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2 Samuel 20:14 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And he went through all the tribes of Israel unto Abel, and to Beth-maacah, and all the Berites: and they were gathered together, and went also after him.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And he went through all the tribes of Israel unto Abel, and to Bethmaachah, and all the Berites: and they were gathered together, and went also after him.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now he went through all the tribes of Israel to Abel, even Beth-maacah, and all the Berites; and they were gathered together and also went after him.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And he went through all the tribes of Israel to Abel, and to Beth-maachah, and all the Berites: and they were assembled, and went also after him.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— who went through all the tribes of Israel to Abel, and to Beth-Maacah, and all the Berim; and they gathered together, and went also after him.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And he passed on throughout all the tribes of Israel, unto Abel and unto Beth-maachah, and all the Berites,—and they were called together, and came in, yea and followed him.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And he passeth over through all the tribes of Israel to Abel, and to Beth-Maachah, and to all the Berites, and they are assembled, and go in also after him,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Now he had passed through all the tribes of Israel unto Abela and Bethmaacha: and all the chosen men were gathered together unto him.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And hee went thorow all the tribes of Israel vnto Abel, and to Bethmaachah, and all the Berites: and they were gathered together, and went also after him.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And he went through all the tribes of Israel to Abel, and to Bethmacha; and all in Charri too were assembled, and followed after him.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And he went through all the tribes of Yisrael unto Havel, and to Beth Maakhah, and all the Berim: and they were gathered together, and went also after him.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And he went y5674
[5674] Standard
עָבַר
`abar
{aw-bar'}
A primitive root; to cross over; used very widely of any transition (literally or figuratively; transitively, intransitively, intensively or causatively); specifically to cover (in copulation).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
through x5674
(5674) Complement
עָבַר
`abar
{aw-bar'}
A primitive root; to cross over; used very widely of any transition (literally or figuratively; transitively, intransitively, intensively or causatively); specifically to cover (in copulation).
all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the tribes 7626
{7626} Prime
שֵׁבֶט
shebet
{shay'-bet}
From an unused root probably meaning to branch off; a scion, that is, (literally) a stick (for punishing, writing, fighting, ruling, walking, etc.) or (figuratively) a clan.
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
unto Hvel הָבֶל, 59
{0059} Prime
אָבֵל
'Abel
{aw-bale'}
From H0058; a meadow; Abel, the name of two places in Palestine.
and to B Ma` בֵּית־מַעֲכָה, 1038
{1038} Prime
בֵּית מַעֲכָה
Beyth Ma`akah
{bayth mah-ak-aw'}
From H1004 and H4601; house of Maakah; Beth-Maakah, a place in Palestine.
and all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the Brm בֵּרִים: 1276
{1276} Prime
בֵּרִי
Beriy
{bay-ree'}
Of uncertain derivation; (only in the plural and with the article) the Berites, a place in Palestine.
and they were gathered together, 7035
{7035} Prime
קָלַה
qalahh
{kaw-lah'}
For H6950; to assemble.
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
y6950
[6950] Standard
קָהַל
qahal
{'kaw-hal'}
A primitive root; to convoke.
z8675
<8675> Grammar
Kethiv Reading

Where the translators of the Authorised Version followed the qere reading rather than the kethiv.
and went 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
also x637
(0637) Complement
אַף
'aph
{af}
A primitive particle; meaning accession (used as an adverb or conjugation); also or yea; adversatively though.
after 310
{0310} Prime
אַחַר
'achar
{akh-ar'}
From H0309; properly the hind part; generally used as an adverb or conjugation, after (in various senses).
him.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Samuel 20:14

_ _ 2 Samuel 20:14, 2 Samuel 20:15. Joab pursues Sheba unto Abel.

_ _ he went through all the tribes of Israel unto Abel — beating up for recruits. But there the prompt marches of Joab overtook and hemmed him in by a close siege of the place.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Samuel 20:14-22

_ _ We have here the conclusion of Sheba's attempt.

_ _ I. The rebel, when he had rambled over all the tribes of Israel, and found them not so willing, upon second thoughts, to follow him, as they had been upon a sudden provocation to desert David (having only picked up a few like himself, that sided with him), at length entered Abel-Beth-maacah, a strong city in the north, in the lot of Naphtali, where we find it placed, 2 Kings 15:29. Here he took shelter, whether by force or with consent does not appear; but his adherents were most Berites, of Beeroth in Benjamin, 2 Samuel 20:14. One bad man will find or make more.

_ _ II. Joab drew up all his force against the city, besieged it, battered the wall, and made it almost ready for a general storm, 2 Samuel 20:15. Justly is that place attacked with all this fury which dares harbour a traitor; nor will that heart fare better which indulges those rebellious lusts that will not have Christ to reign over them.

_ _ III. A discreet good woman of the city of Abel brings this matter, by her prudent management, to a good issue, so as to satisfy Joab and yet save the city. Here is,

_ _ 1. Her treaty with Joab, and her capitulation with him, by which he is engaged to raise the siege, upon condition that Sheba be delivered up. It seems, none of all the men of Abel, none of the elders or magistrates, offered to treat with Joab, no, not when they were reduced to the last extremity. They were stupid and unconcerned for the public safety, or they stood in awe of Sheba, or they despaired of gaining any good terms with Joab, or they had not sense enough to manage the treaty. But this one woman and her wisdom saved the city. Souls know no difference of sexes. Though the man be the head, it does not therefore follow that he has the monopoly of the brains, and therefore he ought not, by any salique law, to have the monopoly of the crown. Many a masculine heart, and more than masculine, has been found in a female breast; nor is the treasure of wisdom the less valuable for being lodged in the weaker vessel. In the treaty between this nameless heroine and Joab,

_ _ (1.) She gains his audience and attention, 2 Samuel 20:16, 2 Samuel 20:17. We may suppose it was the first time he had ever treated with a woman in martial affairs.

