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2 Samuel 10:6 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And when the children of Ammon saw that they were become odious to David, the children of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Beth-rehob, and the Syrians of Zobah, twenty thousand footmen, and the king of Maacah with a thousand men, and the men of Tob twelve thousand men.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And when the children of Ammon saw that they stank before David, the children of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Bethrehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maacah a thousand men, and of Ishtob twelve thousand men.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now when the sons of Ammon saw that they had become odious to David, the sons of Ammon sent and hired the Arameans of Beth-rehob and the Arameans of Zobah, 20,000 foot soldiers, and the king of Maacah with 1,000 men, and the men of Tob with 12,000 men.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And when the children of Ammon saw that they had made themselves odious before David, the children of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Beth-rehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maacah a thousand men, and of Ish-tob twelve thousand men.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And the children of Ammon saw that they had made themselves odious to David; and the children of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Beth-Rehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, twenty thousand footmen, and the king of Maacah [with] a thousand men, and the men of Tob twelve thousand men.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, when the sons of Ammon saw that they had made themselves odious with David, the sons of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Beth-rehob, and the Syrians of Zoba—twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maacah—a thousand men, and men of Tob—twelve thousand men.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And the Bene-Ammon see that they have been abhorred by David, and the Bene-Ammon send and hire Aram of Beth-Rehob, and Aram of Zoba, twenty thousand footmen, and the king of Maacah [with] a thousand men, and Ish-Tob [with] twelve thousand men;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the children of Ammon seeing that they had done an injury to David, sent and hired the Syrians of Rohob, and the Syrians of Soba, twenty thousand footmen, and of the king of Maacha a thousand men, and of Istob twelve thousand men.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And when the children of Ammon saw that they stanke before Dauid, the children of Ammon sent, and hired the Syrians of Beth-Rehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, twentie thousand footmen, and of king Maacah, a thousand men, and of Ishtob twelue thousand men.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the children of Ammon saw that the people of David were ashamed; and the children of Ammon sent, and hired the Syrians of Baethraam, and the Syrians of Zobah{gr.Suba}, and Roob, twenty thousand footmen, and the king of Amalek{gr.Amalec} with a thousand men, and Istob with twelve thousand men.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And when the children of Ammon saw that they stank before Dawid, the children of Ammon sent and hired the Arammim of Beth Rechov, and the Arammim of Tzova, twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maakhah a thousand men, and of Ish Tov twelve thousand men.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And when the children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of `Ammn עַמּוֹן 5983
{5983} Prime
עַמּוֹן
`Ammown
{am-mone'}
From H5971; tribal, that is, inbred; Ammon, a son of Lot; also his posterity and their country.
saw 7200
{7200} Prime
רָאָה
ra'ah
{raw-aw'}
A primitive root; to see, literally or figuratively (in numerous applications, direct and implied, transitively, intransitively and causatively).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
that x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
they stank 887
{0887} Prime
בָּאַשׁ
ba'ash
{baw-ash'}
A primitive root; to smell bad; figuratively to be offensive morally.
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
before Dwi דָּוִד, 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
the children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of `Ammn עַמּוֹן 5983
{5983} Prime
עַמּוֹן
`Ammown
{am-mone'}
From H5971; tribal, that is, inbred; Ammon, a son of Lot; also his posterity and their country.
sent 7971
{7971} Prime
שָׁלַח
shalach
{shaw-lakh'}
A primitive root; to send away, for, or out (in a great variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and hired 7936
{7936} Prime
שָׂכַר
sakar
{saw-kar'}
The second form by permutation and used in Ezra 4:5; a primitive root (apparently akin (by prosthesis) to H3739 through the idea of temporary purchase; compare H7937); to hire.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the rammm אֲרַמִּים 758
{0758} Prime
אֲרַם
'Aram
{a-rawm'}
From the same as H0759; the highland; Aram or Syria, and its inhabitants; also the name of a son of Shem, a grandson of Nahor, and of an Israelite.
of B Rv בֵּית־רְחוֹב, 1050
{1050} Prime
בֵּית רְחוֹב
Beyth R@chowb
{bayth re-khobe'}
From H1004 and H7339; house of (the) street; Beth-Rechob, a place in Palestine.
and the rammm אֲרַמִּים 758
{0758} Prime
אֲרַם
'Aram
{a-rawm'}
From the same as H0759; the highland; Aram or Syria, and its inhabitants; also the name of a son of Shem, a grandson of Nahor, and of an Israelite.
of Xv צוֹבָא, 6678
{6678} Prime
צוֹבָא
Tsowba'
{tso-baw'}
From an unused root meaning to station; a station; Zoba or Zobah, a region of Syria.
twenty 6242
{6242} Prime
עֶשְׂרִים
`esriym
{es-reem'}
From H6235; twenty; also (ordinal) twentieth.
thousand 505
{0505} Prime
אֶלֶף
'eleph
{eh'-lef}
Properly the same as H0504; hence (an ox's head being the first letter of the alphabet, and this eventually used as a numeral) a thousand.
footmen, 7273
{7273} Prime
רַגְלִי
ragliy
{rag-lee'}
From H7272; a foot man (soldier).
and of king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
Ma` מַעֲכָה 4601
{4601} Prime
מַעֲכָה
Ma`akah
{mah-ak-aw'}
From H4600; depression; Maakah (or Maakath), the name of a place in Syria, also of a Mesopotamian, of three Israelites, and of four Israelitesses and one Syrian woman.
a thousand 505
{0505} Prime
אֶלֶף
'eleph
{eh'-lef}
Properly the same as H0504; hence (an ox's head being the first letter of the alphabet, and this eventually used as a numeral) a thousand.
men, 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
and of Κ v אִישׁ־טוֹב 382
{0382} Prime
אִישׁ־טוֹב
'Iysh-Towb
{eesh-tobe'}
From H0376 and H2897; man of Tob; Ish-Tob, a place in Palestine.
twelve 6240
{6240} Prime
עָשָׂר
`asar
{aw-sawr'}
For H6235; ten (only in combination), that is, the 'teens'; also (ordinal) a 'teenth'.
8147
{8147} Prime
שְׁתַּיִם
sh@nayim
{shen-ah'-yim}
(The first form being dual of H8145; the second form being feminine); two; also (as ordinal) twofold.
thousand 505
{0505} Prime
אֶלֶף
'eleph
{eh'-lef}
Properly the same as H0504; hence (an ox's head being the first letter of the alphabet, and this eventually used as a numeral) a thousand.
men. 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Samuel 10:6-14

