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2 Kings 17:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel, [and reigned] nine years.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah, Hoshea the son of Elah became king over Israel in Samaria, [and reigned] nine years.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah, Hoshea the son of Elah began to reign in Samaria over Israel, for nine years.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah, began Hosea son of Elah to reign in Samaria, over Israel, [and he reigned] nine years.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah reigned hath Hoshea son of Elah in Samaria, over Israel—nine years,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— In the twelfth year of Achaz king of Juda, Osee the son of Ela reigned in Samaria, over Israel, nine years.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— In the twelfth yeere of Ahaz, king of Iudah, began Hoshea the sonne of Elah to reigne in Samaria, ouer Israel nine yeeres.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— In the twelfth year of Ahaz{gr.Achaz} king of Judah{gr.Juda} began Hosea{gr.Osee} the son of Elah{gr.Ela} to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— In the twelfth year of Achaz king of Yehudah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Shomron over Yisrael nine years.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
In the twelfth 8147
{8147} Prime
שְׁתַּיִם
sh@nayim
{shen-ah'-yim}
(The first form being dual of H8145; the second form being feminine); two; also (as ordinal) twofold.
6240
{6240} Prime
עָשָׂר
`asar
{aw-sawr'}
For H6235; ten (only in combination), that is, the 'teens'; also (ordinal) a 'teenth'.
year 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
of z אָחָז 271
{0271} Prime
אָחָז
'Achaz
{aw-khawz'}
From H0270; possessor; Achaz, the name of a Jewish king and of an Israelite.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
of Yh יְהוּדָה 3063
{3063} Prime
יְהוּדָה
Y@huwdah
{yeh-hoo-daw'}
From H3034; celebrated; Jehudah (or Judah), the name of five Israelites; also of the tribe descended from the first, and of its territory.
began H` הוֹשֵׁעַ 1954
{1954} Prime
הוֹשֵׁעַ
Howshea`
{ho-shay'-ah}
From H3467; deliverer; Hoshea, the name of five Israelites.
the son 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of l אֵלָה 425
{0425} Prime
אֵלָה
'Elah
{ay-law'}
The same as H0424; Elah, the name of an Edomite, or four Israelites, and also of a place in Palestine.
to reign 4427
{4427} Prime
מָלַךְ
malak
{maw-lak'}
A primitive root; to reign; inceptively to ascend the throne; causatively to induct into royalty; hence (by implication) to take counsel.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
in mrn שֹׁמרוֹן 8111
{8111} Prime
שֹׁמְרוֹן
Shom@rown
{sho-mer-one'}
From the active participle of H8104; watch station; Shomeron, a place in Palestine.
over x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
nine 8672
{8672} Prime
תֵּשַׁע
tesha`
{tay'-shah}
The second form is the masculine of the first; perhaps from H8159 through the idea of a turn to the next or full number ten; nine or (ordinal) ninth.
years. 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Kings 17:1

_ _ 2 Kings 17:1-16. Hoshea’s wicked reign.

_ _ In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah, began Hoshea ... to reign — The statement in 2 Kings 15:30 may be reconciled with the present passage in the following manner: Hoshea conspired against Pekah in the twentieth year of the latter, which was the eighteenth of Jotham’s reign. It was two years before Hoshea was acknowledged king of Israel, that is, in the fourth of Ahaz, and twentieth of Jotham. In the twelfth year of Ahaz his reign began to be tranquil and prosperous [Calmet].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Kings 17:1-6

_ _ We have here the reign and ruin of Hoshea, the last of the kings of Israel, concerning whom observe,

_ _ I. That, though he forced his way to the crown by treason and murder (as we read 2 Kings 15:30), yet he gained not the possession of it till seven or eight years after; for it was in the fourth year of Ahaz that he slew Pekah, but did not himself begin to reign till the twelfth year of Ahaz, 2 Kings 17:1. Whether by the king of Assyria, or by the king of Judah, or by some of his own people, does not appear, but it seems so long he was kept out of the throne he aimed at. Justly were his bad practices thus chastised, and the word of the prophet was thus fulfilled (Hosea 10:3), Now they shall say We have no king, because we feared not the Lord.

_ _ II. That, though he was bad, yet not so bad as the kings of Israel had been before him (2 Kings 17:2), not so devoted to the calves as they had been. One of them (that at Dan), the Jews say, had been, before this, carried away by the king of Assyria in the expedition recorded 2 Kings 15:29, (to which perhaps the prophet refers, Hosea 8:5, Thy calf, O Samaria! has cast thee off), which made him put the less confidence in the other. And some say that this Hoshea took off the embargo which the former kings had put their subjects under, forbidding them to go up to Jerusalem to worship, which he permitted those to do that had a mind to it. But what shall we think of this dispensation of providence, that the destruction of the kingdom of Israel should come in the reign of one of the best of its kings? Thy judgments, O God! are a great deep. God would hereby show that in bringing this ruin upon them he designed to punish, 1. Not only the sins of that generation, but of the foregoing ages, and to reckon for the iniquities of their fathers, who had been long in filing the measure and treasuring up wrath against this day of wrath. 2. Not only the sins of their kings, but the sins of the people. If Hoshea was not so bad as the former kings, yet the people were as bad as those that went before them, and it was an aggravation of their badness, and brought ruin the sooner, that their king did not set them so bad an example as the former kings had done, nor hinder them from reforming; he gave them leave to do better, but they did as bad as ever, which laid the blame of their sin and ruin wholly upon themselves.

