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2 Samuel 16:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And when David was a little past the top [of the ascent], behold, Ziba the servant of Mephibosheth met him, with a couple of asses saddled, and upon them two hundred loaves of bread, and a hundred clusters of raisins, and a hundred of summer fruits, and a bottle of wine.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And when David was a little past the top [of the hill], behold, Ziba the servant of Mephibosheth met him, with a couple of asses saddled, and upon them two hundred [loaves] of bread, and an hundred bunches of raisins, and an hundred of summer fruits, and a bottle of wine.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now when David had passed a little beyond the summit, behold, Ziba the servant of Mephibosheth met him with a couple of saddled donkeys, and on them [were] two hundred loaves of bread, a hundred clusters of raisins, a hundred summer fruits, and a jug of wine.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And when David was a little past the top [of the hill], behold, Ziba the servant of Mephibosheth met him, with a couple of asses saddled, and upon them two hundred [loaves] of bread, and a hundred bunches of raisins, and a hundred of summer fruits, and a bottle of wine.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And when David was a little past the summit, behold, Ziba, Mephibosheth's servant, met him, with a couple of asses saddled, and upon them two hundred [loaves] of bread, and a hundred raisin-cakes, and a hundred cakes of summer fruits, and a flask of wine.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, David, had passed on but a little from the summit, when lo! Ziba, servant of Mephibosheth, met him,—with a couple of asses saddled, and, upon them, two hundred cakes of bread, and one hundred cakes of raisins, and one hundred summer fruits, and a skin of wine.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And David hath passed on a little from the top, and lo, Ziba, servant of Mephibosheth—to meet him, and a couple of asses saddled, and upon them two hundred loaves, and a hundred bunches of raisins, and a hundred [of] summer-fruit, and a bottle of wine.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And when David was a little past the top of the hill, behold Siba the servant of Miphiboseth came to meet him with two asses, laden with two hundred loaves of bread, and a hundred bunches of raisins, a hundred cakes of figs, and a vessel of wine.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And when Dauid was a little past the top [of the hill], Beholde, Ziba the seruant of Mephibosheth met him with a couple of asses sadled, and vpon them two hundred [loaues] of bread, and an hundred bunches of raisins, and an hundred of summer fruits, and a bottell of wine.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And David passed on a little way from Ros; and, behold, Ziba{gr.Siba} the servant of Mephibosheth{gr.Memphibosthe} [came] to meet him; and he had a couple of asses laden, and upon them two hundred loaves, and a hundred [bunches of] raisins, and a hundred [cakes of] dates, and bottle of wine.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And when Dawid was a little past the top [of the hill], behold, Tziva the servant of Mefivosheth met him, with a couple of asses saddled, and upon them two hundred [loaves] of bread, and an hundred bunches of raisins, and an hundred of summer fruits, and a bottle of wine.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And when Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
was a little 4592
{4592} Prime
מְעַט
m@`at
{meh-at'}
From H4591; a little or few (often adverbial or comparative).
past 5674
{5674} Prime
עָבַר
`abar
{aw-bar'}
A primitive root; to cross over; used very widely of any transition (literally or figuratively; transitively, intransitively, intensively or causatively); specifically to cover (in copulation).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
the top 7218
{7218} Prime
רֹאשׁ
ro'sh
{roshe}
From an unused root apparently meaning to shake; the head (as most easily shaken), whether literally or figuratively (in many applications, of place, time, rank, etc.).
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
[of the hill], behold, x2009
(2009) Complement
הִנֵּה
hinneh
{hin-nay'}
Prolonged for H2005; lo!.
Xv צִיבָא 6717
{6717} Prime
צִיבָא
Tsiyba'
{tsee-baw'}
From the same as H6678; station; Tsiba, an Israelite.
the servant 5288
{5288} Prime
נַעַר
na`ar
{nah'-ar}
From H5287; (concretely) a boy (as active), from the age of infancy to adolescence; by implication a servant; also (by interchange of sex), a girl (of similar latitude in age).
of Mfve מְפִיבֹשֶׁת 4648
{4648} Prime
מְפִיבֹשֶׁת
M@phiybosheth
{mef-ee-bo'-sheth}
Probably from H6284 and H1322; dispeller of shame (that is, of Baal); Mephibosheth, the name of two Israelites.
met 7125
{7125} Prime
קִרָא
qir'ah
{keer-aw'}
From H7122; an encountering, accidental, friendly or hostile (also adverbially opposite).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
him, with a couple 6776
{6776} Prime
צֶמֶד
tsemed
{tseh'-med}
A yoke or team (that is, pair); hence an acre (that is, day's task for a yoke of cattle to plough).
of asses 2543
{2543} Prime
חֲמוֹר
chamowr
{kham-ore'}
From H2560; a male ass (from its dun red).
saddled, 2280
{2280} Prime
חָבַשׁ
chabash
{khaw-bash'}
A primitive root; to wrap firmly (especially a turban, compress, or saddle); figuratively to stop, to rule.
z8803
<8803> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Passive (See H8815)
Count - 1415
and upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
them two hundred 3967
{3967} Prime
מֵאָה
me'ah
{may-aw'}
Probably a primitive numeral; a hundred; also as a multiplicative and a fraction.
[loaves] of bread, 3899
{3899} Prime
לֶחֶם
lechem
{lekh'-em}
From H3898; food (for man or beast), especially bread, or grain (for making it).
and an hundred 3967
{3967} Prime
מֵאָה
me'ah
{may-aw'}
Probably a primitive numeral; a hundred; also as a multiplicative and a fraction.
bunches of raisins, 6778
{6778} Prime
צִמּוּק
tsammuwq
{tsam-mook'}
From H6784; a cake of dried grapes.
and an hundred 3967
{3967} Prime
מֵאָה
me'ah
{may-aw'}
Probably a primitive numeral; a hundred; also as a multiplicative and a fraction.
of summer fruits, 7019
{7019} Prime
קַיִץ
qayits
{kah'-yits}
From H6972; harvest (as the crop), whether the product (grain or fruit) or the (dry) season.
and a bottle 5035
{5035} Prime
נֶבֶל
nebel
{neh'-bel}
From H5034; a skin bag for liquids (from collapsing when empty); hence, a vase (as similar in shape when full); also a lyre (as having a body of like form).
of wine. 3196
{3196} Prime
יַיִן
yayin
{yah'-yin}
From an unused root meaning to effervesce; wine (as fermented); by implication intoxication.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Samuel 16:1

