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2 Kings 10:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now Ahab had seventy sons in Samaria. And Jehu wrote letters, and sent to Samaria, unto the rulers of Jezreel, even the elders, and unto them that brought up [the sons of] Ahab, saying,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And Ahab had seventy sons in Samaria. And Jehu wrote letters, and sent to Samaria, unto the rulers of Jezreel, to the elders, and to them that brought up Ahab's [children], saying,
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now Ahab had seventy sons in Samaria. And Jehu wrote letters and sent [them] to Samaria, to the rulers of Jezreel, the elders, and to the guardians of [the children of] Ahab, saying,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And Ahab had seventy sons in Samaria. And Jehu wrote letters, and sent to Samaria, to the rulers of Jezreel, to the elders, and to them that brought up Ahab's [children], saying,
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Now Ahab had seventy sons in Samaria. And Jehu wrote letters, and sent to Samaria, to the princes of Jizreel, to the elders, and to Ahab's guardians, saying,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, Ahab, had seventy sons in Samaria,—so Jehu wrote letters, and sent to Samaria, unto the rulers of Jezreel—the elders, and unto them who had been foster-parents for Ahab, saying:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Ahab hath seventy sons in Samaria, and Jehu writeth letters, and sendeth to Samaria, unto the heads of Jezreel, the elders, and unto the supporters of Ahab, saying,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And Achab had seventy sons in Samaria: so Jehu wrote letters, and sent to Samaria, to the chief men of the city, and to the ancients, and to them that brought up Achab's children, saying:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Ahab had seuentie sonnes in Samaria: and Iehu wrote letters, and sent to Samaria vnto the rulers of Iezreel, to the Elders, and to them that brought vp Ahabs [children], saying,
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Ahab{gr.Achaab} [had] seventy sons in Samaria. And Jehu{gr.Ju} wrote a letter, and sent it into Samaria to the rulers of Samaria, and to the elders, and to the guardians of [the children of] Ahab{gr.Achaab}, saying.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Achav had seventy sons in Shomron. And Yehu wrote letters, and sent to Shomron, unto the rulers of Yizreel, to the elders, and to them that brought up Achav's [children], saying,

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And Av אַחאָב 256
{0256} Prime
אַחְאָב
'Ach'ab
{akh-awb'}
The second form used once (by contraction) in Jeremiah 29:22; from H0251 and H0001; brother (that is, friend) of (his) father; Achab, the name of a king of Israel and of a prophet at Babylon.
had seventy 7657
{7657} Prime
שִׁבְעִים
shib`iym
{shib-eem'}
Multiple of H7651; seventy.
sons 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
in mrn שֹׁמרוֹן. 8111
{8111} Prime
שֹׁמְרוֹן
Shom@rown
{sho-mer-one'}
From the active participle of H8104; watch station; Shomeron, a place in Palestine.
And Yh יֵהוּא 3058
{3058} Prime
יֵהוּא
Yehuw'
{yay-hoo'}
From H3068 and H1931; Jehovah (is) He; Jehu, the name of five Israelites.
wrote 3789
{3789} Prime
כָּתַב
kathab
{kaw-thab'}
A primitive root; to grave; by implication to write (describe, inscribe, prescribe, subscribe).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
letters, 5612
{5612} Prime
סֵפֶר
cepher
{say'-fer}
From H5608; properly writing (the art or a document); by implication a book.
and sent 7971
{7971} Prime
שָׁלַח
shalach
{shaw-lakh'}
A primitive root; to send away, for, or out (in a great variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to mrn שֹׁמרוֹן, 8111
{8111} Prime
שֹׁמְרוֹן
Shom@rown
{sho-mer-one'}
From the active participle of H8104; watch station; Shomeron, a place in Palestine.
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
the rulers 8269
{8269} Prime
שַׂר
sar
{sar}
From H8323; a head person (of any rank or class).
of Yizr`el יִזרְעֶאל, 3157
{3157} Prime
יִזְרְעֶאל
Yizr@`e'l
{yiz-reh-ale'}
From H2232 and H0410; God will sow; Jizreel, the name of two places in Palestine and of two Israelites.
to the elders, 2205
{2205} Prime
זָקֵן
zaqen
{zaw-kane'}
From H2204; old.
and to x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
them that brought up 539
{0539} Prime
אָמַן
'aman
{aw-man'}
A primitive root; properly to build up or support; to foster as a parent or nurse; figuratively to render (or be) firm or faithful, to trust or believe, to be permanent or quiet; morally to be true or certain; once (in Isaiah 30:21; by interchange for H0541) to go to the right hand.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
Av's אַחאָב 256
{0256} Prime
אַחְאָב
'Ach'ab
{akh-awb'}
The second form used once (by contraction) in Jeremiah 29:22; from H0251 and H0001; brother (that is, friend) of (his) father; Achab, the name of a king of Israel and of a prophet at Babylon.
[children], saying, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Kings 10:1-4

_ _ 2 Kings 10:1-17. Jehu causes seventy of Ahab’s children to be beheaded.