_ _ III. That the destruction came gradually. They were for some time made tributaries before they were made captives to the king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:3), and, if that less judgment had prevailed to humble and reform them, the greater would have been prevented.

_ _ IV. That they brought it upon themselves by the indirect course they took to shake off the yoke of the king of Assyria, 2 Kings 17:4. Had the king and people of Israel applied to God, made their peace with him and their prayers to him, they might have recovered their liberty, ease, and honour; but they withheld their tribute, and trusted to the king of Egypt to assist them in their revolt, which, if it had taken effect, would have been but to change their oppressors. But Egypt became to them the staff of a broken reed. This provoked the king of Assyria to proceed against them with the more severity. Men get nothing by struggling with the net, but entangle themselves the more.

_ _ V. That it was an utter destruction that came upon them. 1. The king of Israel was made a prisoner; he was shut up and bound, being, it is probable, taken by surprise, before Samaria was besieged. 2. The land of Israel was made a prey. The army of the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land, made themselves master of it (2 Kings 17:5), and treated the people as traitors to be punished with the sword of justice rather than as fair enemies. 3. The royal city of Israel was besieged, and at length taken. Three years it held out after the country was conquered, and no doubt a great deal of misery was endured at that time which is not particularly recorded; but the brevity of the story, and the passing of this matter over lightly, methinks, intimate that they were abandoned of God and he did not now regard the affliction of Israel, as sometimes as he had done. 4. The people of Israel were carried captives into Assyria, 2 Kings 17:6. The generality of the people, those that were of any note, were forced away into the conqueror's country, to be slaves and beggars there. (1.) Thus he was pleased to exercise a dominion over them, and to show that they were entirely at his disposal. (2.) By depriving them of their possessions and estates, real and personal, and exposing them to all the hardships and reproaches of a removal to a strange country, under the power of an imperious army, he chastised them for their rebellion and their endeavour to shake off his yoke. (3.) Thus he effectually prevented all such attempts for the future and secured their country to himself. (4.) Thus he got the benefit of their service in his own country, as Pharaoh did that of their fathers; and so this unworthy people were lost as they were found, and ended as they began, in servitude and under oppression. (5.) Thus he made room for those of his own country that had little, and little to do, at home, to settle in a good land, a land flowing with milk and honey. In all these several ways he served himself by this captivity of the ten tribes. We are here told in what places of his kingdom he disposed of them — in Halah and Habor, in places, we may suppose, far distant from each other, lest they should keep up a correspondence, incorporate again, and become formidable. There, we have reason to think, after some time they were so mingled with the nations that they were lost, and the name of Israel was no more in remembrance. Those that forgot God were themselves forgotten; those that studied to be like the nations were buried among them; and those that would not serve God in their own land were made to serve their enemies in a strange land. It is probable that they were the men of honour and estates who were carried captive, and that many of the meaner sort of people were left behind, many of every tribe, who either went over to Judah or became subject to the Assyrian colonies, and their posterity were Galileans or Samaritans. But thus ended Israel as a nation; now they became Lo-amminot a people, and Lo-ruhamahunpitied. Now Canaan spued them out. When we read of their entry under Hoshea the son of Nun who would have thought that such as this should be their exit under Hoshea the son of Elah? Thus Rome's glory in Augustus sunk, many ages after, in Augustulus. Providence so ordered the eclipsing of the honour of the ten tribes that the honour of Judah (the royal tribe) and Levi (the holy tribe), which yet remained, might shine the brighter. Yet we find a number sealed of every one of the twelve tribes (Rev. 7) except Dan. James writes to the twelve tribes scattered abroad (James 1:1) and Paul speaks of the twelve tribes which instantly served God day and night (Acts 26:7); so that though we never read of those that were carried captive, nor have any reason to credit the conjecture of some (that they yet remain a distinct body in some remote corner of the world), yet a remnant of them did escape, to keep up the name of Israel, till it came to be worn by the gospel church, the spiritual Israel, in which it will ever remain, Galatians 6:16.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Kings 17:1

To reign — He usurped the kingdom in Ahaz's fourth year; but either was not owned as king, by the generality of the people; or was not accepted and established in his kingdom, 'till Ahaz's twelfth year. Nine — After his confirmation and peaceable possession of his kingdom: for in all, he reigned seventeen, or eighteen years; twelve with Ahaz, who reigned sixteen years, and six with Hezekiah.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 3274, bc 730

In the twelfth:
In
2 Kings 15:30 And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah.
, this is said to be "the twentieth year of Jotham," which Calmet thus reconciles: "Hosea conspired against Pekah, the 20th year of the reign of this prince, which was the 18th of Jotham, king of Judah. Two years after this, that is, the 4th of Ahaz and the 20th of Jotham, Hosea made himself master of a part of the kingdom, according to
2 Kings 15:30 And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah.
. Finally, the 12th year of Ahaz, Hosea had peaceable possession of the whole kingdom, agreeably to
2 Kings 17:1 In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years.
."

Hoshea:
"After an interregnum,
2 Kings 15:30 And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah.
2 Kings 18:9 And it came to pass in the fourth year of king Hezekiah, which [was] the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, [that] Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria, and besieged it.
."
2 Kings 17:1 In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years.
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