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2 Samuel 23:3 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spake to me: One that ruleth over men righteously, That ruleth in the fear of God,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men [must be] just, ruling in the fear of God.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spoke to me, ‘He who rules over men righteously, Who rules in the fear of God,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me, He that ruleth over men [must be] just, ruling in the fear of God.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spoke to me, The ruler among men shall be just, Ruling in the fear of God;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Said the God of Israel, Unto me, spake the Rock of Israel:—One Ruling over Men, A Righteous One, ruling in the reverence of God,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— He said—the God of Israel—to me, He spake—the Rock of Israel: He who is ruling over man [is] righteous, He is ruling in the fear of God.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— The God of Israel said to me, the strong one of Israel spoke, the ruler of men, the just ruler in the fear of God.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— The God of Israel said, the Rocke of Israel spake to me: he that ruleth ouer men [must be] iust, ruling in the feare of God:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— The God of Israel says, A watchman out of Israel spoke to me a parable: I said among men, How will ye strengthen the fear of the anointed?
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— The Elohim of Yisrael said, the Rock of Yisrael spake to me, He that ruleth over men [must be] just, ruling in the fear of Elohim.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
The lhm אֱלֹהִים 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
said, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
the Rock 6697
{6697} Prime
צוּר
tsuwr
{tsoor}
From H6696; properly a cliff (or sharp rock, as compressed); generally a rock or boulder; figuratively a refuge; also an edge (as precipitous).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
spake 1696
{1696} Prime
דִּבֵּר
dabar
{daw-bar'}
A primitive root; perhaps properly to arrange; but used figuratively (of words) to speak; rarely (in a destructive sense) to subdue.
z8765
<8765> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2121
to me, He that ruleth y4910
[4910] Standard
מָשַׁל
mashal
{maw-shal'}
A primitive root; to rule.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
over x4910
(4910) Complement
מָשַׁל
mashal
{maw-shal'}
A primitive root; to rule.
men 120
{0120} Prime
אָדָם
'adam
{aw-dawm'}
From H0119; ruddy, that is, a human being (an individual or the species, mankind, etc.).
[must be] just, 6662
{6662} Prime
צַדִּיק
tsaddiyq
{tsad-deek'}
From H6663; just.
ruling 4910
{4910} Prime
מָשַׁל
mashal
{maw-shal'}
A primitive root; to rule.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
in the fear 3374
{3374} Prime
יִרְאָה
yir'ah
{yir-aw'}
Feminine of H3373; fear (also used as infinitive); morally reverence.
of lhm אֱלֹהִים. 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Samuel 23:3

_ _ the Rock of Israel — This metaphor, which is commonly applied by the sacred writers to the Almighty, was very expressive to the minds of the Hebrew people. Their national fortresses, in which they sought security in war, were built on high and inaccessible rocks.

_ _ spake to me — either preceptively, giving the following counsels respecting the character of an upright ruler in Israel, or prophetically, concerning David and his royal dynasty, and the great Messiah, of whom many think this is a prophecy, rendering the words, “he that ruleth” — “there shall be a ruler over men.”

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on 2 Samuel 23:1-7.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Samuel 23:3

Rock — He who is the strength, and defence, and protector of his people; which he manifests by directing kings and rulers so to manage their power as may most conduce to their comfort and benefit. Ruleth — Here are the two principal parts of a king's duty, answerable to the two tables of God's law, justice towards men, and piety towards God, both which he is to maintain and promote among his people.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
God:

Genesis 33:20 And he erected there an altar, and called it Elelohe-Israel.
Exodus 3:15 And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this [is] my name for ever, and this [is] my memorial unto all generations.
Exodus 19:5-6 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth [is] mine: ... And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These [are] the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.
Exodus 20:2 I [am] the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

the Rock:

2 Samuel 22:2 And he said, The LORD [is] my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer;
2 Samuel 22:32 For who [is] God, save the LORD? and who [is] a rock, save our God?
Deuteronomy 32:4 [He is] the Rock, his work [is] perfect: for all his ways [are] judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right [is] he.
Deuteronomy 32:30-31 How should one chase a thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight, except their Rock had sold them, and the LORD had shut them up? ... For their rock [is] not as our Rock, even our enemies themselves [being] judges.
Psalms 42:9 I will say unto God my rock, Why hast thou forgotten me? why go I mourning because of the oppression of the enemy?

He that ruleth:
or, Be thou ruler, etc.
Psalms 110:2 The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.

must be just:

Exodus 23:6-8 Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause. ... And thou shalt take no gift: for the gift blindeth the wise, and perverteth the words of the righteous.
Deuteronomy 16:18-20 Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just judgment. ... That which is altogether just shalt thou follow, that thou mayest live, and inherit the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
Psalms 82:3-4 Defend the poor and fatherless: do justice to the afflicted and needy. ... Deliver the poor and needy: rid [them] out of the hand of the wicked.
Proverbs 31:9 Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy.
Isaiah 11:4-5 But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. ... And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.
Isaiah 32:1 Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.
Jeremiah 23:5 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth.
Zechariah 9:9 Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he [is] just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.
Hebrews 1:8 But unto the Son [he saith], Thy throne, O God, [is] for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness [is] the sceptre of thy kingdom.

ruling:

Exodus 18:21 Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place [such] over them, [to be] rulers of thousands, [and] rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens:
2 Chronicles 19:7-9 Wherefore now let the fear of the LORD be upon you; take heed and do [it]: for [there is] no iniquity with the LORD our God, nor respect of persons, nor taking of gifts. ... And he charged them, saying, Thus shall ye do in the fear of the LORD, faithfully, and with a perfect heart.
Nehemiah 5:14 Moreover from the time that I was appointed to be their governor in the land of Judah, from the twentieth year even unto the two and thirtieth year of Artaxerxes the king, [that is], twelve years, I and my brethren have not eaten the bread of the governor.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 33:20. Ex 3:15; 18:21; 19:5; 20:2; 23:6. Dt 16:18; 32:4, 30. 2S 22:2, 32. 2Ch 19:7. Ne 5:14. Ps 42:9; 82:3; 110:2. Pv 31:9. Is 11:4; 32:1. Jr 23:5. Zc 9:9. He 1:8.

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