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2 Chronicles 13:13 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— But Jeroboam caused an ambushment to come about behind them: so they were before Judah, and the ambushment was behind them.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— But Jeroboam caused an ambushment to come about behind them: so they were before Judah, and the ambushment [was] behind them.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— But Jeroboam had set an ambush to come from the rear, so that [Israel] was in front of Judah and the ambush was behind them.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— But Jeroboam caused an ambush to come about behind them: so they were before Judah, and the ambush [was] behind them.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— But Jeroboam caused an ambush to come about behind them; and they were before Judah, and the ambush behind them.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— But, Jeroboam, sent round an ambush, to come up from behind them,—so they were before Judah and, the ambush, did come up from behind them.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Jeroboam hath brought round the ambush to come in from behind them, and they are before Judah, and the ambush [is] behind them.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— While he spoke these things, Jeroboam caused an ambushment to come about behind him. And while he stood facing the enemies, he encompassed Juda, who perceived it not, with his army.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— But Ieroboam caused an ambushment to come about behinde them: so they were before Iudah, and the ambushment [was] behind them.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Now Jeroboam had caused an ambush to come round upon him from behind: and he [himself] was before Judah{gr.Juda}, and the ambush behind.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— But Yorovam caused an ambushment to come about behind them: so they were before Yehudah, and the ambushment [was] behind them.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
But Yorov`m יָרָבעָם 3379
{3379} Prime
יָרָבְעָם
Yarob`am
{yaw-rob-awm'}
From H7378 and H5971; (the) people will contend; Jarobam, the name of two Israelite kings.
caused x5437
(5437) Complement
סָבַב
cabab
{saw-bab'}
A primitive root; to revolve, surround or border; used in various applications, literally and figuratively.
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
an ambushment 3993
{3993} Prime
מַאְרָב
ma'arab
{mah-ar-awb'}
From H0693; an ambuscade.
to come y935
[0935] Standard
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
about y5437
[5437] Standard
סָבַב
cabab
{saw-bab'}
A primitive root; to revolve, surround or border; used in various applications, literally and figuratively.
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
x935
(0935) Complement
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
behind 310
{0310} Prime
אַחַר
'achar
{akh-ar'}
From H0309; properly the hind part; generally used as an adverb or conjugation, after (in various senses).
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
them: so they were x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
before 6440
{6440} Prime
פָּנִים
paniym
{paw-neem'}
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
Yh יְהוּדָה, 3063
{3063} Prime
יְהוּדָה
Y@huwdah
{yeh-hoo-daw'}
From H3034; celebrated; Jehudah (or Judah), the name of five Israelites; also of the tribe descended from the first, and of its territory.
and the ambushment 3993
{3993} Prime
מַאְרָב
ma'arab
{mah-ar-awb'}
From H0693; an ambuscade.
[was] behind 310
{0310} Prime
אַחַר
'achar
{akh-ar'}
From H0309; properly the hind part; generally used as an adverb or conjugation, after (in various senses).
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
them.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Chronicles 13:13-17

_ _ But Jeroboam caused an ambushment to come about behind them — The oration of Abijah, however animating an effect it might have produced on his own troops, was unheeded by the party to whom it was addressed; for while he was wasting time in useless words, Jeroboam had ordered a detachment of his men to move quietly round the base of the hill, so that when Abijah stopped speaking, he and his followers found themselves surprised in the rear, while the main body of the Israelitish forces remained in front. A panic might have ensued, had not the leaders “cried unto the Lord,” and the priests “sounded with the trumpets” — the pledge of victory (Numbers 10:9; Numbers 31:6). Reassured by the well-known signal, the men of Judah responded with a war shout, which, echoed by the whole army, was followed by an impetuous rush against the foe. The shock was resistless. The ranks of the Israelites were broken, for “God smote Jeroboam and all Israel.” They took to flight, and the merciless slaughter that ensued can be accounted for only by tracing it to the rancorous passions enkindled by a civil war.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Chronicles 13:13-22

_ _ We do not find that Jeroboam offered to make any answer at all to Abijah's speech. Though it was much to the purpose, he resolved not to heed it, and therefore he heard it as though he heard it not. He came to fight, not to dispute. The longest sword, he thought, would determine the matter, not the better cause. Let us therefore see the issue, whether right and religion carried the day or no.

_ _ I. Jeroboam, who trusted to his politics, was beaten. He was so far from fair reasoning that he was not for fair fighting. We may suppose that he felt a sovereign contempt for Abijah's harangue. “One stratagem,” thinks he, “is worth twenty such speeches; we will soon give him an answer to all his arguments; he shall soon find himself overpowered with numbers, surrounded on every side with the instruments of death, and then let him boast of his religion and his title to the crown.” A parley, it is probable, was agreed on, yet Jeroboam basely takes the advantage of it, and, while he was treating, laid his ambushment behind Judah, against all the laws of arms. What honour could be expected in a servant when he reigned? Abijah was for peace, but, when he spoke, they were for war, Psalms 120:7.