_ _ 2 Samuel 16:1-4. Ziba, by false suggestions, claims his master’s inheritance.

_ _ Ziba the servant of Mephibosheth met him — This crafty man, anticipating the certain failure of Absalom’s conspiracy, took steps to prepare for his future advancement on the restoration of the king.

_ _ a bottle of wine — a large goatskin vessel. Its size made the supply of wine proportioned to the rest of his present.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Samuel 16:1-4

_ _ We read before how kind David was to Mephibosheth the son of Jonathan, how he prudently entrusted his servant Ziba with the management of his estate, while he generously entertained him at his own table, 2 Samuel 9:10. This matter was well settled; but, it seems, Ziba is not content to be manager, he longs to be master, of Mephibosheth's estate. Now, he thinks, is his time to make himself so; if he can procure a grant of it from the crown, whether David or Absalom get the better it is all one to him, he hopes he shall secure his prey, which he promises himself by fishing in troubled waters. In order hereunto, 1. He made David a handsome present of provisions, which was the more welcome because it came seasonably (2 Samuel 16:1), and with this he designed to incline him to himself; for a man's gift maketh room for him, and bringeth him before great men, Proverbs 18:16. Nay, Whithersoever it turneth, it prospereth, Proverbs 17:8. David inferred from this that Ziba was a very discreet and generous man, and well affected to him, when, in all, he designed nothing but to make his own market and to get Mephibosheth's estate settled upon himself. Shall the prospect of advantage in this world make men generous to the rich? and shall not the belief of an abundant recompence in the resurrection of the just make us charitable to the poor? Luke 14:14. Ziba was very considerate in the present he brought to David; it was what would do him some good in his present distress, 2 Samuel 16:2. Observe, The wine was intended for those that were faint, not for the king's own drinking, or the courtiers; it seems, they did not commonly use it, but it was for cordials for those that were ready to perish, Proverbs 31:6. Blessed art thou, O land! when thy princes use wine for strength, as David did, and not for drunkenness, as Absalom did, ch. 13:28. See Ecclesiastes 10:17. Whatever Ziba intended in this present, God's providence sent it to David for his support very graciously. God makes use of bad men for good purposes to his people, and sends them meat by ravens. Having by his present insinuated himself into David's affection, and gained credit with him, the next thing he has to do for the compassing of his end is to incense him against Mephibosheth, which he does by a false accusation, representing him as ungratefully designing to raise himself by the present broils, and to recover the crown to his own head, now that David and his son were contending for it. David enquires for him as one of his family, which gives Ziba occasion to tell this false story of him, 2 Samuel 16:3. What immense damages do masters often sustain by the lying tongues of their servants! David knew Mephibosheth not to be an ambitious man, but easy in his place, and well-affected to him and his government; nor could he be so weak as to expect with his lame legs to climb the ladder of preferment; yet David gives credit to the calumny, and, without further enquiry or consideration, convicts Mephibosheth of treason, seizes his lands as forfeited, and grants them to Ziba: Behold, thine are all that pertained to Mephibosheth (2 Samuel 16:4), a rash judgment, and which afterwards he was ashamed of, when the truth came to light, 2 Samuel 19:29. Princes cannot help it, but they will be sometimes (as our law speaks) deceived in their grants; but they ought to use all means possible to discover the truth and to guard against malicious designing men, who would impose upon them, as Ziba did upon David. Having by his wiles gained his point, Ziba secretly laughed at the king's credulity, congratulated himself on his success, and departed, with a great compliment upon the king, that he valued his favour more than Mephibosheth's estate: “Let me find grace in thy sight, O king! and I have enough.” Great men ought always to be jealous of flatterers, and remember that nature has given them two ears, that they may hear both sides.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Samuel 16:1

