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2 Samuel 8:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And after this it came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them: and David took the bridle of the mother city out of the hand of the Philistines.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And after this it came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them: and David took Methegammah out of the hand of the Philistines.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now after this it came about that David defeated the Philistines and subdued them; and David took control of the chief city from the hand of the Philistines.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And after this it came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them: and David took Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the Philistines.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And after this it came to pass that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them; and David took the power of the capital out of the hand of the Philistines.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And it came to pass, after this, that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them,—and David took the bridle of the metropolis, out of the hand of the Philistines.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass afterwards that David smiteth the Philistines, and humbleth them, and David taketh the bridle of the metropolis out of the hand of the Philistines.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And it came to pass after this that David defeated the Philistines, and brought them down, and David took the bridle of tribute out of the hand of the Philistines,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And after this it came to passe, that Dauid smote the Philistines, and subdued them: and Dauid tooke Metheg-Ammah out of the hand of the Philistines.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it came to pass after this, that David smote the Philistines, and put them to flight, and David took the tribute from out of the hand of the Philistines.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And after this it came to pass, that Dawid smote the Pelishtim, and subdued them: and Dawid took Metheg Ammah out of the hand of the Pelishtim.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And after 310
{0310} Prime
אַחַר
'achar
{akh-ar'}
From H0309; properly the hind part; generally used as an adverb or conjugation, after (in various senses).
this x3651
(3651) Complement
כֵּן
ken
{kane}
From H3559; properly set upright; hence (figuratively as adjective) just; but usually (as adverb or conjugation) rightly or so (in various applications to manner, time and relation; often with other particles).
it came to pass, x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
that Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
smote 5221
{5221} Prime
נָכָה
nakah
{naw-kaw'}
A primitive root; to strike (lightly or severely, literally or figuratively).
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the Plitm פְּלִשׁתִּים, 6430
{6430} Prime
פְּלִשְׁתִּי
P@lishtiy
{pel-ish-tee'}
Patrial from H6429; a Pelishtite or inhabitant of Pelesheth.
and subdued 3665
{3665} Prime
כָּנַע
kana`
{kaw-nah'}
A primitive root; properly to bend the knee; hence to humiliate, vanquish.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
them: and Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
took 3947
{3947} Prime
לָקַח
laqach
{law-kakh'}
A primitive root; to take (in the widest variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Meeq Amm מֶתֶג־אַמָּה 4965
{4965} Prime
מֶתֶג הָאַמָּה
Metheg ha-'Ammah
{meh'-theg haw-am-maw'}
From H4964 and H0520 with the article interposed; bit of the metropolis; Metheg-ha-Ammah, an epithet of Gath.
out of the hand 3027
{3027} Prime
יָד
yad
{yawd}
A primitive word; a hand (the open one (indicating power, means, direction, etc.), in distinction from H3709, the closed one); used (as noun, adverb, etc.) in a great variety of applications, both literally and figuratively, both proximate and remote.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
of the Plitm פְּלִשׁתִּים. 6430
{6430} Prime
פְּלִשְׁתִּי
P@lishtiy
{pel-ish-tee'}
Patrial from H6429; a Pelishtite or inhabitant of Pelesheth.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Samuel 8:1

_ _ 2 Samuel 8:1, 2 Samuel 8:2. David subdues the Philistines, and makes the Moabites tributary.

_ _ David took Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the Philistines — that is, Gath and her suburban towns (1 Chronicles 18:1). That town had been “a bridle” by which the Philistines kept the people of Judah in check. David used it now as a barrier to repress that restless enemy.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Samuel 8:1-8

_ _ God had given David rest from all his enemies that opposed him and made head against him; and he having made a good use of that rest, has now commission given him to make war upon them, and to act offensively for the avenging of Israel's quarrels and the recovery of their rights; for as yet they were not in full possession of that country to which by the promise of God they were entitled.

_ _ I. He quite subdued the Philistines, 2 Samuel 8:1. They had attacked him when they thought him weak (2 Samuel 5:17), and went by the worst then; but, when he found himself strong, he attacked them, and made himself master of their country. They had long been vexatious and oppressive to Israel. Saul got no ground against them; but David completed Israel's deliverance out of their hands, which Samson had begun long before, Judges 13:5. Metheg-ammah was Gath (the chief and royal city of the Philistines) and the towns belonging to it, among which there was a constant garrison kept by the Philistines on the hill Ammah (2 Samuel 2:24), which was Metheg, a bridle (so it signifies) or curb upon the people of Israel; this David took out of their hand and used it as a curb upon them. Thus, when the strong man is disarmed, the armour wherein he trusted is taken from him, and used against him, Luke 11:22. And after the long and frequent struggles which the saints have had with the powers of darkness, like Israel with the Philistines, the Son of David shall tread them all under their feet and make the saints more than conquerors.

