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Acts 27:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And when it was determined that we should sail for Italy, they delivered Paul and certain other prisoners to a centurion named Julius, of the Augustan band.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And when it was determined that we should sail into Italy, they delivered Paul and certain other prisoners unto [one] named Julius, a centurion of Augustus' band.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— When it was decided that we would sail for Italy, they proceeded to deliver Paul and some other prisoners to a centurion of the Augustan cohort named Julius.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And when it was determined that we should sail into Italy, they delivered Paul and certain other prisoners to [one] named Julius, a centurion of Augustus' band.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— But when it had been determined that we should sail to Italy, they delivered up Paul and certain other prisoners to a centurion, by name Julius, of Augustus' company.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, when it was determined that we should sail for Italy, they proceeded to deliver Paul, and certain other prisoners, unto a centurion by name Julius, of an Augustan band.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And when our sailing to Italy was determined, they were delivering up both Paul and certain others, prisoners, to a centurion, by name Julius, of the band of Sebastus,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And when it was determined that he should sail into Italy and that Paul, with the other prisoners, should be delivered to a centurion, named Julius, of the band Augusta,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And when it was determined, that wee should saile into Italy, they deliuered Paul, & certaine other prisoners, vnto one named Iulius, a centurion of Augustus band.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— And Festos commanded concerning him that he should be sent unto Caesar in Italia. And he delivered Paulos, and other prisoners with him, to a certain man, a centurion of the band of Sebaste, whose name was Julios.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And Festus commanded, respecting him, that he should be sent to Italy, unto Caesar. And he delivered Paul, and other prisoners with him, to a certain man, a centurion of the Augustan cohort, whose name was Julius.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
when 5613
{5613} Prime
ὡς
hos
{hoce}
Probably adverb of comparative from G3739; which how, that is, in that manner (very variously used as shown).
it was determined y2919
[2919] Standard
κρίνω
krino
{kree'-no}
Properly to distinguish, that is, decide (mentally or judicially); by implication to try, condemn, punish.
z5681
<5681> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 602
x2912
(2912) Complement
Κρής
Kres
{krace}
From G2914; a Cretan, that is, inhabitant of Crete.
that we 2248
{2248} Prime
ἡμᾶς
hemas
{hay-mas'}
Accusative plural of G1473; us.
should sail 636
{0636} Prime
ἀποπλέω
apopleo
{ap-op-leh'-o}
From G0575 and G4126; to set sail.
z5721
<5721> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Infinitive (See G5795)
Count - 647
into 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
Italy, 2482
{2482} Prime
Ἰταλία
Italia
{ee-tal-ee'-ah}
Probably of foreign origin; Italia, a region of Europe.
they delivered 3860
{3860} Prime
παραδίδωμι
paradidomi
{par-ad-id'-o-mee}
From G3844 and G1325; to surrender, that is, yield up, intrust, transmit.
5037
{5037} Prime
τέ
te
{teh}
A primary particle (enclitic) of connection or addition; both or also (properly as a correlation of G2532).
z5707
<5707> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 855
Paul 3972
{3972} Prime
Παῦλος
Paulos
{pow'-los}
Of Latin origin; (little; but remotely from a derivative of G3973, meaning the same); Paulus, the name of a Roman and of an apostle.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
certain 5100
{5100} Prime
τὶς
tis
{tis}
An enclitic indefinite pronoun; some or any person or object.
other 2087
{2087} Prime
ἕτερος
heteros
{het'-er-os}
Of uncertain affinity; (an-, the) other or different.
prisoners 1202
{1202} Prime
δεσμώτης
desmotes
{des-mo'-tace}
From the same as G1201; (passively) a captive.
unto [one] named 3686
{3686} Prime
ὄνομα
onoma
{on'-om-ah}
From a presumed derivative of the base of G1097 (compare G3685); a 'name' (literally or figuratively), (authority, character).
Julius, 2457
{2457} Prime
Ἰούλιος
Ioulios
{ee-oo'-lee-os}
Of Latin origin; Julius, a centurion.
a centurion 1543
{1543} Prime
ἑκατοντάρχης
hekatontarches
{hek-at-on-tar'-khace}
From G1540 and G0757; the captain of one hundred men.
of Augustus' 4575
{4575} Prime
σεβαστός
sebastos
{seb-as-tos'}
From G4573; venerable (august), that is, (as noun) a title of the Roman Emperor, or (as adjective) imperial.
band. 4686
{4686} Prime
σπεῖρα
speira
{spi'-rah}
Of immediate Latin origin, but ultimately a derivative of G0138 in the sense of its cognate, G1507; a coil (spira, 'spire'), that is, (figuratively) a mass of men (a Roman military cohort; also [by analogy] a squad of Levitical janitors).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Acts 27:1

_ _ Acts 27:1-44. The voyage to Italy — The shipwreck and safe landing at Malta.