_ _ 2 Samuel 10:6-14. The Ammonites overcome.

_ _ when the children of Ammon saw that they stank before David — To chastise those insolent and inhospitable Ammonites, who had violated the common law of nations, David sent a large army under the command of Joab, while they, informed of the impending attack, made energetic preparations to repel it by engaging the services of an immense number of Syrian mercenaries.

_ _ Beth-rehob — the capital of the low-lying region between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.

_ _ Zoba — (see on 2 Samuel 8:3).

_ _ of king Maacah — His territories lay on the other side of Jordan, near Gilead (Deuteronomy 3:14).

_ _ Ish-tob — that is, “the men of Tob” — the place of Jephthah’s marauding adventures (see also 1 Chronicles 19:6; Psalms 60:1, title). As the Israelite soldiers poured into the Ammonite territory, that people met them at the frontier town of Medeba (1 Chronicles 19:7-9), the native troops covering the city, while the Syrian mercenaries lay at some distance encamped in the fields. In making the attack, Joab divided his forces into two separate detachments — the one of which, under the command of his brother, Abishai, was to concentrate its attack upon the city, while he himself marched against the overwhelming host of mercenary auxiliaries. It was a just and necessary war that had been forced on Israel, and they could hope for the blessing of God upon their arms. With great judgment the battle opened against the mercenaries, who could not stand against the furious onset of Joab, and not feeling the cause their own, consulted their safety by flight. The Ammonites, who had placed their chief dependence upon a foreign aid, then retreated to entrench themselves within the walls of the town.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Samuel 10:6-14

