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2 Chronicles 30:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of Jehovah at Jerusalem, to keep the passover unto Jehovah, the God of Israel.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, to keep the passover unto the LORD God of Israel.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of the LORD at Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover to the LORD God of Israel.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, to keep the passover to the LORD God of Israel.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of Jehovah at Jerusalem, to hold the passover to Jehovah the God of Israel.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Then sent Hezekiah unto all Israel and Judah, moreover also, letters, wrote he unto Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come unto the house of Yahweh, in Jerusalem,—to keep a passover unto Yahweh, God of Israel.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Hezekiah sendeth unto all Israel and Judah, and also letters he hath written unto Ephraim and Manasseh, to come in to the house of Jehovah in Jerusalem, to make a passover to Jehovah, God of Israel.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And Ezechias sent to all Israel and Juda: and he wrote letters to Ephraim and Manasses, that they should come to the house of the Lord in Jerusalem, and keep the phase to the Lord the God of Israel,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Iudah, and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of the LORD at Ierusalem, to keepe the Passeouer vnto the LORD God of Israel.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Hezekiah{gr.Ezekias} sent to all Israel and Judah{gr.Juda}, and wrote letters to Ephraim and Manasseh{gr.Manasse}, that they should come into the house of the Lord to Jerusalem, to keep the passover to the Lord God of Israel.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Chizqiyyah sent to all Yisrael and Yehudah, and wrote letters also to Efrayim and Menashsheh, that they should come to the house of Yahweh at Yerushalaim, to keep the passover unto Yahweh Elohim of Yisrael.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And izkiyy חִזקִיָּה 3169
{3169} Prime
יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ
Y@chizqiyah
{yekh-iz-kee-yaw'}
From H3388 and H3050; strengthened of Jah; Jechizkijah, the name of five Israelites.
sent 7971
{7971} Prime
שָׁלַח
shalach
{shaw-lakh'}
A primitive root; to send away, for, or out (in a great variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
and Yh יְהוּדָה, 3063
{3063} Prime
יְהוּדָה
Y@huwdah
{yeh-hoo-daw'}
From H3034; celebrated; Jehudah (or Judah), the name of five Israelites; also of the tribe descended from the first, and of its territory.
and wrote 3789
{3789} Prime
כָּתַב
kathab
{kaw-thab'}
A primitive root; to grave; by implication to write (describe, inscribe, prescribe, subscribe).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
letters 107
{0107} Prime
אִגֶּרֶת
'iggereth
{ig-eh'-reth}
Feminine of H0104; an epistle.
also x1571
(1571) Complement
גַּם
gam
{gam}
By contraction from an unused root meaning to gather; properly assemblage; used only adverbially also, even, yea, though; often repeated as correlation both... and.
to x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
Efrayim אֶפרַיִם 669
{0669} Prime
אֶפְרַיִם
'Ephrayim
{ef-rah'-yim}
Dual of a masculine form of H0672; double fruit; Ephrajim, a son of Joseph; also the tribe descended from him, and its territory.
and Mna מְנַשֶּׁה, 4519
{4519} Prime
מְנַשֶּׁה
M@nashsheh
{men-ash-sheh'}
From H5382; causing to forget; Menashsheh, a grandson of jacob, also the tribe descendant from him, and its territory.
that they should come 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
to the house 1004
{1004} Prime
בַּיִת
bayith
{bah'-yith}
Probably from H1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest variation of applications, especially family, etc.).
of Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
at Yrlaim יְרוּשָׁלִַם, 3389
{3389} Prime
יְרוּשָׁלִַם
Y@ruwshalaim
{yer-oo-shaw-lah'-im}
A dual (in allusion to its two main hills (the true pointing, at least of the former reading, seems to be that of H3390)); probably from (the passive participle of) H3384 and H7999; founded peaceful; Jerushalaim or Jerushalem, the capital city of Palestine.
to keep 6213
{6213} Prime
עָשָׂה
`asah
{aw-saw'}
A primitive root; to do or make, in the broadest sense and widest application.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
the passover 6453
{6453} Prime
פֶּסַה
pecach
{peh'-sakh}
From H6452; a pretermission, that is, exemption; used only technically of the Jewish Passover (the festival or the victim).
unto Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
lhm אֱלֹהִים 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל. 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Chronicles 30:1-5

_ _ 2 Chronicles 30:1-12. Hezekiah proclaims a Passover.