_ _ Ahab had seventy sons in Samaria — As it appears (2 Kings 10:13), that grandsons are included it is probable that this number comprehended the whole posterity of Ahab. Their being all assembled in that capital might arise from their being left there on the king’s departure for Ramoth-gilead, or from their taking refuge in some of the strongholds of that city on the news of Jehu’s conspiracy. It may be inferred from the tenor of Jehu’s letters that their first intention was to select the fittest of the royal family and set him up as king. Perhaps this challenge of Jehu was designed as a stroke of policy on his part to elicit their views, and to find out whether they were inclined to be pacific or hostile. The bold character of the man, and the rapid success of his conspiracy, terrified the civic authorities of Samaria and Jezreel into submission.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Kings 10:1-14

_ _ We left Jehu in quiet possession of Jezreel, triumphing over Joram and Jezebel; and we must now attend his further motions. He knew the whole house of Ahab must be cut off, and therefore proceeded in this bloody work, and did not do it deceitfully, or by halves, Jeremiah 48:10.

_ _ I. He got the heads of all the sons of Ahab cut off by their own guardians at Samaria. Seventy sons (or grandsons) Ahab had, Gideon's number, Judges 8:30. In such a number that bore his name his family was likely to be perpetuated, and yet it is extirpated all at once. Such a quiver full of arrows could not protect his house from divine vengeance. Numerous families, if vicious, must not expect to be long prosperous. These sons of Ahab were now at Samaria, a strong city, perhaps brought thither upon occasion of the war with Syria, as a place of safety, or upon notice of Jehu's insurrection; with them were the rulers of Jezreel, that is, the great officers of the court, who went to Samaria to secure themselves or to consult what was to be done. Those of them that were yet under tuition had their tutors with them, who were entrusted with their education in learning, agreeable to their birth and quality, but, it is to be feared, brought them up in the idolatries of their father's house and made them all worshippers of Baal. Jehu did not think fit to bring his forces to Samaria to destroy them, but, that the hand of God might appear the more remarkably in it, made their guardians their murderers. 1. He sent a challenge to their friends to stand by them, 2 Kings 10:2, 2 Kings 10:3. “You that are hearty well-wishers to the house of Ahab, and entirely in its interests, now is your time to appear for it. Samaria is a strong city; you are in possession of it; you have forces at command; you may choose out the likeliest person of all the royal family to head you; you know you are not tied to the eldest, unless he be the best and meetest of your master's sons. If you have any spirit in you, show it, and set one of them on his father's throne, and stand by him with your lives and fortunes.” Not that he desired they should do this, or expected they would, but thus he upbraided them with their cowardice and utter inability to contest with the divine counsels. “Do if you dare, and see what will come of it.” Those that have forsaken their religion have often, with it, lost both their sense and their courage, and deserve to be upbraided with it. 2. Hereby he gained from them a submission. They prudently reasoned with themselves: “Behold, two kings stood not before him, but fell as sacrifices to his rage; how then shall we stand?2 Kings 10:4. Therefore they sent him a surrender of themselves: “We are thy servants, thy subjects, and will do all that thou shalt bid us, right or wrong, and will set up nobody in competition with thee.” They saw it was to no purpose to contend with him, and therefore it was their interest to submit to him. With much more reason may we thus argue ourselves into a subjection to the great God. Many kings and great men have fallen before his wrath, for their wickedness; and how then shall we stand? Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger than he? No, we must either bend or break. 3. This was improved so far as to make them the executioners of those whom they had the tuition of (2 Kings 10:6): If you be mine, bring me the heads of your master's sons by tomorrow at this time. Though he knew it must be done, and was loth to do it himself, one would think he could not expect they should do it. Could they betray such a trust? Could they be cruel to their master's sons? It seems, so low did they stoop in their adoration to the rising sun that they did it; they cut off the heads of those seventy princes, and sent them in baskets a present to Jehu, 2 Kings 10:7. Learn hence not to trust in a friend nor to put confidence in a guide not governed by conscience. One can scarcely expect that he who has been false to his God should ever be faithful to his prince. But observe God's righteousness in their unrighteousness. These elders of Jezreel had been wickedly obsequious to Jezebel's order for the murder of Naboth, 1 Kings 21:11. She gloried, it is likely, in the power she had over them; and now the same base spirit makes them as pliable to Jehu and as ready to obey his orders for the murder of Ahab's sons. Let none aim at arbitrary power, lest they be found rolling a stone which, some time or other, will return upon them. Princes that make their people slaves take the readiest way to make them rebels; and by forcing men's consciences, as Jezebel did, they lose their hold of them. When the separated heads were presented to Jehu, he slyly upbraided those that were the executioners of this vengeance. The heads were laid in two heaps at the gate, the proper place of judgment. There he acquitted the people before God and the world (2 Kings 10:9, You are righteous), and, by what the rulers of Samaria had now done, comparatively acquitted himself: “I slew but one; they have slain all these: I did it by conspiracy and with design; they have done this merely in compliance and with an implicit obedience. Let not the people of Samaria, nor any of the friends of the house of Ahab, ever reproach me for what I have done, when their own elders, and the very guardians of the orphans, have done this.” It is common for those who have done something base to attempt the mitigation of their own reproach by drawing others in to do something worse. But, (2.) He resolves all into the righteous judgment of God (2 Kings 10:10): The Lord hath done that which he spoke by Elijah. God is not the author of any man's sin, but even by that which men do from bad principles God serves his own purposes and glorifies his own name; and he is righteous in that wherein men are unrighteous. When the Assyrian is made the rod of God's anger, and the instrument of his justice, he meaneth not so, neither does his heart think so, Isaiah 10:7.

