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2 Samuel 23:8 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— These are the names of the mighty men whom David had: Josheb-basshebeth a Tahchemonite, chief of the captains; the same was Adino the Eznite, against eight hundred slain at one time.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— These [be] the names of the mighty men whom David had: The Tachmonite that sat in the seat, chief among the captains; the same [was] Adino the Eznite: [he lift up his spear] against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— These are the names of the mighty men whom David had: Josheb-basshebeth a Tahchemonite, chief of the captains, he was [called] Adino the Eznite, because of eight hundred slain [by him] at one time;
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— These [are] the names of the mighty men whom David had: The Tachmonite that sat in the seat, chief among the captains; the same [was] Adino the Eznite: [he lifted up his spear] against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— These are the names of the mighty men whom David had: Joseb-Bassebeth, Tachkemonite the chief of the captains: he was Adino the Eznite; he [fought] against eight hundred, slain [by him] at one time.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— These, are the names of the mighty men, who belonged to David,—The president a Tachmonite head of the charioteers, the same, was Adino the Eznite, for eight hundred, slain at one time.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— These [are] the names of the mighty ones whom David hath: sitting in the seat [is] the Tachmonite, head of the captains—he [is] Adino, who hardened himself against eight hundred—wounded at one time.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— These are the names of the valiant men of David: Jesbaham sitting in the chair was the wisest chief among the three, he was like the most tender little worm of the wood, who killed eight hundred men at one onset.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— These [be] the names of the mightie men whome Dauid had: The Tachmonite that sate in the seat, chiefe among the captaines, (the same [was] Adino the Eznite:) [hee lift vp his speare] against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— These [are] the names of the mighty men of David: Ishbosheth{gr.Jebosthe} the Canaanite{gr.Chananite} is a captain of the third [part]: Adinon the Asonite, he drew his sword against eight hundred soldiers at once.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— These [be] the names of the mighty men whom Dawid had: The Tachkemoni that sat in the seat, chief among the captains; the same [was] Adino the Etzni: [he lift up his spear] against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
These x428
(0428) Complement
Prolonged from H0411; these or those.
[be] the names 8034
{8034} Prime
A primitive word (perhaps rather from H7760 through the idea of definite and conspicuous position; compare H8064); an appellation, as a mark or memorial of individuality; by implication honor, authority, character.
of the mighty men 1368
{1368} Prime
Intensive from the same as H1397; powerful; by implication warrior, tyrant.
whom x834
(0834) Complement
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
had: The Tacmn תַּחכְּמֹנִי 8461
{8461} Prime
Probably for H2453; sagacious; Tachkemoni, an Israelite.
that sat 3427
{3427} Prime
A primitive root; properly to sit down (specifically as judge, in ambush, in quiet); by implication to dwell, to remain; causatively to settle, to marry.
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
in the seat, 7675
{7675} Prime
Infinitive of H3427; properly session; but used also concretely, an abode or locality. Comapre H3429.
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
<8677> Grammar
Synonym Strong's Number

Sometimes, a word or phrase has individual Strong's numbers assigned to it and it has an additional Strong's number for the entire phrase.
[3429] Standard
יֹשֵׁב בַּשֶׁבֶת
Yosheb bash-Shebeth
{yo-shabe' bash-sheh'-beth}
From the active participle of H3427 and H7674, with a preposition and the article interposed; sitting in the seat; Josheb-bash-Shebeht, an Israelite.
chief 7218
{7218} Prime
From an unused root apparently meaning to shake; the head (as most easily shaken), whether literally or figuratively (in many applications, of place, time, rank, etc.).
among the captains; 7991
{7991} Prime
(The second form used in 1 Chronicles 11:11, 12, 18; the third form used in 2 Samuel 23:13); from H7969; a triple, that is, (as a musical instrument) a triangle (or perhaps rather three stringed lute); also (as an indefinitely great quantity) a three fold measure (perhaps a treble ephah); also (as an officer) a general of the third rank (upward, that is, the highest).
the same x1931
(1931) Complement
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
[was] `n עֲדִינוֹ 5722
{5722} Prime
Probably from H5719 in the original sense of slender (that is, a spear); his spear.
the `Exn עֶצנִי: 6112
{6112} Prime
From an unused root meaning to be sharp or strong; a spear.
[he lift up his spear] against x5921
(5921) Complement
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
eight 8083
{8083} Prime
Apparently from H8082 through the idea of plumpness; a cardinal number, eight (as if a surplus above the 'perfect' seven); also (as ordinal) eighth.
hundred, 3967
{3967} Prime
Probably a primitive numeral; a hundred; also as a multiplicative and a fraction.
whom he slew 2491
{2491} Prime
From H2490; pierced (especially to death); figuratively polluted.
at one 259
{0259} Prime
A numeral from H0258; properly united, that is, one; or (as an ordinal) first.
time. 6471
{6471} Prime
From H6470; a stroke, literally or figuratively (in various applications).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Samuel 23:8

_ _ 2 Samuel 23:8-39. A catalog of his mighty men.

