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2 Samuel 3:7 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now Saul had a concubine, whose name was Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah: and [Ish-bosheth] said to Abner, Wherefore hast thou gone in unto my father's concubine?
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And Saul had a concubine, whose name [was] Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah: and [Ishbosheth] said to Abner, Wherefore hast thou gone in unto my father's concubine?
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now Saul had a concubine whose name was Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah; and Ish-bosheth said to Abner, “Why have you gone in to my father’s concubine?”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And Saul had a concubine, whose name [was] Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah: and [Ish-bosheth] said to Abner, Why hast thou gone in to my father's concubine?
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Saul had a concubine whose name was Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah. And [Ishbosheth] said to Abner, Why hast thou gone in to my father's concubine?
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, Saul, had a concubine, whose name, was Rizpah daughter of Aiah,—and [Ish-bosheth] said unto Abner, Why, wentest thou in, unto my father's concubine?
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and Saul hath a concubine, and her name [is] Rizpah daughter of Aiah, and [Ish-Bosheth] saith unto Abner, 'Wherefore hast thou gone in unto the concubine of my father?'
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And Saul had a concubine named Respha, the daughter of Aia. And Isboseth said to Abner:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Saul had a concubine, whose name [was] Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah: and [Ishbosheth] saide to Abner, Wherefore hast thou gone in vnto my fathers concubine?
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Saul had a concubine, Respha, the daughter of Jol; and Ishbosheth{gr.Jebosthe} the son of Saul said to Abner{gr.Abenner}, Why hast thou gone in to my father's concubine?
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Shaul had a concubine, whose name [was] Ritzpah, the daughter of Ayyah: and [Ish Bosheth] said to Avner, Wherefore hast thou gone in unto my father's concubine?

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And l שָׁאוּל 7586
{7586} Prime
Passive participle of H7592; asked; Shaul, the name of an Edomite and two Israelites.
had a concubine, 6370
{6370} Prime
Of uncertain derivation; a concubine; also (masculine) a paramour.
whose name 8034
{8034} Prime
A primitive word (perhaps rather from H7760 through the idea of definite and conspicuous position; compare H8064); an appellation, as a mark or memorial of individuality; by implication honor, authority, character.
[was] Rixp רִצפָּה, 7532
{7532} Prime
The same as H7531; Ritspah, an Israelitess.
the daughter 1323
{1323} Prime
From H1129 (as feminine of H1121); a daughter (used in the same wide sense as other terms of relationship, literally and figuratively).
of Ayy אַיָּה: 345
{0345} Prime
The same as H0344; Ajah, the name of two Israelites.
and [Κ Be אִישׁ־בֹּשֶׁת] said 559
{0559} Prime
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to x413
(0413) Complement
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
Avnr אַבנֵר, 74
{0074} Prime
From H0001 and H5216; father of light (that is, enlightening); Abner, an Israelite.
Wherefore x4069
(4069) Complement
From H4100 and the passive participle of H3045; what (is) known?; that is, (by implication), (adverbially) why?.
hast thou gone x935
(0935) Complement
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
in y935
[0935] Standard
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
unto x413
(0413) Complement
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
my father's 1
{0001} Prime
A primitive word; father in a literal and immediate, or figurative and remote application.
concubine? 6370
{6370} Prime
Of uncertain derivation; a concubine; also (masculine) a paramour.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

See commentary on 2 Samuel 3:6-11.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Samuel 3:7-21

