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2 Corinthians 4:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— in whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of the unbelieving, that the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, should not dawn [upon them].
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— in whose case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them who believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine to them.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— in whom the god of this world has blinded the thoughts of the unbelieving, so that the radiancy of the glad tidings of the glory of the Christ, who is [the] image of God, should not shine forth [for them].
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— In whom, the god of this age, hath blinded the minds of the unbelieving, to the end they may not discern the radiance of the glad-message of the glory of the Christ—who is the image of God.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— in whom the god of this age did blind the minds of the unbelieving, that there doth not shine forth to them the enlightening of the good news of the glory of the Christ, who is the image of God;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of unbelievers, that the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, should not shine unto them.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— In whom the God of this world hath blinded the minds of them which beleeue not, lest the light of the glorious Gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine vnto them.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— (to) them whose minds the god of this world hath blinded because they believe not; lest the light of the gospel of the glory of Meshiha, who is the image of Aloha, should arise upon them.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— to them whose minds the God of this world hath blinded, in order that they might not believe, lest the light of the gospel of the glory of the Messiah (who is the likeness of God) should dawn upon them.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
In 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
whom 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
god 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
of this 5127
{5127} Prime
τούτου
toutou
{too'-too}
Genitive singular masculine or neuter of G3778; of (from or concerning) this (person or thing).
world 165
{0165} Prime
αἰών
aion
{ahee-ohn'}
From the same as G0104; properly an age; by extension perpetuity (also past); by implication the world; specifically (Jewish) a Messianic period (present or future).
hath blinded 5186
{5186} Prime
τυφλόω
tuphloo
{toof-lo'-o}
From G5185; to make blind, that is, (figuratively) to obscure.
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
minds 3540
{3540} Prime
νόημα
noema
{no'-ay-mah}
From G3539; a perception, that is, purpose, or (by implication) the intellect, disposition, itself.
of them which believe not, 571
{0571} Prime
ἄπιστος
apistos
{ap'-is-tos}
From G0001 (as a negative particle) and G4103; (actively) disbelieving, that is, without Christian faith (specifically a heathen); (passively) untrustworthy (person), or incredible (thing).
lest 3361
{3361} Prime
μή
me
{may}
A primary particle of qualified negation (whereas G3756 expresses an absolute denial); (adverbially) not, (conjugationally) lest; also (as interrogitive implying a negative answer [whereas G3756 expects an affirmative one]); whether.
y1519
[1519] Standard
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
light 5462
{5462} Prime
φωτισμός
photismos
{fo-tis-mos'}
From G5461; illumination (figurative).
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
glorious 1391
{1391} Prime
δόξα
doxa
{dox'-ah}
From the base of G1380; glory (as very apparent), in a wide application (literally or figuratively, objectively or subjectively).
gospel 2098
{2098} Prime
εὐαγγέλιον
euaggelion
{yoo-ang-ghel'-ee-on}
From the same as G2097; a good message, that is, the gospel.
of Christ, 5547
{5547} Prime
Χριστός
Christos
{khris-tos'}
From G5548; anointed, that is, the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus.
who 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
is 2076
{2076} Prime
ἐστί
esti
{es-tee'}
Third person singular present indicative of G1510; he (she or it) is; also (with neuter plural) they are.
z5748
<5748> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 1612
the image 1504
{1504} Prime
εἰκών
eikon
{i-kone'}
From G1503; a likeness, that is, (literally) statue, profile, or (figuratively) representation, resemblance.
of God, 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
should shine 826
{0826} Prime
αὐγάζω
augazo
{ow-gad'-zo}
From G0827; to beam forth (figuratively).
z5658
<5658> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Infinitive (See G5795)
Count - 516
unto them. 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Corinthians 4:4

_ _ In whom — Translate, “In whose case.”

_ _ god of this world — The worldly make him their God (Philippians 3:19). He is, in fact, “the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that ruleth in the children of disobedience” (Ephesians 2:2).

_ _ minds — “understandings”: “mental perceptions,” as in 2 Corinthians 3:14.

_ _ them which believe not — the same as “them that are lost” (or “are perishing”). Compare 2 Thessalonians 2:10-12. South quaintly says, “when the malefactor’s eyes are covered, he is not far from his execution” (Esther 7:8). Those perishing unbelievers are not merely veiled, but blinded (2 Corinthians 3:14, 2 Corinthians 3:15): Greek, not “blinded,” but “hardened.