_ _ (2.) She reasons with him on behalf of her city, and very ingeniously. [1.] That it was a city famous for wisdom (2 Samuel 20:18), as we translate it. She pleads that this city had been long in such reputation for prudent knowing men that it was the common referee of the country, and all agreed to abide by the award of its elders. Their sentence was an oracle; let them be consulted and the matter is ended, all sides will acquiesce. Now shall such a city as this be laid in ashes and never treated with? [2.] That the inhabitants were generally peaceable and faithful in Israel, 2 Samuel 20:19. She could speak, not for herself only, but for all those whose cause she pleaded, that they were not of turbulent and seditious spirits, but of known fidelity to their prince and peaceableness with their fellow-subjects; they were neither seditious nor litigious. [3.] That it was a mother in Israel, a guide and nurse to the towns and country about; and that it was a part of the inheritance of the Lord, a city of Israelites, not of heathen; and the destruction of it would lessen and weaken that nation which God had chosen for his heritage. [4.] That they expected him to offer them peace before he made an attack upon the, according to that known law of war, Deuteronomy 20:10. So the margin reads (2 Samuel 20:18): They plainly spoke in the beginning (of the siege), saying, Surely they will ask of Abel, that is, “The besiegers will demand the traitor, and will ask us to surrender him; and if they do, we will soon come to an agreement, and so end the matter.” Thus she tacitly upbraids Joab for not offering them peace, but hopes it is not too late to beg it.

_ _ (3.) Joab and Abel's advocate soon agree that Sheba's head shall be the ransom of the city. Joab, though in a personal quarrel he had lately swallowed up and destroyed Amasa, yet, when he acts as a general, will by no means bear the imputation of delighting in bloodshed: “Far be it from me that I should delight to swallow up or destroy, or design it but when it is necessary for the public safety, 2 Samuel 20:20. The matter is not so. Our quarrel is not with your city; we would hazard our lives for its protection. Our quarrel is only with the traitor that is harboured among you; deliver him up, and we have done.” A great deal of mischief would be prevented if contending parties would but understand one another. The city obstinately holds out, believing Joab aims at its ruin. Joab furiously attacks it, believing the citizens all confederates with Sheba. Whereas both were mistaken; let both sides be undeceived, and the matter is soon accommodated. The single condition of peace is the surrender of the traitor. It is so in God's dealing with the soul, when it is besieged by conviction and distress: sin is the traitor; the beloved lust is the rebel; part with that, cast away the transgression, and all shall be well. No peace on any other terms. Our wise woman immediately agrees to the proposal: Behold, his head shall be thrown to thee presently.

_ _ 2. Her treaty with the citizens. She went to them in her wisdom (and perhaps she had as much need of it in dealing with them as in dealing with Joab) and persuaded them to cut off Sheba's head, probably by some public order of their government, and it was thrown over the wall to Joab. He knew the traitor's face, and therefore looked no further, intending not that any of his adherents should suffer. The public safety was secured, and he felt no wish to gratify the public revenge. Joab hereupon raised the siege, and marched back to Jerusalem, with the trophies rather of peace than victory.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Samuel 20:14

He — Sheba, who marched from tribe to tribe to stir them up to sedition. Abel — Unto Abel — beth — maachah, as this place is called here in the Hebrew text, 2 Samuel 20:15, to distinguish it from other Abels; and to signify, that this was that Abel which was in the northern border of Canaan towards that part of Syria called Maachah, 2 Samuel 10:8. Berites — Such as lived in the city, or territory of Beeroth of Benjamin, Joshua 18:25, who being of the same tribe, if not city with Sheba, adhered to him, and followed him through all the tribes of Israel. They — The tribes of Israel; that is, a considerable number of them; as might well be expected, when the discontents were so high and general.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

2 Samuel 20:14

And he went through all the tribes of Israel unto Abel, and to (i) Bethmaachah, and all the Berites: and they were gathered together, and went also after him.

(i) To the city Abel, which was near Bethmaachah.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Abel:
Or rather, probably, Abel of Beth-Maachah, as in the next verse. It appears, from Joab having marched "through all the tribes of Israel," to have been situated in the northern confines of the land of Israel, and in the half tribe of Manasseh, east of Jordan, as that was the situation of Maachah, to which it belonged. This agrees with the situation of the Abila which Eusebius and Jerome place between Paneas, or Cesarea Philippi, and Damascus. Josephus says it was a fortified city, and a metropolis of the Israelites; and also that it belonged to the ten tribes, having been taken from the king of Damascus.
1 Kings 15:20 So Benhadad hearkened unto king Asa, and sent the captains of the hosts which he had against the cities of Israel, and smote Ijon, and Dan, and Abelbethmaachah, and all Cinneroth, with all the land of Naphtali.
2 Kings 15:29 In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and took Ijon, and Abelbethmaachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria.
2 Chronicles 16:4 And Benhadad hearkened unto king Asa, and sent the captains of his armies against the cities of Israel; and they smote Ijon, and Dan, and Abelmaim, and all the store cities of Naphtali.

Berites:

Joshua 18:25 Gibeon, and Ramah, and Beeroth,
, Beeroth
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Jsh 18:25. 1K 15:20. 2K 15:29. 2Ch 16:4.

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