_ _ we should sail, etc. — The “we” here reintroduces the historian as one of the company. Not that he had left the apostle from the time when he last included himself (Acts 21:18), but the apostle was parted from him by his arrest and imprisonment, until now, when they met in the ship.

_ _ delivered Paul and certain other prisoners — State prisoners going to be tried at Rome; of which several instances are on record.

_ _ Julius — who treats the apostle throughout with such marked courtesy (Acts 27:3, Acts 27:43; Acts 28:16), that it has been thought [Bengel] he was present when Paul made his defense before Agrippa (see Acts 25:23), and was impressed with his lofty bearing.

_ _ a centurion of Augustus’ band — the Augustan cohort, an honorary title given to more than one legion of the Roman army, implying, perhaps, that they acted as a bodyguard to the emperor or procurator, as occasion required.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Acts 27:1-11

_ _ It does not appear how long it was after Paul's conference with Agrippa that he was sent away for Rome, pursuant to his appeal to Caesar; but it is likely they took the first convenience they could hear of to do it; in the mean time Paul is in the midst of his friends at Caesarea — they comforts to him, and he a blessing to them. But here we are told,

_ _ I. How Paul was shipped off for Italy: a long voyage, but there is no remedy. He has appealed to Caesar, and to Caesar he must go: It was determined that we should sail into Italy, for to Rome they must go by sea; it would have been a vast way about to go by land. Hence, when the Roman conquest of the Jewish nation is foretold, it is said (Numbers 24:24), Ships shall come from Chittim, that is, Italy, and shall afflict Eber, that is, the Hebrews. It was determined by the counsel of God, before it was determined by the counsel of Festus, that Paul should go to Rome; for, whatever man intended, God had work for him to do there. Now here we are told, 1. Whose custody he was committed to — to one named Julius, a centurion of Augustus's band, as Cornelius was of the Italian band, or legion, Acts 10:1. He had soldiers under him, who were a guard upon Paul, that he might not make his escape, and likewise to protect him, that he might have no mischief done him. 2. What bottom he embarked in: they went on board a ship of Adramyttium (Acts 27:2), a sea-port of Africa, whence this ship brought African goods, and, as it should seem, made a coasting voyage for Syria, where those goods came to a good market. 3. What company he had in this voyage, there were some prisoners who were committed to the custody of the same centurion, and who probably had appealed to Caesar too, or were upon some other account removed to Rome, to be tried there, or to be examined as witnesses against some prisoners there; perhaps some notorious offenders, like Barabbas, who were therefore ordered to be brought before the emperor himself. Paul was linked with these, as Christ with the thieves that were crucified with him, and was obliged to take his lot with them in this voyage; and we find in this chapter (Acts 27:42) that for their sakes he had like to have been killed, but for his sake they were preserved. Note, It is no new thing for the innocent to be numbered among the transgressors. But he had also some of his friends with him, Luke particularly, the penman of this book, for he puts himself in all along, We sailed into Italy, and, We launched, v. 2. Aristarchus a Thessalonian is particularly named, as being now in his company. Dr. Lightfoot thinks that Trophimus the Ephesian went off with him, but that he left him sick at Miletum (2 Timothy 4:20), when he passed by those coasts of Asia mentioned here (v. 2), and that there likewise he left Timothy. It was a comfort to Paul to have the society of some of his friends in this tedious voyage, with whom he might converse freely, though he had so much loose profane company about him. Those that go long voyages at sea are commonly necessitated to sojourn, as it were, in Mesech and Kedar, and have need of wisdom, that they may do good to the bad company they are in, may make them better, or at lest be made never the worse by them.