_ _ light of the glorious gospel of Christ — Translate, “The illumination (enlightening: the propagation from those already enlightened, to others of the light) of the Gospel of the glory of Christ.” “The glory of Christ” is not a mere quality (as “glorious” would express) of the Gospel; it is its very essence and subject matter.

_ _ image of God — implying identity of nature and essence (John 1:18; Colossians 1:15; Hebrews 1:3). He who desires to see “the glory of God,” may see it “in the face of Jesus Christ” (2 Corinthians 4:6; 1 Timothy 6:14-16). Paul here recurs to 2 Corinthians 3:18. Christ is “the image of God,” into which “same image” we, looking on it in the mirror of the Gospel, are changed by the Spirit; but this image is not visible to those blinded by Satan [Alford].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on 2 Corinthians 4:1-7.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Corinthians 4:4

The God of this world — What a sublime and horrible description of Satan! He is indeed the god of all that believe not, and works in them with inconceivable energy. Hath blinded — Not only veiled, the eye of their understanding. Illumination — Is properly the reflection or propagation of light, from those who are already enlightened, to others. Who is the image of God — Hence also we may understand how great is the glory of Christ. He that sees the Son, sees the Father in the face of Christ. The Son exactly exhibits the Father to us.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

2 Corinthians 4:4

In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the (d) light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the (e) image of God, should shine unto them.

(d) The light of plain and enlightening preaching, which shows forth the glory of Christ.

(e) In whom the Father sets himself forth to be seen and beheld.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the god:

Matthew 4:8-9 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; ... And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.
John 12:31 Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out.
John 12:40 He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with [their] eyes, nor understand with [their] heart, and be converted, and I should heal them.
John 14:30 Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in me.
John 16:11 Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged.
1 Corinthians 10:20 But I [say], that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God: and I would not that ye should have fellowship with devils.
Ephesians 2:2 Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:
Ephesians 6:12 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high [places].
1 John 5:19 [And] we know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness.
*Gr:
Revelation 20:2-3 And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, ... And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season.

blinded:

2 Corinthians 3:14 But their minds were blinded: for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away in the reading of the old testament; which [vail] is done away in Christ.
1 Kings 22:22 And the LORD said unto him, Wherewith? And he said, I will go forth, and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And he said, Thou shalt persuade [him], and prevail also: go forth, and do so.
Isaiah 6:10 Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed.
John 12:40 He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with [their] eyes, nor understand with [their] heart, and be converted, and I should heal them.

lest:

2 Corinthians 4:6 For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to [give] the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
2 Corinthians 3:8-9 How shall not the ministration of the spirit be rather glorious? ... For if the ministration of condemnation [be] glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.
2 Corinthians 3:11 For if that which is done away [was] glorious, much more that which remaineth [is] glorious.
2 Corinthians 3:18 But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, [even] as by the Spirit of the Lord.
John 8:12 Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.
John 12:35 Then Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you: for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth.
Acts 26:18 To open their eyes, [and] to turn [them] from darkness to light, and [from] the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me.
Colossians 1:27 To whom God would make known what [is] the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; which is Christ in you, the hope of glory:
1 Timothy 1:11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.
Titus 2:13 Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;

the image:

John 1:14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.
John 1:18 No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared [him].
John 12:45 And he that seeth me seeth him that sent me.
John 14:9-10 Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou [then], Shew us the Father? ... Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works.
John 15:24 If I had not done among them the works which none other man did, they had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both me and my Father.
Philippians 2:6 Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God:
Colossians 1:15 Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:
Hebrews 1:3 Who being the brightness of [his] glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;

shine:

2 Corinthians 4:6 For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to [give] the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
Psalms 50:2 Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined.
Isaiah 60:1-2 Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee. ... For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the LORD shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee.
2 Peter 1:19 We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts:
1 John 2:8 Again, a new commandment I write unto you, which thing is true in him and in you: because the darkness is past, and the true light now shineth.
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1K 22:22. Ps 50:2. Is 6:10; 60:1. Mt 4:8. Jn 1:14, 18; 8:12; 12:31, 35, 40, 45; 14:9, 30; 15:24; 16:11. Ac 26:18. 1Co 10:20. 2Co 3:8, 11, 14, 18; 4:6. Ep 2:2; 6:12. Php 2:6. Col 1:15, 27. 1Ti 1:11. Tit 2:13. He 1:3. 2P 1:19. 1Jn 2:8; 5:19. Rv 20:2.

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