_ _ II. Abijah and his people, who trusted in their God, came off conquerors, notwithstanding the disproportion of their strength and numbers.

_ _ 1. They were brought into a great strait, put into a great fright, for the battle was before and behind. A good cause, and one which is designed to be victorious, may for a season be involved in embarrassment and distress. It was David's case. They compassed me about like bees, Psalms 118:10-12.

_ _ 2. In their distress, when danger was on every side, which way should they look but upwards for deliverance? It is an unspeakable comfort that no enemy (not the most powerful or politic), no stratagem or ambushment, can cut off our communication with heaven; our way thitherward is always open. (1.) They cried unto the Lord, 2 Chronicles 13:14. We hope they did this before they engaged in this war, but the distress they were in made them renew their prayers and quickened them to be importunate. God brings his people into straits, that he may teach them to cry unto him. Earnest praying is crying. (2.) They relied on the God of their fathers, depended upon his power to help them and committed themselves to him, 2 Chronicles 13:18. The prayer of faith is the prevailing prayer, and this is that by which we overcome the world, even our faith, 1 John 5:4. (3.) The priests sounded the trumpets to animate them by giving them an assurance of God's presence with them. It was not only a martial but a sacred sound, and put life into their faith. (4.) They shouted in confidence of victory: “The day is our own, for God is with us.” To the cry of the prayer they added the shout of faith, and so became more than conquerors.

_ _ 3. Thus they obtained a complete victory: As the men of Judah shouted for joy in God's salvation, God smote Jeroboam and his army with such terror and amazement that they could not strike a stroke, but fled with the greatest precipitation imaginable, and the conquerors gave no quarter, so that they put to the sword 500,000 chosen men (2 Chronicles 13:17), more, it is said, than ever we read of in any history to have been killed in one battle; but the battle was the Lord's, who would thus chastise the idolatry of Israel and own the house of David. But see the sad effect of division: it was the blood of Israelites that was thus shed like water by Israelites, while the heathen, their neighbours, to whom the name of Israel had formerly been a terror, cried, Aha! so would we have it.

_ _ 4. The consequence of this was that the children of Israel, though they were not brought back to the house of David (which by so great a blow surely they would have been had not the determinate counsel of God been otherwise), yet, for that time, were brought under, 2 Chronicles 13:18. Many cities were taken, and remained in the possession of the kings of Judah; as Bethel particularly, 2 Chronicles 13:19. What became of the golden calf there, when it came into the hands of the king of Judah, we are not told; perhaps it was removed to some place of greater safety, and at length to Samaria (Hosea 8:5); yet in Jehu's time we find it at Bethel, 2 Kings 10:29. Perhaps Abijah, when it was in his power to demolish it, suffered it to stand, for his heart was not perfect with God; and, not improving what he had got for the honour of God, he soon lost it all again.

_ _ Lastly, The death of both of the conquered and of the conqueror, not long after. 1. Jeroboam never looked up after this defeat, though he survived it two or three years. He could not recover strength again, 2 Chronicles 13:20. The Lord struck him either with some bodily disease, of which he languished, or with melancholy and trouble of mind; his heart was broken, and vexation at his loss brought his head, probably by this time a hoary head, with sorrow to the grave. He escaped the sword of Abijah, but God struck him: and there is no escaping his sword. 2. Abijah waxed mighty upon it. What number of wives and children he had before does not appear; but now he multiplied his wives to fourteen in all, by whom he had thirty-eight children, 2 Chronicles 13:21. Happy is the man that hath his quiver full of those arrows. It seems, he had ways peculiar to himself, and sayings of his own, which were recorded with his acts in the history of those times, 2 Chronicles 13:22. But the number of his months was cut off in the midst, and, soon after his triumphs, death conquered the conqueror. Perhaps he was too much lifted up with his victories, and therefore God would not let him live long to enjoy the honour of them.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Chronicles 13:13

Jeroboam — While Abijah was discoursing, Jeroboam takes the advantage of it to lay an ambush. It does not appear that he made any answer to all that Abijah said. The longest sword he thinks will determine the matter, not the better cause.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

2 Chronicles 13:13

But Jeroboam caused an ambushment (m) to come about behind them: so they were before Judah, and the ambushment [was] behind them.

(m) Contemning the good counsel which came from the Spirit of God, he thought to have overcome by deceit.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
an ambushment:

2 Chronicles 20:22 And when they began to sing and to praise, the LORD set ambushments against the children of Ammon, Moab, and mount Seir, which were come against Judah; and they were smitten.
Joshua 8:4 And he commanded them, saying, Behold, ye shall lie in wait against the city, [even] behind the city: go not very far from the city, but be ye all ready:
Proverbs 21:30 [There is] no wisdom nor understanding nor counsel against the LORD.
Jeremiah 4:22 For my people [is] foolish, they have not known me; they [are] sottish children, and they have none understanding: they [are] wise to do evil, but to do good they have no knowledge.
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Jsh 8:4. 2Ch 20:22. Pv 21:30. Jr 4:22.

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