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2 Kings 11:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— When Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she rose and destroyed all the royal offspring.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she rose up and destroyed all the royal seed.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, when, Athaliah, mother of Ahaziah, saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Athaliah [is] mother of Ahaziah, and she hath seen that her son [is] dead, and she riseth, and destroyeth all the seed of the kingdom;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Now Athalia, the mother of Ochozias, seeing that her son was dead, arose and slew all the royal seed.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah sawe that her sonne was dead, she arose, and destroyed all the seed royall.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Athaliah{gr.Gotholia} the mother of Ahaziah{gr.Ochozias} saw that her son was dead, and she destroyed all the seed royal.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And when Athalyah the mother of Achazyah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And when `aly עֲתַליָה 6271
{6271} Prime
From the same as H6270 and H3050; Jah has constrained; Athaljah, the name of an Israelitess and two Israelites.
the mother 517
{0517} Prime
A primitive word; a mother (as the bond of the family); in a wide sense (both literally and figuratively); (like H0001).
of azy אֲחַזיָה 274
{0274} Prime
From H0270 and H3050; Jah has seized; Achazjah, the name of a Jewish and an Israelitish king.
saw 7200
{7200} Prime
A primitive root; to see, literally or figuratively (in numerous applications, direct and implied, transitively, intransitively and causatively).
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
that x3588
(3588) Complement
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
her son 1121
{1121} Prime
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
was dead, 4191
{4191} Prime
A primitive root; to die (literally or figuratively); causatively to kill.
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
she arose 6965
{6965} Prime
A primitive root; to rise (in various applications, literally, figuratively, intensively and causatively).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and destroyed 6
{0006} Prime
A primitive root; properly to wander away, that is lose oneself; by implication to perish (causatively, destroy).
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
(0853) Complement
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
all x3605
(3605) Complement
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the seed 2233
{2233} Prime
From H2232; seed; figuratively fruit, plant, sowing time, posterity.
royal. 4467
{4467} Prime
From H4427; dominion, that is, (abstractly) the estate (rule) or (concretely) the country (realm).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Kings 11:1

_ _ 2 Kings 11:1-3. Jehoash saved from Athaliah’s massacre.

_ _ Athaliah — (See on 2 Chronicles 22:2). She had possessed great influence over her son, who, by her counsels, had ruled in the spirit of the house of Ahab.

_ _ destroyed all the seed royal — all connected with the royal family who might have urged a claim to the throne, and who had escaped the murderous hands of Jehu (2 Chronicles 21:2-4; 2 Chronicles 22:1; 2 Kings 10:13, 2 Kings 10:14). This massacre she was incited to perpetrate — partly from a determination not to let David’s family outlive hers; partly as a measure of self-defense to secure herself against the violence of Jehu, who was bent on destroying the whole of Ahab’s posterity to which she belonged (2 Kings 8:18-26); but chiefly from personal ambition to rule, and a desire to establish the worship of Baal. Such was the sad fruit of the unequal alliance between the son of the pious Jehoshaphat and a daughter of the idolatrous and wicked house of Ahab.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Kings 11:1-3

_ _ God had assured David of the continuance of his family, which is called his ordaining a lamp for his anointed; and this cannot but appear a great thing, now that we have read of the utter extirpation of so many royal families, one after another. Now here we have David's promised lamp almost extinguished and yet wonderfully preserved.

_ _ I. It was almost extinguished by the barbarous malice of Athaliah, the queen-mother, who, when she heard that her son Ahaziah was slain by Jehu, arose and destroyed all the seed-royal (2 Kings 11:1), all that she knew to be akin to the crown. Her husband Jehoram had slain all his brethren the sons of Jehoshaphat, 2 Chronicles 21:4. The Arabians had slain all Jehoram's sons except Ahaziah, 2 Chronicles 22:1. Jehu had slain all their sons (2 Chronicles 22:8) and Ahaziah himself. Surely never was royal blood so profusely shed. Happy the men of inferior birth, who live below envy and emulation! But, as if all this were but a small matter, Athaliah destroyed all that were left of the seed-royal. It was strange that one of the tender sex could be so barbarous, that one who had been herself a king's daughter, a king's wife, and a king's mother, could be so barbarous to a royal family, and a family into which she was herself ingrafted; but she did it, 1. From a spirit of ambition. She thirsted after rule, and thought she could not get to it any other way. That none might reign with her, she slew even the infants and sucklings that might have reigned after her. For fear of a competitor, not any must be reserved for a successor. 2. From a spirit of revenge and rage against God. The house of Ahab being utterly destroyed, and her son Ahaziah among the rest, because he was akin to it, she resolved, as it were, by way of reprisal, to destroy the house of David, and cut off his line, in defiance of God's promise to perpetuate it — a foolish attempt and fruitless, for who can disannul what God hath purposed? Grandmothers have been thought more fond of their grandchildren than they were of their own; yet Ahaziah's own mother is the wilful murderer of Ahazaiah's own sons, and in their infancy too, when she was obliged, above any other, to nurse them and take care of them. Well might she be called Athaliah, that wicked woman (2 Chronicles 24:7), Jezebel's own daughter; yet herein God was righteous, and visited the iniquity of Joram and Ahaziah, those degenerate branches of David's house, upon their children.