_ _ II. He proceeded to destroy all that remained of the house of Ahab, not only those that descended from him, but those that were in any relation to him, all the officers of his household, ministers of state, and those in command under him, called here his great men (2 Kings 10:11), all his kinsfolks and acquaintance, who had been partners with him in his wickedness, and his priests, or domestic chaplains, whom he employed in his idolatrous services and who strengthened his hand that he should not turn from his evil way. Having done this in Jezreel, he did the same in Samaria (2 Kings 10:17), slew all that remained to Ahab in Samaria. This was bloody work, and is not now, in any case, to be drawn into a precedent. Let the guilty suffer, but not the guiltless for their sakes. Perhaps such terrible destructions as these were intended as types of the final destruction of all the ungodly. God has a sword, bathed in heaven, which will come down upon the people of his curse, and be filled with blood. Isaiah 34:5, Isaiah 34:6. Then his eye will not spare, neither will he pity.

_ _ III. Providence bringing the brethren of Ahaziah in his way, as he was going on with this execution, he slew them likewise, 2 Kings 10:12-14. The brethren of Ahaziah were slain by the Arabians (2 Chronicles 22:1), but these were the sons of his brethren, as it is there explained (2 Kings 10:8), and they are said to be princes of Judah, and to minister to Ahaziah. Several things concurred to make them obnoxious to the vengeance Jehu was now executing. 1. They were branches of Ahab's house, being descended from Athaliah, and therefore fell within his commission. 2. They were tainted with the wickedness of the house of Ahab. 3. They were now going to make their court to the princes of the house of Ahab, to salute the children of the king and the queen, Joram and Jezebel, which showed that they were linked to them in affection as well as in affinity. These princes, forty-two in number, being appointed as sheep for the sacrifice, were slain with solemnity, at the pit of the shearing-house. The Lord is known by these judgments which he executeth.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

2 Kings 10:1

And Ahab had seventy (a) sons in Samaria. And Jehu wrote letters, and sent to Samaria, unto the rulers of Jezreel, to the elders, and to them that brought up Ahab's [children], saying,

(a) The Scripture calls them sons who are either children or nephews.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
seventy sons:

Judges 8:30 And Gideon had threescore and ten sons of his body begotten: for he had many wives.
Judges 10:4 And he had thirty sons that rode on thirty ass colts, and they had thirty cities, which are called Havothjair unto this day, which [are] in the land of Gilead.
Judges 12:14 And he had forty sons and thirty nephews, that rode on threescore and ten ass colts: and he judged Israel eight years.

in Samaria:

2 Kings 5:3 And she said unto her mistress, Would God my lord [were] with the prophet that [is] in Samaria! for he would recover him of his leprosy.
1 Kings 13:32 For the saying which he cried by the word of the LORD against the altar in Bethel, and against all the houses of the high places which [are] in the cities of Samaria, shall surely come to pass.
1 Kings 16:28 So Omri slept with his fathers, and was buried in Samaria: and Ahab his son reigned in his stead.
2 Chronicles 22:9 And he sought Ahaziah: and they caught him, (for he was hid in Samaria,) and brought him to Jehu: and when they had slain him, they buried him: Because, said they, he [is] the son of Jehoshaphat, who sought the LORD with all his heart. So the house of Ahaziah had no power to keep still the kingdom.

the rulers:

Deuteronomy 16:18 Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just judgment.
1 Kings 21:8-14 So she wrote letters in Ahab's name, and sealed [them] with his seal, and sent the letters unto the elders and to the nobles that [were] in his city, dwelling with Naboth. ... Then they sent to Jezebel, saying, Naboth is stoned, and is dead.

them:
Heb. nourishers
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