_ _ These be the names of the mighty men whom David had — This verse should be translated thus: He who sits in the seat of the Tachmonite (that is, of Jashobeam the Hachmonite), who was chief among the captains, the same is Adino the Eznite; he lift up his spear against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time. The text is corrupt in this passage; the number eight hundred should be three hundred [Davidson, Hermeneutics]. Under Joab he was chief or president of the council of war. The first or highest order was composed of him and his two colleagues, Eleazar and Shammah. Eleazar seems to have been left to fight the Philistines alone; and on his achieving the victory, they returned to the spoil. In like manner Shammah was left to stand alone in his glory, when the Lord, by him, wrought a great victory. It is not very easy to determine whether the exploits that are afterwards described were performed by the first or the second three.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Samuel 23:8-39

_ _ I. The catalogue which the historian has here left upon record of the great soldiers that were in David's time is intended, 1. For the honour of David, who trained them up in the arts of exercises of war, and set them an example of conduct and courage. It is the reputation as well as the advantage of a prince to be attended and served by such brave men as are here described. 2. For the honour of those worthies themselves, who were instrumental to bring David to the crown, settle and protect him in the throne, and enlarge his conquests. Note, Those that in public stations venture themselves, and lay out themselves, to serve the interests of their country, are worthy of double honour, both to be respected by those of their own age and to be remembered by posterity. 3. To excite those that come after to a generous emulation. 4. To show how much religion contributes to the inspiring of men with true courage. David, both by his psalms and by his offerings for the service of the temple, greatly promoted piety among the grandees of the kingdom (1 Chronicles 29:6), and, when they became famous for piety, they became famous for bravery.

_ _ II. Now these mighty men are here divided into three ranks: —

_ _ 1. The first three, who had done the greatest exploits and thereby gained the greatest reputation — Adino (2 Samuel 23:8), Eleazar (2 Samuel 23:9, 2 Samuel 23:10), and Shammah, 2 Samuel 23:11, 2 Samuel 23:12. I do not remember that we read of any of these, or of their actions, any where in all the story of David but here and in the parallel place, 1 Chr. 11. Many great and remarkable events are passed by in the annals, which relate rather the blemishes than the glories of David's reign, especially after his sin in the matter Uriah; so that we may conclude his reign to have been really more illustrious than it has appeared to us while reading the records of it. The exploits of this brave triumvirate are here recorded. They signalized themselves in the wars of Israel against their enemies, especially the Philistines. (1.) Adino slew 800 at once with his spear. (2.) Eleazar defied the Philistines, as they by Goliath, had defied Israel, but with better success and greater bravery; for when the men of Israel had gone away, he not only kept his ground, but arose, and smote the Philistines, on whom God struck a terror equal to the courage with which this great hero was inspired. His hand was weary, and yet it clave to his sword; as long as he had any strength remaining he held his weapon and followed his blow. Thus, in the service of God, we should keep up the willingness and resolution of the spirit, notwithstanding the weakness and weariness of the flesh — faint, yet pursuing (Judges 8:4), the hand weary, yet not quitting the sword. Now that Eleazar had beaten the enemy, the men of Israel, who had gone away from the battle (2 Samuel 23:9), returned to spoil, 2 Samuel 23:10. It is common for those who quit the field, when any thing is to be done to hasten to it when any thing is to be gotten. (3.) Shammah met with a party of the enemy, that were foraging, and routed them, 2 Samuel 23:11, 2 Samuel 23:12. But observe, both concerning this exploit and the former, it is here said, The Lord wrought a great victory. Note, How great soever the bravery of the instruments is, the praise of the achievement must be given to God. These fought the battles, but God wrought the victory. Let not the strong man then glory in his strength, nor in any of his military operations, but let him that glories glory in the Lord.