_ _ Hezekiah sent to all ... Judah ... to come to ... Jerusalem, to keep the passover — This great religious festival had not been regularly observed by the Hebrews in their national capacity for a long time because of the division of the kingdom and the many disorders that had followed that unhappy event. Hezekiah longed extremely to see its observance revived; and the expression of his wishes having received a hearty response from the princes and chief men of his own kingdom, the preparatory steps were taken for a renewed celebration of the national solemnity.

_ _ letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh — The names of these leading tribes are used for the whole kingdom of Israel. It was judged impossible, however, that the temple, the priests, and people could be all duly sanctified at the usual time appointed for the anniversary, namely, the fourteenth day of the first month (Nisan). Therefore it was resolved, instead of postponing the feast till another year, to observe it on the fourteenth day of the second month; a liberty which, being in certain circumstances (Numbers 9:6-13) granted to individuals, might, it was believed, be allowed to all the people. Hezekiah’s proclamation was, of course, authoritative in his own kingdom, but it could not have been made and circulated in all the towns and villages of the neighboring kingdom without the concurrence, or at least the permission, of the Israelitish sovereign. Hoshea, the reigning king, is described as, though evil in some respects, yet more favorably disposed to religious liberty than any of his predecessors since the separation of the kingdom. This is thought to be the meaning of the mitigating clause in his character (2 Kings 17:2).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Chronicles 30:1-12

_ _ Here is, I. A passover resolved upon. That annual feast was instituted as a memorial of the bringing of the children of Israel out of Egypt. It happened that the reviving of the temple service fell within the appointed days of that feast, the seventeenth day of the first month: this brought that forgotten solemnity to mind. “What shall we do,” says Hezekiah, “about the passover? It is a very comfortable ordinance, and has been long neglected. How shall we revive it? The time has elapsed for this year; we cannot go about it immediately; the congregation is thin, the people have not notice, the priests are not prepared, 2 Chronicles 30:3. Must we defer it till another year?” Many, it is likely, were for deferring it; but Hezekiah considered that by that time twelve-month the good affections of the people would cool, and it would be too long to want the benefit of the ordinance; and therefore, finding a proviso in the law of Moses that particular persons who were unclean in the first month might keep the passover the fourteenth day of the second month and be accepted (Numbers 9:11), he doubted not but that it might be extended to the congregation. Whereupon they resolved to keep the passover in the second month. Let the circumstance give way to the substance, and let not the thing itself be lost upon a nicety about the time. It is good striking while the iron is hot, and taking people when they are in a good mind. Delays are dangerous.

_ _ II. A proclamation issued out to give notice of this passover and to summon the people to it.

_ _ 1. An invitation was sent to the ten revolted tribes to stir them up to come and attend this solemnity. Letters were written to Ephraim and Manasseh to invite them to Jerusalem to keep this passover (2 Chronicles 30:1), not with any political design, to bring them back to the house of David, but with a pious design to bring them back to the Lord God of Israel. “Let them take whom they will for their king,” says Hezekiah, “so they will but take him for their God.” The matters in difference between Judah and Israel, either upon a civil or sacred account, shall not hinder but that if the people of Israel will sincerely return to the Lord their God Hezekiah will bid them as welcome to the passover as any of his own subjects. Expresses are sent post throughout all the tribes of Israel with memorials earnestly pressing the people to take this opportunity of returning to the God from whom they had revolted. Now here we have,

_ _ (1.) The contents of the circular letters that were despatched upon the occasion, in which Hezekiah discovers a great concern both for the honour of God and for the welfare of the neighbouring kingdom, the prosperity of which he seems passionately desirous of, though he not only received no toll, tribute, or custom, from it, but it had often, and not long since, been vexatious to his kingdom. This is rendering good for evil. Observe,