_ _ II. He smote the Moabites, and made them tributaries to Israel, 2 Samuel 8:2. He divided the country into three parts, two of which he destroyed, casting down the strong-holds, and putting all to the sword; the third part he spared, to till the ground and be servants to Israel. Dr. Lightfoot says, “He laid them on the ground and measured them with a cord, who should be slain and who should live;” and this is called meting out the valley of Succoth, Psalms 60:6. The Jews say he used this severity with the Moabites because they had slain his parents and brethren, whom he put under the protection of the king of Moab during his exile, 1 Samuel 22:3, 1 Samuel 22:4. He did it in justice, because they had been dangerous enemies to the Israel of God; and in policy, because, if left in their strength, they still would have been so. But observe, Though it was necessary that two-thirds should be cut off, yet the line that was to keep alive, though it was but one, is ordered to be a full line. Be sure to give that length enough; let the line of mercy be stretched to the utmost in favorem vitaeso as to favour life. Acts of indemnity must be construed so as to enlarge the favour. Now Balaam's prophecy was fulfilled, A sceptre shall arise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, to the utmost of which the fatal line extended, Numbers 24:17. The Moabites continued tributaries to Israel till after the death of Ahab, 2 Kings 3:4, 2 Kings 3:5. Then they rebelled and were never reduced.

_ _ III. He smote the Syrians or Aramites. Of them there were two distinct kingdoms, as we find them spoken of in the title of the 60th Psalm: Aram Naharaim,Syria of the rivers, whose head city was Damascus (famed for its rivers, 2 Kings 5:12), and Aram Zobah, which joined to it, but extended to Euphrates. These were the two northern crowns. 1. David began with the Syrians of Zobah, 2 Samuel 8:3, 2 Samuel 8:4. As he went to settle his border at the river Euphrates (for so far the land conveyed by the divine grant to Abraham and his seed did extend, Genesis 15:18), the king of Zobah opposed him, being himself possessed of those countries which belonged to Israel; but David routed his forces, and took his chariots and horsemen. The horsemen are here said to be 700, but 1 Chronicles 18:4 they are said to be 7000. If they divided their horse by ten in a company, as it is probable they did, the captains and companies were 700, but the horsemen were 7000. David houghed the horses, cut the sinews of their hams, and so lamed them, and made them unserviceable, at least in war, God having forbidden them to multiply horses, Deuteronomy 17:16. David reserved only 100 chariots out of 1000 for his own use: for he placed his strength not in chariots nor horses, but in the living God (Psalms 20:7), and wrote it from his own observation that a horse is a vain thing for safety, Psalms 33:16, Psalms 33:17. 2. The Syrians of Damascus coming in to the relief of the king of Zobah fell with him. 22,000 were slain in the field, 2 Samuel 8:5. So that it was easy for David to make himself master of the country, and garrison it for himself, 2 Samuel 8:6. The enemies of God's church, that think to secure themselves, will prove, in the end, to ruin themselves, by their confederacies with each other. Associate yourselves, and you shall be broken in pieces, Isaiah 8:9.

_ _ IV. In all these wars, 1. David was protected: The Lord preserved him whithersoever he went. It seems, he went in person, and, in the cause of God and Israel, jeoparded his own life in the high places of the field; but God covered his head in the day of battle, which he often speaks of, in his psalms, to the glory of God. 2. He was enriched. He took the shields of gold which the servants of Hadadezer had in their custody (2 Samuel 8:7) and much brass from several cities of Syria (2 Samuel 8:8), which he was entitled to, not only jure belliby the uncontrollable right of the longest sword (“Get it, and take it”); but by commission from heaven, and the ancient entail of these countries on the seed of Abraham.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Samuel 8:1

And David took — Gath and her towns, as it is expressed in the parallel place, 1 Chronicles 18:1. Which are called Metheg — ammah, or the bridle of Ammah, Gath was situate in the mountain of Ammah; and because this being the chief city of the Philistines, and having a king, which none of the rest had, was the bridle which had hitherto kept the Israelites in subjection.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

2 Samuel 8:1

And after this it came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them: and David took Methegammah out of the (a) hand of the Philistines.

(a) So that they paid no more tribute.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 2964, bc 1040, An, Ex, Is, 451

And after:

2 Samuel 7:9 And I was with thee whithersoever thou wentest, and have cut off all thine enemies out of thy sight, and have made thee a great name, like unto the name of the great [men] that [are] in the earth.
2 Samuel 21:15-22 Moreover the Philistines had yet war again with Israel; and David went down, and his servants with him, and fought against the Philistines: and David waxed faint. ... These four were born to the giant in Gath, and fell by the hand of David, and by the hand of his servants.

Methegammah:
or, the bridle of Ammah,
2 Samuel 2:24 Joab also and Abishai pursued after Abner: and the sun went down when they were come to the hill of Ammah, that [lieth] before Giah by the way of the wilderness of Gibeon.
1 Chronicles 18:1-17 Now after this it came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them, and took Gath and her towns out of the hand of the Philistines. ... And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada [was] over the Cherethites and the Pelethites; and the sons of David [were] chief about the king.
, Gath, In the parallel passage of Chronicles, we read, "David took Gath and her towns;" and it is probable, that Gath and its districts were called Metheg-ammah in David's time; which, being unusual or becoming obsolete, in the time of the author of the Chronicles, led him thus to explain it.
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2S 2:24; 7:9; 21:15. 1Ch 18:1.

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