_ _ 2. The next three were distinguished from, and dignified above, the thirty, but attained not to the first three, 2 Samuel 23:23. All great men are not of the same size. Many a bright and benign star there is which is not of the first magnitude, and many a good ship not of the first rate. Of this second triumvirate two only are named, Abishai and Benaiah, whom we have often met with in the story of David, and who seem to have been not inferior in serviceableness, though they were in dignity, to the first three. Here is,

_ _ (1.) A brave action of these three in conjunction. They attended David in his troubles, when he absconded, in the cave of Adullam (2 Samuel 23:13), suffered with him, and therefore were afterwards preferred by him. When David and his brave men who attended him, who had acted so vigorously against the Philistines, were, by the iniquity of the times, in Saul's reign, driven to shelter themselves from his rage in caves and strong holds, no marvel that the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim, and put a garrison even in Bethlehem itself, 2 Samuel 23:13, 2 Samuel 23:14. If the church's guides are so misled as to persecute some of her best friends and champions, the common enemy will, no doubt, get advantage by it. If David had had his liberty, Bethlehem would not have been now in the Philistines' hands. But, being so, we are here told, [1.] How earnestly David longed for the water of the well of Bethlehem. Some make it a public-spirited wish, and that he meant, “O that we could drive the garrison of the Philistines out of Bethlehem, and make that beloved city of mine our own again!” the well being put for the city, as the river often signifies the country it passes through. But if he meant so, those about him did not understand him; therefore it seems rather to be an instance of his weakness. It was harvest-time; the weather was hot; he was thirsty; perhaps good water was scarce, and therefore he earnestly wished, “O that I could but have one draught of the water of the well of Bethlehem!” With the water of that well he had often refreshed himself when he was a youth, and nothing now will serve him but that, though it is almost impossible to come at it. He strangely indulged a humour which he could give no reason for. Other water might quench his thirst as well, but he had a fancy for that above any. It is folly to entertain such fancies and greater folly to insist upon the gratification of them. We ought to check our appetites when they go out inordinately towards those things that really are more pleasant and grateful than other things (Be not desirous of dainties), much more when they are thus set upon such things as only please a humour. [2.] How bravely his three mighty men, Abishai, Benaiah, and another not named, ventured through the camp of the Philistines, upon the very mouth of danger, and fetched water from the well of Bethlehem, without David's knowledge, 2 Samuel 23:16. When he wished for it he was far from desiring that any of his men should venture their lives for it; but those three did, to show, First, How much they valued their prince, and with what pleasure they could run the greatest hardships in his service. David, though anointed king, was as yet an exile, a poor prince that had no external advantages to recommend him to the affection and esteem of his attendants, nor was he in any capacity to prefer or reward them; yet those three were thus zealous for his satisfaction, firmly believing the time of recompence would come. Let us be willing to venture in the cause of Christ, even when it is a suffering cause, as those who are assured that it will prevail and that we shall not lose by it at last. Were they so forward to expose themselves upon the least hint of their prince's mind and so ambitious to please him? And shall not we covet to approve ourselves to our Lord Jesus by a ready compliance with every intimation of his will given us by his word, Spirit and providence? Secondly, How little they feared the Philistines. They were glad of an occasion to defy them. Whether they broke through the host clandestinely, and with such art that the Philistines did not discover them, or openly, and with such terror in their looks that the Philistines durst not oppose them, is not certain; it should seem, they forced their way, sword in hand. But see, [3.] How self-denyingly David, when he had this far-fetched dear-bought water, poured it out before the Lord, 2 Samuel 23:17. First, Thus he would show the tender regard he had to the lives of his soldiers, and how far he was from being prodigal of their blood, Psalms 72:14. In God's sight the death of his saints is precious. Secondly, Thus he would testify his sorrow for speaking that foolish word which occasioned those men to put their lives in their hands. Great men should take heed what they say, lest any bad use be made of it by those about them. Thirdly, Thus he would prevent the like rashness in any of his men for the future. Fourthly, Thus he would cross his own foolish fancy, and punish himself for entertaining and indulging it, and show that he had sober thoughts to correct his rash ones, and knew how to deny himself even in that which he was most fond of. Such generous mortifications become the wise, the great, and the good. Fifthly, Thus he would honour God and give glory to him. The water purchased at this rate he thought too precious for his own drinking and fit only to be poured out to God as a drink-offering. If it was the blood of these men, it was God's due, for the blood was always his. Sixthly, Bishop Patrick speaks of some who think that David hereby showed that it was not material water he longed for, but the Messiah, who had the water of life, who, he knew, should be born at Bethlehem, which the Philistines therefore should not be able to destroy. Seventhly, Did David look upon that water as very precious which was got at the hazard of these men's blood, and shall not we much more value those benefits for the purchasing of which our blessed Saviour shed his blood? Let us not undervalue the blood of the covenant, as those do that undervalue the blessings of the covenant.