_ _ Here we have, I. The preparation which the Ammonites made for war, 2 Samuel 10:6. They saw they had made themselves very odious to David and obnoxious to his just displeasure. This they might easily have foreseen when they abused his ambassadors, which was no other than a challenge to war, and a bold defiance of him. Yet, it seems, they had not considered how unable they were, with their thousands, to meet his; for now they found themselves an unequal match, and were forced to hire forces of other nations into their service. Thus sinners daringly provoke God, and expose themselves to his wrath, and never consider that he is stronger than they, 1 Corinthians 10:22. The Ammonites gave the affront first, and they were the first that raised forces to justify it. Had they humbled themselves, and begged David's pardon, probably an honorary satisfaction might have atoned for the offence. But, when they were thus desperately resolved to stand by what they had done, they courted their own ruin.

_ _ II. The speedy descent which David's forces made upon them, 2 Samuel 10:7. When David heard of their military preparations, he sent Joab with a great army to attack them, 2 Samuel 10:7. Those that are at war with the Son of David not only give the provocation, but begin the war; for he waits to be gracious, but they strengthen themselves against him, and therefore, if they turn not, he will whet his sword, Psalms 7:12. God has forces to send against those that set his wrath at defiance (Isaiah 5:19), which will convince them, when it is too late, that none ever hardened his heart against God and prospered. It was David's prudence to carry the war into their country, and fight them at the entering in of the gate of their capital city, Rabbah, as some think, or Medeba, a city in their borders, before which they pitched to guard their coast, 1 Chronicles 19:7. Such are the terrors and desolations of war that every good prince will, in love to his people, keep it as much as may be at a distance from them.

_ _ III. Preparations made on both sides for an engagement. 1. The enemy disposed themselves into two bodies, one of Ammonites, which, being their own, were posted at the gate of the city; the other of Syrians, whom they had taken into their pay, and who were therefore posted at a distance in the field, to charge the forces of Israel in the flank or rear, while the Ammonites charged them in the front, 2 Samuel 10:8. 2. Joab, like a wise general, was soon aware of the design, and accordingly divided his forces: the choicest men he took under his own command, to fight the Syrians, whom probably he knew to be the better soldiers, and, being hired men, better versed in the arts of war, 2 Samuel 10:9. The rest of the forces he put under the command of Abishai his brother, to engage the Ammonites, 2 Samuel 10:10. It should seem, Joab found the enemy so well prepared to receive them that his conduct and courage were never so tried as now.

_ _ IV. Joab's speech before the battle, 2 Samuel 10:11, 2 Samuel 10:12. It is not long, but pertinent, and brave. 1. He prudently concerts the matter with Abishai his brother, that the dividing of the forces might not be the weakening of them, but that, which part soever was borne hard upon, the other should come in to its assistance. He supposes the worst, that one of them should be obliged to give back; and in that case, upon a signal given, the other should send a detachment to relieve it. Note, Mutual helpfulness is brotherly duty. If occasion be, thou shalt help me, and I will help thee. Christ's soldiers should thus strengthen one another's hands in their spiritual warfare. The strong must succour and help the weak. Those that through grace are conquerors over temptation must counsel, and comfort, and pray for, those that are tempted. When thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren, Luke 22:32. The members of the natural body help one another, 1 Corinthians 12:21. 2. He bravely encourages himself, and his brother, and the rest of the officers and soldiers, to do their utmost. Great dangers put an edge upon true courage. When Joab saw the front of the battle was against him, both before and behind, instead of giving orders to make an honourable retreat, he animated his men to charge so much more furiously: Be of good courage and let us play the men, not for pay and preferment, for honour and fame, but for our people, and for the cities of our God, for the public safety and welfare, in which the glory of God is so much interested. God and our country was the word. “Let us be valiant, from a principle of love to Israel, that are our people, descended from the same stock, for whom we are employed, and in whose peace we shall have peace; and from a principle of love to God, for they are his cities that we are fighting in the defence of.” The relation which any person or thing stands in to God should endear it to us, and engage us to do our utmost in its service. 3. He piously leaves the issue with God: “When we have done our part, according to the duty of our place, let the Lord do that which seemeth to him good.” Let nothing be wanting in us, whatever the success be; let God's work be done by us, and then God's will be done concerning us. When we make conscience of doing our duty we may, with the greatest satisfaction, leave the event with God, not thinking that our valour binds him to prosper us, but that still he may do as he pleases, yet hoping for his salvation in his own way and time.

