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Acts 4:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And as they spake unto the people, the priests and the captain of the temple and the Sadducees came upon them,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And as they spake unto the people, the priests, and the captain of the temple, and the Sadducees, came upon them,
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— As they were speaking to the people, the priests and the captain of the temple [guard] and the Sadducees came up to them,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And as they were speaking to the people, the priests, and the captain of the temple, and the Sadducees came upon them,
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And as they were speaking to the people, the priests and captain of the temple and the Sadducees came upon them,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— But, as they were speaking unto the people, the High-priests and the Captain of the temple and the Sadducees came upon them,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And as they are speaking unto the people, there came to them the priests, and the magistrate of the temple, and the Sadducees—
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And as they were speaking to the people the priests and the officer of the temple and the Sadducees came upon them,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And as they spake vnto the people, the Priests and the captaine of the Temple, and the Sadduces came vpon them,
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— AND while they spake these words to the people, the priests, and Zadukoyee, and the governors of the temple, arose against them,
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And while they were speaking these words to the people, the priests and the Sadducees and the rulers of the temple rose up against them;

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
as they 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
spake 2980
{2980} Prime
λαλέω
laleo
{lal-eh'-o}
A prolonged form of an otherwise obsolete verb; to talk, that is, utter words.
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
unto 4314
{4314} Prime
πρός
pros
{pros}
A strengthened form of G4253; a preposition of direction; forward to, that is, toward (with the genitive case the side of, that is, pertaining to; with the dative case by the side of, that is, near to; usually with the accusative case the place, time, occasion, or respect, which is the destination of the relation, that is, whither or for which it is predicated).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
people, 2992
{2992} Prime
λαός
laos
{lah-os'}
Apparently a primary word; a people (in general; thus differing from G1218, which denotes one's own populace).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
priests, 2409
{2409} Prime
ἱερεύς
hiereus
{hee-er-yooce'}
From G2413; a priest (literally or figuratively).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
captain 4755
{4755} Prime
στρατηγός
strategos
{strat-ay-gos'}
From the base of G4756 and G0071 or G2233; a general, that is, (by implication or analogy) a (military) governor (praetor), the chief (praefect) of the (Levitical) temple wardens.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
temple, 2411
{2411} Prime
ἱερόν
hieron
{hee-er-on'}
Neuter of G2413; a sacred place, that is, the entire precincts (whereas G3485 denotes the central sanctuary itself) of the Temple (at Jerusalem or elsewhere).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
Sadducees, 4523
{4523} Prime
Σαδδουκαῖος
Saddoukaios
{sad-doo-kah'-yos}
Probably from G4524; a Sadducaean (that is, Tsadokian), or follower of a certain heretical Israelite.
came upon 2186
{2186} Prime
ἐφίστημι
ephistemi
{ef-is'-tay-mee}
From G1909 and G2476; to stand upon, that is, be present (in various applications, friendly or otherwise, usually literally).
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
them, 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Acts 4:1-12

_ _ Acts 4:1-13. Peter and John before the Sanhedrim.

_ _ the captain — of the Levitical guard.

_ _ of the temple — annoyed at the disturbance created around it.

_ _ and the Sadducees — who “say that there is no resurrection” (Acts 23:8), irritated at the apostles “preaching through (rather, ‘in’) Jesus the resurrection from the dead”; for the resurrection of Christ, if a fact, effectually overthrew the Sadducean doctrine.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Acts 4:1-4

_ _ We have here the interests of the kingdom of heaven successfully carried on, and the powers of darkness appearing against them to put a stop to them. let Christ's servants be ever so resolute, Satan's agents will be spiteful; and therefore, let Satan's agents be ever so spiteful, Christ's servants ought to be resolute.

_ _ I. The apostles, Peter and John, went on in their work, and did not labour in vain. The Spirit enabled the ministers to do their part, and the people theirs.

_ _ 1. The preachers faithfully deliver the doctrine of Christ: They spoke unto the people, to all that were within hearing, Acts 4:1. What they said concerned them all, and they spoke it openly and publicly. They taught the people, still taught the people knowledge; taught those that as yet did not believe, for their conviction and conversion; and taught those that did believe, for their comfort and establishment. They preached through Jesus the resurrection from the dead. The doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, (1.) Was verified in Jesus; this they proved, that Jesus Christ had risen from the dead, as the first, the chief, that should rise from the dead, Acts 26:23. They preached the resurrection of Christ as their warrant for what they did. Or, (2.) It is secured by him to all believers. The resurrection of the dead includes all the happiness of the future state. This they preached through Jesus Christ, attainable through him (Philippians 3:10, Philippians 3:11), and through him only. They meddled not with matters of state, but kept to their business, and preached to the people heaven as their end and Christ as their way. See Acts 17:18.

_ _ 2. The hearers cheerfully receive it (Acts 4:4): Many of those who heard the word believed; not all — perhaps not the most, yet many, to the number of about five thousand, over and above the three thousand we read of before. See how the gospel got ground, and it was the effect of the pouring out of the Spirit. Though the preachers were persecuted, the word prevailed; for sometimes the church's suffering days have been her growing days: the days of her infancy were so.