_ _ II. What course they steered, and what places they touched at, which are particularly recorded for the confirming of the truth of the history to those who lived at that time, and could by their own knowledge tell of their being at such and such a place. 1. They touched at Sidon, not far off from where they went on board; thither they came the next day. And that which is observable here is, that Julius the centurion was extraordinarily civil to Paul. It is probable that he knew his case, and was one of the chief captains, or principal men, that heard him plead his own cause before Agrippa (Acts 25:23), and was convinced of his innocency, and the injury done him; and therefore, though Paul was committed to him as a prisoner, he treated him as a friend, as a scholar, as a gentleman, and as a man that had an interest in heaven: He gave him liberty, while the business of the ship detained it at Sidon, to go among his friends there, to refresh himself; and it would be a great refreshment to him. Julius herein gives an example to those in power to be respectful to those whom they find worthy of their respect, and in using their power to make a difference. A Joseph, a Paul, are not to be used as common prisoners. God herein encourages those that suffer for him to trust in him; for he can put it into the hearts of those to befriend them from whom they least expect it — can cause them to be pitied, nay, can cause them to be prized and valued, even in the eyes of those that carry them captive, Psalms 106:46. And it is likewise an instance of Paul's fidelity. He did not go about to make his escape, which he might have easily done; but, being out upon his parole of honour, he faithfully returns to his imprisonment. If the centurion is so civil as to take his word, he is so just and honest as to keep his word. 2. They thence sailed under Cyprus, Acts 27:4. If the wind had been fair, they had gone forward by direct sailing, and had left Cyprus on the right hand; but, the wind not favouring them, they were driven to oblique sailing with a side wind, and so compassed the island, in a manner, and left it on the left hand. Sailors must do as they can, when they cannot do as they would, and make the best of their wind, whatever point it is in; so must we all in our passage over the ocean of this world. When the winds are contrary yet we must be getting forward as well as we can. 3. At a port called Myra they changed their ship; that which they were in, it is probable, having business no further, they went on board a vessel of Alexandria bound for Italy, Acts 27:5, Acts 27:6. Alexandria was now the chief city of Egypt, and great trading there was between that city and Italy; from Alexandria they carried corn to Rome, and the East-India goods and Persian which they imported at the Red Sea they exported again to all parts of the Mediterranean, and especially to Italy. And it was a particular favour shown to the Alexandrian ships in the ports of Italy that they were not obliged to strike sail, as other ships were, when they came into port. 4. With much ado they made The Fair Havens, a port of the island of Crete, Acts 27:7, Acts 27:8. They sailed slowly many days, being becalmed, or having the wind against them. It was a great while before they made the point of Cnidus, a port of Caria, and were forced to sail under Crete, as before under Cyprus; much difficulty they met with in passing by Salmone, a promontory on the eastern shore of the island of Crete. Though the voyage hitherto was not tempestuous, yet it was very tedious. They many that are not driven backward in their affairs by cross providences, yet sail slowly, and do not get forward by favourable providences. And many good Christians make this complaint in the concerns of their souls, that they do not rid ground in their way of heaven, but have much ado to keep their ground; they move with many stops and pauses, and lie a great while wind-bound. Observe, The place they came to was called The Fair Havens. Travellers say that it is known to this day by the same name, and that it answers the name from the pleasantness of its situation and prospect. And yet, (1.) It was not the harbour they were bound for; it was a fair haven, but it was not their haven. Whatever agreeable circumstances we may be in in this world, we must remember we are not at home, and therefore we must arise and depart; for, though it be a fair haven, it is not the desired haven, Psalms 107:30. (2.) It was not a commodious haven to winter in, so it is said, Acts 27:12. It had a fine prospect, but it lay exposed to the weather. Note, Every fair haven is not a safe haven; nay, there may be most danger where there is most pleasure.

_ _ III. What advice Paul gave them with reference to that part of their voyage they had before them — it was to be content to winter where they were, and not to think of stirring till a better season of the year. 1. It was now a bad time for sailing; they had lost a deal of time while they were struggling with contrary winds. Sailing was now dangerous, because the fast was already past, that is, the famous yearly fast of the Jews, the day of atonement, which was on the tenth day of the seventh month, a day to afflict the soul with fasting; it was about the 20th of our September. That yearly fast was very religiously observed; but (which is strange) we never have any mention made in all the scripture history of the observance of it, unless it be meant here, where it serves only to describe the season of the year. Michaelmas is reckoned by mariners as a bad time of the year to be at sea as any other; they complain of their Michaelmas-blasts; it was that time now with these distressed voyagers. The harvest was past, the summer was ended; they had not only lost time, but lost the opportunity. 2. Paul put them in mind of it, and gave them notice of their danger (Acts 27:10): “I perceive” (either by notice from God, or by observing their wilful resolution to prosecute the voyage notwithstanding the peril of the season) “that this voyage will be with hurt and damage; you that have effects on board are likely to lose them, and it will be a miracle of mercy if our lives be given us for a prey.” There were some good men in the ship, and many more bad men: but in things of this nature all things come alike to all, and there is one event to the righteous and to the wicked. If both be in the same ship, they both are in the same danger. 3. They would not be advised by Paul in this matter, Acts 27:11. They thought him impertinent in interposing in an affair of this nature, who did not understand navigation; and the centurion to whom it was referred to determine it, though himself a passenger, yet, being a man in authority, takes upon him to overrule, though he had not been oftener at sea perhaps than Paul, nor was better acquainted with these seas, for Paul had planted the gospel in Crete (Titus 1:5), and knew the several parts of the island well enough. But the centurion gave more regard to the opinion of the master and owner of the ship than to Paul's; for every man is to be credited in his own profession ordinarily: but such a man as Paul, who was so intimate with Heaven, was rather to be regarded in seafaring matters than the most celebrated sailors. Note, Those know not what dangers they run themselves into who will be governed more by human prudence than by divine revelation. The centurion was very civil to Paul (Acts 27:3), and yet would not be governed by his advice. Note, Many will show respect to good ministers that will not take their advice, Ezekiel 33:31.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Acts 27:1