_ _ [1.] What it is which he presses them to (2 Chronicles 30:8): “Yield yourselves unto the Lord. Before you can come into communion with him you must come into covenant with him.” Give the hand to the Lord (so the word is), that is, “Consent to take him for your God.” A bargain is confirmed by giving the hand. “Strike this bargain. Join yourselves to him in an everlasting covenant. Subscribe with the hand to be his, Isaiah 44:5. Give him your hand, in token of giving him your heart. Lay your hand to his plough. Devote yourselves to his service, to work for him. Yield to him,” that is, “Come up to his terms, come under his government, stand it not out any longer against him.” “Yield to him, to be absolutely and universally at his command, at his disposal, to be, and do, and have, and suffer, whatever he pleases. In order to this, be not stiff-necked as your fathers were; let not your corrupt and wicked wills rise up in resistance of and rebellion against the will of God. Say not that you will do what you please, but resolve to do what he pleases.” There is in the carnal mind a stiffness, an obstinacy, an unaptness to comply with God. We have it from our fathers; it is bred in the bone with us. This must be conquered; and the will that had in it a spirit of contradiction must be melted into the will of God; and to his yoke the neck that was an iron sinew must be bowed and fitted. In pursuance of this resignation to God, he presses them to enter into his sanctuary, that is, to attend upon him in that place which he had chosen, to put his name there, and serve him in the ordinances which he had appointed. “The doors of the sanctuary are now opened, and you have liberty to enter; the temple service is now revived, and you are welcome to join in it.” The king says, Come; the princes and priests say, Come; whosoever will, let him come. This he calls (2 Chronicles 30:6) turning to the Lord God; for they had forsaken him, and worshipped other gods. Repent now, and be converted. Thus those who through grace have turned to God themselves should do all they can to bring others back to him.

_ _ [2.] What arguments he uses to persuade them to do this. First, “You are children of Israel, and therefore stand related, stand obliged, to the God of Israel, from whom you have revolted.” Secondly, “The God you are called to return to is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, a God in covenant with your first fathers, who served him and yielded themselves to him; and it was their honour and happiness that they did so.” Thirdly, “Your late fathers that forsook him and trespassed against him have been given up to desolation; their apostasy and idolatry have been their ruin, as you see (2 Chronicles 30:7); let their harms be your warnings.” Fourthly, “You yourselves are but a remnant narrowly escaped out of the hands of the kings of Assyria (2 Chronicles 30:6), and therefore are concerned to put yourselves under the protection of the God of your fathers, that you be not quite swallowed up.” Fifthly, “This is the only way of turning away the fierceness of God's anger from you (2 Chronicles 30:8), which will certainly consume you if you continue stiff-necked.” Lastly, “If you return to God in a way of duty, he will return to you in a way of mercy.” This he begins with (2 Chronicles 30:6) and concludes with, 2 Chronicles 30:9. In general, “You will find him gracious and merciful, and one that will not turn away his face from you, if you seek him, notwithstanding the provocations you have given him.” Particularly, “You may hope that he will turn again the captivity of your brethren that are carried away, and bring them back to their own land.” Could any thing be expressed more pathetically, more movingly? Could there be a better cause, or could it be better pleaded?

_ _ (2.) The entertainment which Hezekiah's messengers and message met with. It does not appear that Hoshea, who was now king of Israel, took any umbrage from, or gave any opposition to, the dispersing of these proclamations through his kingdom, nor that he forbade his subjects to accept the invitation. He seems to have left them entirely to their liberty. They might go to Jerusalem to worship if they pleased; for, though he did evil, yet not like the kings of Israel that were before him, 2 Kings 17:2. He saw ruin coming upon his kingdom, and, if any of his subjects would try this expedient to prevent it, they had his full permission. But, for the people, [1.] The generality of them slighted the call and turned a deaf ear to it. The messengers went from city to city, some to one and some to another, and used pressing entreaties with the people to come up to Jerusalem to keep the passover; but they were so far from complying with the message that they abused those that brought it, laughed them to scorn, and mocked them (2 Chronicles 30:10), not only refused, but refused with disdain. Tell them of the God of Abraham! they knew him not, they had other gods to serve, Baal and Ashtaroth. Tell them of the sanctuary! their high places were as good. Tell them of God's mercy and wrath! they neither dreaded the one nor desired the other. No marvel that the king's messengers were thus despitefully used by this apostate race when God's messengers were so, his servants the prophets, who produced credentials from him. The destruction of the kingdom of the ten tribes was now at hand. It was but two or three years after this that the king of Assyria laid siege to Samaria, which ended in the captivity of those tribes. Just before this they had not only a king of their own that permitted them to return to God's sanctuary, but a king of Judah that earnestly invited them to do it. Had they generally accepted this invitation, it might have prevented their ruin; but their contempt of it hastened and aggravated it, and left them inexcusable. [2.] Yet there were some few that accepted the invitation. The message, though to some it was a savour of death unto death, was to others a savour of life unto life, 2 Chronicles 30:11. In the worst of times God has had a remnant; so he had here, many of Asher, Manasseh, and Zebulun (here is no mention of any out of Ephraim, though some of that tribe are mentioned, 2 Chronicles 30:18), humbled themselves, and came to Jerusalem, that is, were sorry for their sins and submitted to God. Pride keeps men from yielding themselves to the Lord; when that is brought down, the work is done.