_ _ (2.) The brave actions of two of them on other occasions. Abishai slew 300 men at once, 2 Samuel 23:18, 2 Samuel 23:19. Benaiah did many great things. [1.] He slew two Moabites that were lion-like men, so bold and strong, so fierce and furious. [2.] He slew an Egyptian, on what occasion it is not said; he was well armed but Benaiah attacked him with no other weapon than a walking staff, dexterously wrested his spear out of his hand, and slew him with it, 2 Samuel 23:21. For these and similar exploits David preferred him to be captain of the life-guard or standing forces, 2 Samuel 23:23.

_ _ 3. Inferior to the second three, but of great note, were the thirty-one here mentioned by name, 2 Samuel 23:24, etc. Asahel is the first, who was slain by Abner in the beginning of David's reign, but lost not his place in this catalogue. Elhanan is the next, brother to Eleazar, one of the first three, 2 Samuel 23:9. The surnames here given them are taken, as it should seem, from the places of their birth or habitation, as many surnames with us originally were. From all parts of the nation, the most wise and valiant were picked up to serve the king. Several of those who are named we find captains of the twelve courses which David appointed, one for each month in the year, 1 Chr. 27. Those that did worthily were preferred according to their merits. One of them was the son of Ahithophel (2 Samuel 23:34), the son famous in the camp as the father at the council-board. But to find Uriah the Hittite bringing up the rear of these worthies, as it revives the remembrance of David's sin, so it aggravates it, that a man who deserved so well of his king and country should be so ill treated. Joab is not mentioned among all these, either, (1.) to be mentioned; the first, of the first three sat chief among the captains, but Joab was over them as general. Or, (2.) Because he was so bad that he did not deserve to be mentioned; for though he was confessedly a great soldier, and one that had so much religion in him as to dedicate of his spoils to the house of God (1 Chronicles 26:28), yet he lost as much honour by slaying two of David's friends as ever he got by slaying his enemies.

_ _ Christ, the Son of David, has his worthies too, who like David's, are influenced by his example, fight his battles against the spiritual enemies of his kingdom, and in his strength are more than conquerors. Christ's apostles were his immediate attendants, did and suffered great things for him, and at length came to reign with him. They are mentioned with honour in the New Testament, as these in the Old, especially, Revelation 21:14. Nay, all the good soldiers of Jesus Christ have their names better preserved than even these worthies have; for they are written in heaven. This honour have all his saints.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Samuel 23:8

These — But this catalogue, though placed here, was taken long before, as is manifest from hence, that Asahel and Uriah are named here. And whereas there are some difference between this list, and that, 1Ch. 11:10-47, most of them are easily reconciled by these two considerations; that nothing is more common than for one person to have divers names. That as some of the worthies died, and others came in their stead; this must needs cause some alteration in the latter catalogue, 1Ch. 11:10-47, from this which was the former. Learn hence, how much religion tends to inspire men with true courage. David both by his writings and example greatly promoted piety among the grandees of the kingdom. And when they became famous for piety, they became famous for bravery. Adino — This was his proper name. Lift up — Which words are fitly supplied out of 1 Chronicles 11:11, where they are expressed. One time — In one battle, which though it be strange, yet cannot seem incredible, supposing him to be a person of extraordinary strength and activity, and his enemies to be discouraged, and fleeing away.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

2 Samuel 23:8

These [be] the names of the mighty men whom David had: The Tachmonite that sat in the (e) seat, chief among the captains; the same [was] Adino the Eznite: [he lift up his spear] against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time.

(e) As one of the king's counsel.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 2949-2989, bc 1055-1015, An, Ex, Is, 436-476, The Tachmonite. or, Josheb-bassebet, the Tachmonite, head of the three.
1 Chronicles 11:11-12 And this [is] the number of the mighty men whom David had; Jashobeam, an Hachmonite, the chief of the captains: he lifted up his spear against three hundred slain [by him] at one time. ... And after him [was] Eleazar the son of Dodo, the Ahohite, who [was one] of the three mighties.
1 Chronicles 27:2 Over the first course for the first month [was] Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel: and in his course [were] twenty and four thousand.
1 Chronicles 27:32 Also Jonathan David's uncle was a counsellor, a wise man, and a scribe: and Jehiel the son of Hachmoni [was] with the king's sons:
; It is highly probable that in this version instead of yoshaiv bashshaiveth tachkemoni, we should read yoshavam ben chachmoni, "Joshebeam, son of Hachmoni;' and instead of hoo adino haetzni, hoo orair eth chanitho, "he lift up his spear," which are the readings in the parallel place in Chronicles, where it is also, "three hundred," instead of "eight hundred."

whom he slew:
Heb. slain
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1Ch 11:11; 27:2, 32.

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