_ _ Here, I. Abner breaks with Ish-bosheth, and deserts his interest, upon a little provocation which Ish-bosheth unadvisedly gave him. God can serve his own purposes by the sins and follies of men. 1. Ish-bosheth accused Abner of no less a crime than debauching one of his father's concubines, 2 Samuel 3:7. Whether it was so or no does not appear, nor what ground he had for the suspicion: but, however it was, it would have been Ish-bosheth's prudence to be silent, considering how much it was his interest not to disoblige Abner. If the thing was false, and his jealousy groundless, it was very disingenuous and ungrateful to entertain unjust surmises of one who had ventured his all for him, and was certainly the best friend he had in the world. 2. Abner resented the charge very strongly. Whether he was guilty of the fault concerning this woman or no he does not say (2 Samuel 3:8), but we suspect he was guilty, for he does not expressly deny it; and, though he was, he lets Ish-bosheth know, (1.) That he scorned to be reproached with it by him, and would not take reproof at his hands. “What!” says Abner, “Am I a dog's head, a vile and contemptible animal, that thou exposest me thus? 2 Samuel 3:8. Is this my recompence for the kindness I have shown to thee and thy father's house, and the good services I have done you?” He magnifies the service with this, that it was against Judah, the tribe on which the crown was settled, and which would certainly have it at last, so that, in supporting the house of Saul, he acted both against his conscience and against his interest, for which he deserved a better requital than this: and yet, perhaps, he would not have been so zealous for the house of Saul if he had not thereby gratified his own ambition and hoped to find his own account in it. Note, Proud men will not bear to be reproved, especially by those whom they think they have obliged. (2.) That he would certainly be revenged on him, 2 Samuel 3:9, 2 Samuel 3:10. With the utmost degree of arrogance and insolence he lets him know that, as he had raised him up, so he could pull him down again and would do it. He knew that God had sworn to David to give him the kingdom, and yet opposed it with all his might from a principle of ambition; but now he complies with it from a principle of revenge, under colour of some regard to the will of God, which was but a pretence. Those that are slaves to their lusts have many masters, which drive, some one way and some another, and, according as they make head, men are violently hurried into self-contradictions. Abner's ambition made him zealous for Ish-bosheth, and now his revenge made him as zealous for David. If he had sincerely regarded God's promise to David, and acted with an eye to that, he would have been steady and uniform in his counsels, and acted in consistency with himself. But, while Abner serves his own lusts, God by him serves his own purposes, makes even his wrath and revenge to praise him, and ordains strength to David by it. Lastly, See how Ish-bosheth was thunder-struck by Abner's insolence: He could not answer him again, 2 Samuel 3:11. If Ish-bosheth had had the spirit of a man, especially of a prince, he might have answered him that his merits were the aggravation of his crimes, that he would not be served by so base a man, and doubted not but to do well enough without him. But he was conscious to himself of his own weakness, and therefore said not a word, lest he should make bad worse. His heart failed him, and he now became, as David had foretold concerning his enemies, like a bowing wall and a tottering fence, Psalms 62:3.

_ _ II. Abner treats with David. We must suppose that he began to grow weary of Ish-bosheth's cause, and sought an opportunity to desert it, or else, however he might threaten Ish-bosheth with it, for the quashing of the charge against himself, he would not have made good his angry words so soon as he did, 2 Samuel 3:12. He sent messengers to David, to tell him that he was at his service. “Whose is the land? Is it not thine? For thou hast the best title to the government and the best interest in the people's affections.” Note, God can find out ways to make those serviceable to the kingdom of Christ who yet have no sincere affection for it and who have vigorously set themselves against it. Enemies are sometimes made a footstool, not only to be trodden upon, but to ascend by. The earth helped the woman.

_ _ III. David enters into a treaty with Abner, but upon condition that he shall procure him the restitution of Michal his wife, 2 Samuel 3:13. Hereby, 1. David showed the sincerity of his conjugal affection to his first and most rightful wife; neither her marrying another, nor his, had alienated him from her. Many waters could not quench that love. 2. He testified his respect to the house of Saul. So far was he from trampling upon it, now that it was fallen, that even in his elevation he valued himself not a little on his relation to it. He cannot be pleased with the honours of the throne unless he have Michal, Saul's daughter, to share with him in them, so far is he from bearing any malice to the family of his enemy. Abner sent him word that he must apply to Ish-bosheth, which he did (2 Samuel 3:14), pleading that he had purchased her at a dear rate, and she was wrongfully taken from him. Ish-bosheth durst not deny his demand, now that he had not Abner to stand by him, but took her from Phaltiel, to whom Saul had married her (2 Samuel 3:15), and Abner conducted her to David, not doubting but that then he should be doubly welcome when he brought him a wife in one hand and a crown in the other. Her latter husband was loth to part with her, and followed her weeping (2 Samuel 3:16), but there was no remedy: he must thank himself; for when he took her he knew that another had a right to her. Usurpers must expect to resign. Let no man therefore set his heart on that to which he is not entitled. If any disagreement has separated husband and wife, as they expect the blessing of God let them be reconciled, and come together again; let all former quarrels be forgotten, and let them live together in love, according to God's holy ordinance.