_ _ II. The chief priests and their party now made head against them, and did what they could to crush them; their hands were tied awhile, but their hearts were not in the least changed. Now here observe, 1. Who they were that appeared against the apostles. They were the priests; you may be sure, in the first place, they were always sworn enemies to Christ and his gospel; they were as jealous for their priesthood as Caesar for his monarchy, and would not bear one they thought their rival now, when he was preached as a priest, as much as when he himself preached as a prophet. With them was joined the captain of the temple, who, it is supposed, was a Roman officer, governor of the garrison placed in the tower of Antonia, for the guard of the temple: so that still here were both Jews and Gentiles confederate against Christ. The Sadducees also, who denied the being of spirits and the future state, were zealous against them. “One would wonder” (saith Mr. Baxter) “what should make such brutists as the Sadducees were to be such furious silencers and persecutors. If there is no life to come, what harm can other men's hopes of it do them? But in depraved souls all faculties are vitiated. A blind man has a malignant heart and a cruel hand, to this day.” 2. How they stood affected to the apostles' preaching: They were grieved that they taught the people, Acts 4:2. It grieved them, both that the gospel doctrine was preached (was so preached, so publicly, so boldly,), and that the people were so ready to hear it. They thought, when they had put Christ to such an ignominious death, his disciples would ever after be ashamed and afraid to own him, and the people would have invincible prejudices against his doctrine; and now it vexed them to see themselves disappointed, and that his gospel got ground, instead of losing it. The wicked shall see it, and be grieved, Psalms 112:10. They were grieved at that which they should have rejoiced in, at that which angels rejoice in. Miserable is their case to whom the glory of Christ's kingdom is a grief; for, since the glory of that kingdom is everlasting, it follows of course that their grief will be everlasting too. It grieved them that the apostles preached through Jesus the resurrection from the dead. The Sadducees were grieved that the resurrection from the dead was preached; for they opposed that doctrine, and could not bear to hear of a future state, to hear it so well attested. The chief priests were grieved that they preached the resurrection of the dead through Jesus, that he should have the honour of it; and, though they professed to believe the resurrection of the dead against the Sadducees, yet they would rather give up that important article than have it preached and proved to be through Jesus. 3. How far they proceeded against the apostles (Acts 4:3): They laid hands on them (that is, their servants and officers did at their command), and put them in hold, committed them to the custody of the proper officer until the next day; they could not examine them now, for it was even-tide, and yet would defer it no longer than till next day. See how God trains up his servants for sufferings by degrees, and by less trials prepares them for greater; now they resist unto bonds only, but afterwards to blood.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Acts 4:1

And as they were speaking to the people, the priests — came upon them — So wisely did God order, that they should first bear a full testimony to the truth in the temple, and then in the great council; to which they could have had no access, had they not been brought before it as criminals.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Acts 4:1

And (1) as they spake unto the people, the priests, and the (a) captain of the temple, and the Sadducees, came upon them,

(1) There are none more commonly diligent or bold enemies of the Church than those who profess themselves to be the chief builders of it, but the more they rage, the more steadfastly the faithful servants of God continue.

(a) The Jews had certain troops for the guard and safety of the temple and holy things (see (Matthew 26:47)). These garrisons had a captain, such as Eleazarus Ananias, the high Priest's son in the time of the war that was in Judea, being a very impudent and proud young man; Josephus, lib. 2, of the taking of Judea.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the priests:

Acts 4:6 And Annas the high priest, and Caiaphas, and John, and Alexander, and as many as were of the kindred of the high priest, were gathered together at Jerusalem.
Acts 6:7 And the word of God increased; and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly; and a great company of the priests were obedient to the faith.
Acts 6:12 And they stirred up the people, and the elders, and the scribes, and came upon [him], and caught him, and brought [him] to the council,
Matthew 26:3-4 Then assembled together the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the people, unto the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas, ... And consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty, and kill [him].
Matthew 27:1-2 When the morning was come, all the chief priests and elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: ... And when they had bound him, they led [him] away, and delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor.
Matthew 27:20 But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus.
Matthew 27:41 Likewise also the chief priests mocking [him], with the scribes and elders, said,
John 15:20 Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also.
John 18:3 Judas then, having received a band [of men] and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

the captain:
or, the ruler,
Acts 5:24 Now when the high priest and the captain of the temple and the chief priests heard these things, they doubted of them whereunto this would grow.
Acts 5:26 Then went the captain with the officers, and brought them without violence: for they feared the people, lest they should have been stoned.
2 Chronicles 23:4-9 This [is] the thing that ye shall do; A third part of you entering on the sabbath, of the priests and of the Levites, [shall be] porters of the doors; ... Moreover Jehoiada the priest delivered to the captains of hundreds spears, and bucklers, and shields, that [had been] king David's, which [were] in the house of God.
Luke 22:4 And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him unto them.

the Sadducees:

Acts 23:6-9 But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees, and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, Men [and] brethren, I am a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee: of the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question. ... And there arose a great cry: and the scribes [that were] of the Pharisees' part arose, and strove, saying, We find no evil in this man: but if a spirit or an angel hath spoken to him, let us not fight against God.
Matthew 16:12 Then understood they how that he bade [them] not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.
Matthew 22:16 And they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any [man]: for thou regardest not the person of men.
Matthew 22:23-24 The same day came to him the Sadducees, which say that there is no resurrection, and asked him, ... Saying, Master, Moses said, If a man die, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

2Ch 23:4. Mt 16:12; 22:16, 23; 26:3; 27:1, 20, 41. Lk 22:4. Jn 15:20; 18:3. Ac 4:6; 5:24, 26; 6:7, 12; 23:6.

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