Bottle — A large bottle, or vessel proportionable to the other provisions.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

2 Samuel 16:1

And when David was a little past the (a) top [of the hill], behold, Ziba the servant of Mephibosheth met him, with a couple of asses saddled, and upon them two hundred [loaves] of bread, and an hundred bunches of raisins, and an hundred of summer fruits, and a bottle of wine.

(a) Which was the hill of olives, (2 Samuel 15:30).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
little past:

2 Samuel 15:30 And David went up by the ascent of [mount] Olivet, and wept as he went up, and had his head covered, and he went barefoot: and all the people that [was] with him covered every man his head, and they went up, weeping as they went up.
2 Samuel 15:32 And it came to pass, that [when] David was come to the top [of the mount], where he worshipped God, behold, Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent, and earth upon his head:

Ziba:

2 Samuel 9:2 And [there was] of the house of Saul a servant whose name [was] Ziba. And when they had called him unto David, the king said unto him, [Art] thou Ziba? And he said, Thy servant [is he].
2 Samuel 9:9-12 Then the king called to Ziba, Saul's servant, and said unto him, I have given unto thy master's son all that pertained to Saul and to all his house. ... And Mephibosheth had a young son, whose name [was] Micha. And all that dwelt in the house of Ziba [were] servants unto Mephibosheth.

with a couple:

2 Samuel 17:27-29 And it came to pass, when David was come to Mahanaim, that Shobi the son of Nahash of Rabbah of the children of Ammon, and Machir the son of Ammiel of Lodebar, and Barzillai the Gileadite of Rogelim, ... And honey, and butter, and sheep, and cheese of kine, for David, and for the people that [were] with him, to eat: for they said, The people [is] hungry, and weary, and thirsty, in the wilderness.
2 Samuel 19:32 Now Barzillai was a very aged man, [even] fourscore years old: and he had provided the king of sustenance while he lay at Mahanaim; for he [was] a very great man.
1 Samuel 17:17-18 And Jesse said unto David his son, Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched [corn], and these ten loaves, and run to the camp to thy brethren; ... And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of [their] thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge.
1 Samuel 25:18 Then Abigail made haste, and took two hundred loaves, and two bottles of wine, and five sheep ready dressed, and five measures of parched [corn], and an hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of figs, and laid [them] on asses.
1 Chronicles 12:40 Moreover they that were nigh them, [even] unto Issachar and Zebulun and Naphtali, brought bread on asses, and on camels, and on mules, and on oxen, [and] meat, meal, cakes of figs, and bunches of raisins, and wine, and oil, and oxen, and sheep abundantly: for [there was] joy in Israel.
Proverbs 18:16 A man's gift maketh room for him, and bringeth him before great men.
Proverbs 29:4-5 The king by judgment establisheth the land: but he that receiveth gifts overthroweth it. ... A man that flattereth his neighbour spreadeth a net for his feet.

summer:
These were probably pumpkins, cucumbers, or water-melons; the two latter being extensively used in the East to refresh travellers in the burning heat of the summer; and probably, as Mr. Harmer supposes, called summer fruits on this very account.
Jeremiah 40:10 As for me, behold, I will dwell at Mizpah to serve the Chaldeans, which will come unto us: but ye, gather ye wine, and summer fruits, and oil, and put [them] in your vessels, and dwell in your cities that ye have taken.
Jeremiah 40:12 Even all the Jews returned out of all places whither they were driven, and came to the land of Judah, to Gedaliah, unto Mizpah, and gathered wine and summer fruits very much.
Amos 8:1 Thus hath the Lord GOD shewed unto me: and behold a basket of summer fruit.
Micah 7:1 Woe is me! for I am as when they have gathered the summer fruits, as the grapegleanings of the vintage: [there is] no cluster to eat: my soul desired the firstripe fruit.

a bottle:

1 Samuel 10:3 Then shalt thou go on forward from thence, and thou shalt come to the plain of Tabor, and there shall meet thee three men going up to God to Bethel, one carrying three kids, and another carrying three loaves of bread, and another carrying a bottle of wine:
1 Samuel 16:20 And Jesse took an ass [laden] with bread, and a bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent [them] by David his son unto Saul.
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1S 10:3; 16:20; 17:17; 25:18. 2S 9:2, 9; 15:30, 32; 17:27; 19:32. 1Ch 12:40. Pv 18:16; 29:4. Jr 40:10, 12. Am 8:1. Mi 7:1.

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