_ _ II. It was wonderfully preserved by the pious care of one of Joram's daughters (who was wife to Jehoiada the priest), who stole away one of the king's sons, Joash by name, and hid him, 2 Kings 11:2, 2 Kings 11:3. This was a brand plucked out of the fire; what number were slain we are not told, but, it seems, this being a child in the nurse's arms was not missed, or not enquired after, or at least no found. The person that delivered him was his own aunt, the daughter of wicked Joram; for God will raise up protectors for those whom he will have protected. The place of his safety was the house of the Lord, one of the chambers belonging to the temple, a place Athaliah seldom troubled. His aunt, by bringing him hither, put him under God's special protection, and so hid him by faith, as Moses was hidden. Now were David's words made good to one of his seed (Psalms 27:5), In the secret of his tabernacle shall he hide me. With good reason did this Joash, when he grew up, set himself to repair the house of the Lord, for it had been a sanctuary to him. Now was the promise made to David bound up in one life, and yet it did not fail. Thus to the son of David will God, according to his promise, secure a spiritual seed, which, though sometimes reduced to a small number, brought very low, and seemingly lost, will be perpetuated to the end of time, hidden sometimes and unseen, but hidden in God's pavilion and unhurt. It was a special providence that Joram, though a king, a wicked king, married his daughter to Jehoiada a priest, a godly priest. Some perhaps thought it a disparagement to the royal family to marry a daughter to a clergyman, but it proved a happy marriage, and the saving of the royal family from ruin; for Jehoiada's interest in the temple gave her an opportunity to preserve the child, and her interest in the royal family gave him an opportunity to set him on the throne. See the wisdom and care of Providence, and how it prepares for what it designs; and see what blessings those lay up in store for their families that marry their children to those that are wise and good.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Kings 11:1

She destroyed — This was the fruit of Jehoshaphat's marrying his son to a daughter of that idolatrous house of Ahab. And this dreadful judgment God permitted upon him and his, to shew how much he abhors all such affinities.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

2 Kings 11:1

And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the (a) seed royal.

(a) Meaning, all the posterity of Jehoshaphat, to whom the kingdom belonged: thus God used the cruelty of this woman to destroy the family of Ahab.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 3120, bc 884


2 Chronicles 22:10 But when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal of the house of Judah.
2 Chronicles 24:7 For the sons of Athaliah, that wicked woman, had broken up the house of God; and also all the dedicated things of the house of the LORD did they bestow upon Baalim.

the mother:

2 Kings 8:26 Two and twenty years old [was] Ahaziah when he began to reign; and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. And his mother's name [was] Athaliah, the daughter of Omri king of Israel.
2 Kings 9:27 But when Ahaziah the king of Judah saw [this], he fled by the way of the garden house. And Jehu followed after him, and said, Smite him also in the chariot. [And they did so] at the going up to Gur, which [is] by Ibleam. And he fled to Megiddo, and died there.

and destroyed:
A similar history is related by Mr. Bruce, as having occurred in Abyssinia. Judith "surprised the rock Damo, and slew the whole of the princes, to the number, it is said, of about 400;" while the infant king, Del Naad, was conveyed for safety to a loyal province, and afterwards restored.
Matthew 2:13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.
Matthew 2:16 Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired of the wise men.
Matthew 21:38-39 But when the husbandmen saw the son, they said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance. ... And they caught him, and cast [him] out of the vineyard, and slew [him].

seed royal:
Heb. seed of the kingdom,
2 Kings 25:25 But it came to pass in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, came, and ten men with him, and smote Gedaliah, that he died, and the Jews and the Chaldees that were with him at Mizpah.
Jeremiah 41:1 Now it came to pass in the seventh month, [that] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and the princes of the king, even ten men with him, came unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and there they did eat bread together in Mizpah.
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2K 8:26; 9:27; 25:25. 2Ch 22:10; 24:7. Jr 41:1. Mt 2:13, 16; 21:38.

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