner of] burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the sabbath day: and I testified [against them] in the day wherein they sold victuals. ... Then I testified against them, and said unto them, Why lodge ye about the wall? if ye do [so] again, I will lay hands on you. From that time forth came they no [more] on the sabbath.
Isaiah 58:13 If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, [from] doing thy pleasure on my holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the LORD, honourable; and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking [thine own] words:
Romans 8:6-7 For to be carnally minded [is] death; but to be spiritually minded [is] life and peace. ... Because the carnal mind [is] enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.

set forth:
Heb. open

making:

Leviticus 19:36 Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall ye have: I [am] the LORD your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt.
Deuteronomy 25:13-16 Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers weights, a great and a small. ... For all that do such things, [and] all that do unrighteously, [are] an abomination unto the LORD thy God.
Proverbs 11:1 A false balance [is] abomination to the LORD: but a just weight [is] his delight.
Proverbs 16:11 A just weight and balance [are] the LORD'S: all the weights of the bag [are] his work.
Proverbs 20:23 Divers weights [are] an abomination unto the LORD; and a false balance [is] not good.
Ezekiel 45:10-12 Ye shall have just balances, and a just ephah, and a just bath. ... And the shekel [shall be] twenty gerahs: twenty shekels, five and twenty shekels, fifteen shekels, shall be your maneh.
Micah 6:10-11 Are there yet the treasures of wickedness in the house of the wicked, and the scant measure [that is] abominable? ... Shall I count [them] pure with the wicked balances, and with the bag of deceitful weights?

falsifying the balances by deceit:
Heb. perverting the balances of deceit,
Hosea 12:7 [He is] a merchant, the balances of deceit [are] in his hand: he loveth to oppress.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 20:8. Lv 19:36. Nu 10:10; 28:11. Dt 25:13. 2K 4:23. Ne 13:15. Ps 81:3. Pv 11:1; 16:11; 20:23. Is 1:13; 58:13. Ezk 45:10. Ho 12:7. Mi 6:10. Mal 1:13. Ro 8:6. Col 2:16.

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