_ _ IV. Abner uses his interest with the elders of Israel to bring them over to David, knowing that whichever way they went the common people would follow of course. Now that it serves his own turn he can plead in David's behalf that he was, 1. Israel's choice (2 Samuel 3:17): “You sought for him in times past to be king over you, when he had signalized himself in so many engagements with the Philistines and done you so much good service; no man can pretend to greater personal merit than David nor to less than Ish-bosheth. You have tried them both, Detur dignioriGive the crown to him that best deserves it. Let David be your king.” 2. God's choice (2 Samuel 3:18): “The Lord hath spoken of David. Compare 2 Samuel 3:9. When God appointed Samuel to anoint him he did, in effect, promise that by his hand he would save Israel; for for that end he was made king. God having promised, by David's hand, to save Israel, it is both your duty, in compliance with God's will, and your interest, in order to your victories over your enemies, to submit to him; and it is the greatest folly in the world to oppose him.” Who would have expected such reasonings as these out of Abner's mouth? But thus God will make the enemies of his people to know and own that he has loved them, Revelation 3:9. He particularly applied to the men of Benjamin, those of his own tribe, on whom he had the greatest influence, and whom he had drawn in to appear for the house of Saul. He was the man that had deceived them, and therefore he was concerned to undeceive them. Thus the multitude are as they are managed.

_ _ V. David concludes the treaty with Abner; and he did wisely and well therein; for, whatever induced Abner to it, it was a good work to put an end to the war, and to settle the Lord's anointed on the throne; and it was as lawful for David to make use of his agency as it is for a poor man to receive alms from a Pharisee, who gives it in pride and hypocrisy. Abner reported to David the sense of the people and the success of his communications with them, 2 Samuel 3:19. He came now, not as at first privately, but with a retinue of twenty men, and David entertained them with a feast (2 Samuel 3:20) in token of reconciliation and joy and as a pledge of the agreement between them: it was a feast upon a covenant, like that, Genesis 26:30. If thy enemy hunger, feed him; but, if he submit, feast him. Abner, pleased with his entertainment, the prevention of his fall with Saul's house (which would have been inevitable if he had not taken this course), and much more with the prospect he had of preferment under David, undertakes in a little time to perfect the revolution, and to bring all Israel into obedience to David, 2 Samuel 3:21. He tells David he shall reign over all that his heart desired. He knew David's elevation took rise from God's appointment, yet he insinuates that it sprang from his own ambition and desire of rule; thus (as bad men often do) he measured that good man by himself. However, David and he parted very good friends, and the affair between them was well settled. Thus it behoves all who fear God and keep his commandments to avoid strife, even with the wicked, to live at peace with all men, and to show the world that they are children of the light.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

2 Samuel 21:8-11 But the king took the two sons of Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, whom she bare unto Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth; and the five sons of Michal the daughter of Saul, whom she brought up for Adriel the son of Barzillai the Meholathite: ... And it was told David what Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, the concubine of Saul, had done.

This action of Abner's seems a most evident proof that he intended to seize on the government; and it was so understood by Ish-bosheth; see parallel texts.

gone in:

2 Samuel 12:8 And I gave thee thy master's house, and thy master's wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Israel and of Judah; and if [that had been] too little, I would moreover have given unto thee such and such things.
2 Samuel 16:21-22 And Ahithophel said unto Absalom, Go in unto thy father's concubines, which he hath left to keep the house; and all Israel shall hear that thou art abhorred of thy father: then shall the hands of all that [are] with thee be strong. ... So they spread Absalom a tent upon the top of the house; and Absalom went in unto his father's concubines in the sight of all Israel.
1 Kings 2:17 And he said, Speak, I pray thee, unto Solomon the king, (for he will not say thee nay,) that he give me Abishag the Shunammite to wife.
1 Kings 2:21-22 And she said, Let Abishag the Shunammite be given to Adonijah thy brother to wife. ... And king Solomon answered and said unto his mother, And why dost thou ask Abishag the Shunammite for Adonijah? ask for him the kingdom also; for he [is] mine elder brother; even for him, and for Abiathar the priest, and for Joab the son of Zeruiah.
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2S 12:8; 16:21; 21:8. 1K 2:17, 21.

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