As soon as it was determined to sail — As being a shorter and less expensive passage to Rome.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Acts 27:1

And (1) when it was determined that we should sail into Italy, they delivered Paul and certain other prisoners unto [one] named Julius, a centurion of Augustus' band.

(1) Paul, with many other prisoners and through the midst of many deaths, is brought to Rome, but yet by God's own hand as it were, and set forth and commended to the world with many singular testimonies.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
when:

Acts 19:21 After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.
Acts 23:11 And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.
Acts 25:12 Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Caesar? unto Caesar shalt thou go.
Acts 25:25 But when I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, and that he himself hath appealed to Augustus, I have determined to send him.
Genesis 50:20 But as for you, ye thought evil against me; [but] God meant it unto good, to bring to pass, as [it is] this day, to save much people alive.
Psalms 33:11 The counsel of the LORD standeth for ever, the thoughts of his heart to all generations.
Psalms 76:10 Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee: the remainder of wrath shalt thou restrain.
Proverbs 19:21 [There are] many devices in a man's heart; nevertheless the counsel of the LORD, that shall stand.
Lamentations 3:27 [It is] good for a man that he bear the yoke in his youth.
Daniel 4:35 And all the inhabitants of the earth [are] reputed as nothing: and he doeth according to his will in the army of heaven, and [among] the inhabitants of the earth: and none can stay his hand, or say unto him, What doest thou?
Romans 15:22-29 For which cause also I have been much hindered from coming to you. ... And I am sure that, when I come unto you, I shall come in the fulness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ.

Italy:
Italy is a well-known country of Europe, bounded by the Adriatic or Venetian Gulf on the east, the Tyrrhene or Tuscan Sea on the west, and by the Alps on the north.
Acts 10:1 There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian [band],
Acts 18:2 And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.
Hebrews 13:24 Salute all them that have the rule over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you.

a centurion:

Acts 27:11 Nevertheless the centurion believed the master and the owner of the ship, more than those things which were spoken by Paul.
Acts 27:43 But the centurion, willing to save Paul, kept them from [their] purpose; and commanded that they which could swim should cast [themselves] first [into the sea], and get to land:
Acts 10:22 And they said, Cornelius the centurion, a just man, and one that feareth God, and of good report among all the nation of the Jews, was warned from God by an holy angel to send for thee into his house, and to hear words of thee.
Acts 21:32 Who immediately took soldiers and centurions, and ran down unto them: and when they saw the chief captain and the soldiers, they left beating of Paul.
Acts 22:26 When the centurion heard [that], he went and told the chief captain, saying, Take heed what thou doest: for this man is a Roman.
Acts 23:17 Then Paul called one of the centurions unto [him], and said, Bring this young man unto the chief captain: for he hath a certain thing to tell him.
Acts 24:23 And he commanded a centurion to keep Paul, and to let [him] have liberty, and that he should forbid none of his acquaintance to minister or come unto him.
Acts 28:16 And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him.
Matthew 8:5-10 And when Jesus was entered into Capernaum, there came unto him a centurion, beseeching him, ... When Jesus heard [it], he marvelled, and said to them that followed, Verily I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel.
Matthew 27:54 Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God.
Luke 7:2 And a certain centurion's servant, who was dear unto him, was sick, and ready to die.
Luke 23:47 Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man.

Augustus':

Acts 25:25 But when I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, and that he himself hath appealed to Augustus, I have determined to send him.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 50:20. Ps 33:11; 76:10. Pv 19:21. Lm 3:27. Dn 4:35. Mt 8:5; 27:54. Lk 7:2; 23:47. Ac 10:1, 22; 18:2; 19:21; 21:32; 22:26; 23:11, 17; 24:23; 25:12, 25; 27:11, 43; 28:16. Ro 15:22. He 13:24.

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