_ _ 2. A command was given to the men of Judah to attend this solemnity; and they universally obeyed it, v. 12. They did it with one heart, were all of a mind in it, and the hand of God gave them that one heart; for it is in the day of power that Christ's subjects are made willing. It is God that works both to will and to do. When people, at any time, manifest an unexpected forwardness to do that which is good, we must acknowledge that hand of God in it.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Chronicles 30:1

Israel — All the persons of the ten tribes, who were settled in his kingdom. Ephraim, &c. — To all the remainder of the ten tribes, 2 Chronicles 30:5, here expressed by the names of Ephraim and Manasseh, as elsewhere by the name of Ephraim only. But he names these two tribes, because they were nearest to his kingdom, and a great number of them had long since, and from time to time joined themselves to the kingdom of Judah, 2 Chronicles 15:8-9. At Jerusalem — Admonishing them of their duty to Cod, and persuading them to comply with it.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

2 Chronicles 30:1

And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote letters also to (a) Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, to keep the passover unto the LORD God of Israel.

(a) Meaning, all Israel, whom Tiglath Pilesar had not taken away into captivity, (2 Kings 15:29).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Israel:

2 Chronicles 11:13 And the priests and the Levites that [were] in all Israel resorted to him out of all their coasts.
2 Chronicles 11:16 And after them out of all the tribes of Israel such as set their hearts to seek the LORD God of Israel came to Jerusalem, to sacrifice unto the LORD God of their fathers.

Ephraim:

2 Chronicles 30:10-11 So the posts passed from city to city through the country of Ephraim and Manasseh even unto Zebulun: but they laughed them to scorn, and mocked them. ... Nevertheless divers of Asher and Manasseh and of Zebulun humbled themselves, and came to Jerusalem.
2 Chronicles 25:7 But there came a man of God to him, saying, O king, let not the army of Israel go with thee; for the LORD [is] not with Israel, [to wit, with] all the children of Ephraim.
2 Chronicles 35:6 So kill the passover, and sanctify yourselves, and prepare your brethren, that [they] may do according to the word of the LORD by the hand of Moses.
Hosea 5:4 They will not frame their doings to turn unto their God: for the spirit of whoredoms [is] in the midst of them, and they have not known the LORD.
Hosea 7:8-9 Ephraim, he hath mixed himself among the people; Ephraim is a cake not turned. ... Strangers have devoured his strength, and he knoweth [it] not: yea, gray hairs are here and there upon him, yet he knoweth not.
Hosea 11:8 How shall I give thee up, Ephraim? [how] shall I deliver thee, Israel? how shall I make thee as Admah? [how] shall I set thee as Zeboim? mine heart is turned within me, my repentings are kindled together.

to the house:

Deuteronomy 16:2-6 Thou shalt therefore sacrifice the passover unto the LORD thy God, of the flock and the herd, in the place which the LORD shall choose to place his name there. ... But at the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to place his name in, there thou shalt sacrifice the passover at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt.

to keep:

Exodus 12:3-20 Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth [day] of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of [their] fathers, a lamb for an house: ... Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.
1 Corinthians 5:7-8 Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us: ... Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened [bread] of sincerity and truth.
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Ex 12:3. Dt 16:2. 2Ch 11:13, 16; 25:7; 30:10; 35:6. Ho 5:4; 7:8; 11:8. 1Co 5:7.

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