_ _ V. The victory Joab obtained over the confederate forces of Syria and Ammon, 2 Samuel 10:13, 2 Samuel 10:14. He provided for the worst, and put the case that the Syrians and Ammonites might prove too strong for him (2 Samuel 10:11), but he proved too strong for them both. We do not hinder our success by preparing for disappointment. The Syrians were first routed by Joab, and then the Ammonites by Abishai; the Ammonites seem not to have fought at all, but, upon the retreat of the Syrians, to have fled into the city. It is a temptation to soldiers to fly when they have a city at their backs to fly to. It is one thing when men may either fight or fly and another thing when they must either fight or die.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

2 Samuel 10:6

And when the children of Ammon saw that they (c) stank before David, the children of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Bethrehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maacah a thousand men, and of Ishtob twelve thousand men.

(c) That they deserved David's displeasure, for the harm done to his ambassadors.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
stank:

Genesis 34:30 And Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, Ye have troubled me to make me to stink among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites: and I [being] few in number, they shall gather themselves together against me, and slay me; and I shall be destroyed, I and my house.
Exodus 5:21 And they said unto them, The LORD look upon you, and judge; because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us.
1 Samuel 13:4 And all Israel heard say [that] Saul had smitten a garrison of the Philistines, and [that] Israel also was had in abomination with the Philistines. And the people were called together after Saul to Gilgal.
1 Samuel 27:12 And Achish believed David, saying, He hath made his people Israel utterly to abhor him; therefore he shall be my servant for ever.
1 Chronicles 19:6-7 And when the children of Ammon saw that they had made themselves odious to David, Hanun and the children of Ammon sent a thousand talents of silver to hire them chariots and horsemen out of Mesopotamia, and out of Syriamaachah, and out of Zobah. ... So they hired thirty and two thousand chariots, and the king of Maachah and his people; who came and pitched before Medeba. And the children of Ammon gathered themselves together from their cities, and came to battle.

Syrians of Bethrehob:

2 Samuel 8:3 David smote also Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his border at the river Euphrates.
2 Samuel 8:5 And when the Syrians of Damascus came to succour Hadadezer king of Zobah, David slew of the Syrians two and twenty thousand men.
2 Samuel 8:12 Of Syria, and of Moab, and of the children of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Amalek, and of the spoil of Hadadezer, son of Rehob, king of Zobah.
, Zobah,
Proverbs 25:8 Go not forth hastily to strive, lest [thou know not] what to do in the end thereof, when thy neighbour hath put thee to shame.
Isaiah 8:9-10 Associate yourselves, O ye people, and ye shall be broken in pieces; and give ear, all ye of far countries: gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces; gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces. ... Take counsel together, and it shall come to nought; speak the word, and it shall not stand: for God [is] with us.

Maacah:

Joshua 13:11-13 And Gilead, and the border of the Geshurites and Maachathites, and all mount Hermon, and all Bashan unto Salcah; ... Nevertheless the children of Israel expelled not the Geshurites, nor the Maachathites: but the Geshurites and the Maachathites dwell among the Israelites until this day.

Ishtob:
or, the men of Tob,
Judges 11:3 Then Jephthah fled from his brethren, and dwelt in the land of Tob: and there were gathered vain men to Jephthah, and went out with him.
Judges 11:5 And it was so, that when the children of Ammon made war against Israel, the elders of Gilead went to fetch Jephthah out of the land of Tob:
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 34:30. Ex 5:21. Jsh 13:11. Jg 11:3, 5. 1S 13:4; 27:12. 2S 8:3, 5, 12. 1Ch 19:6. Pv 25:8. Is 8:9.

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