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2 Chronicles 12:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And it came to pass, when the kingdom of Rehoboam was established, and he was strong, that he forsook the law of Jehovah, and all Israel with him.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And it came to pass, when Rehoboam had established the kingdom, and had strengthened himself, he forsook the law of the LORD, and all Israel with him.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— When the kingdom of Rehoboam was established and strong, he and all Israel with him forsook the law of the LORD.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And it came to pass, when Rehoboam had established the kingdom, and had strengthened himself, he forsook the law of the LORD, and all Israel with him.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass when the kingdom of Rehoboam was established, and when he had become strong, [that] he forsook the law of Jehovah, and all Israel with him.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And it came to pass, when Rehoboam had established the kingdom, and had strengthened himself, he forsook the law of Yahweh,—and all Israel with him.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass, at the establishing of the kingdom of Rehoboam, and at his strengthening himself, he hath forsaken the law of Jehovah, and all Israel with him.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And when the kingdom of Roboam was strengthened and fortified, he forsook the law of the Lord, and all Israel with him.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And it came to passe when Rehoboam had established the kingdome, and had strengthened himselfe, hee forsooke the Law of the LORD, and all Israel with him.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it came to pass when the kingdom of Rehoboam{gr.Roboam} was established, and when he had grown strong, [that] he forsook the commandments of the Lord, and all Israel with him.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And it came to pass, when Rechavam had established the kingdom, and had strengthened himself, he forsook the law of Yahweh, and all Yisrael with him.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And it came to pass, x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
when Rav`m רְחַבעָם 7346
{7346} Prime
רְחַבְעָם
R@chab`am
{rekh-ab-awm'}
From H7337 and H5971; a people has enlarged; Rechabam, an Israelite king.
had established 3559
{3559} Prime
כּוּן
kuwn
{koon}
A primitive root; properly to be erect (that is, stand perpendicular);. hence (causatively) to set up, in a great variety of applications, whether literal (establish, fix, prepare, apply), or figurative (appoint, render sure, proper or prosperous).
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
the kingdom, 4438
{4438} Prime
מַלְכוּת
malkuwth
{mal-kooth'}
From H4427; a rule; concretely a dominion.
and had strengthened y2393
[2393] Standard
חֶזְקָה
chezqah
{khez-kaw'}
Feminine of H2391; prevailing power.
x2394
(2394) Complement
חָזְקָה
chozqah
{khoz-kaw'}
Feminine of H2392; vehemence (usually in a bad sense).
himself, he forsook 5800
{5800} Prime
עָזַב
`azab
{aw-zab'}
A primitive root; to loosen, that is, relinquish, permit, etc.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the law 8451
{8451} Prime
תּוֹרָה
towrah
{to-raw'}
From H3384; a precept or statute, especially the Decalogue or Pentateuch.
of Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
and all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
with x5973
(5973) Complement
עִם
`im
{eem}
From H6004; adverb or preposition, with (that is, in conjunction with), in varied applications; specifically equally with; often with prepositional prefix (and then usually unrepresented in English).
him.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Chronicles 12:1

_ _ 2 Chronicles 12:1-12. Rehoboam, forsaking God, is punished by Shishak.

_ _ when Rehoboam had established the kingdom, and had strengthened himself — (See on 2 Chronicles 11:17). During the first three years of his reign his royal influence was exerted in the encouragement of the true religion. Security and ease led to religious decline, which, in the fourth year, ended in open apostasy. The example of the court was speedily followed by his subjects, for “all Israel was with him,” that is, the people in his own kingdom. The very next year, the fifth of his reign, punishment was inflicted by the invasion of Shishak.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

2 Chronicles 12:1-12

_ _ Israel was very much disgraced and weakened by being divided into two kingdoms; yet the kingdom of Judah, having both the temple and the royal city, both the house of David and the house of Aaron, might have done very well if they had continued in the way of their duty; but here we have all out of order there.

_ _ I. Rehoboam and his people left God: He forsook the law of the Lord, and so in effect forsook God, and all Israel with him, 2 Chronicles 12:1. He had his happy triennium, when he walked in the way of David and Solomon (2 Chronicles 11:17), but it expired, and he grew remiss in the worship of God; in what instances we are not told, but he fell off, and Judah with him, here called Israel, because they walked in the evil ways into which Jeroboam had drawn the kingdom of Israel. Thus he did when he had established the kingdom and strengthened himself. As long as he thought his throne tottered he kept to his duty, that he might make God his friend; but, when he found it stood pretty firmly, he thought he had no more occasion for religion; he was safe enough without it. Thus the prosperity of fools destroys them. Jeshurun waxed fat and kicked. When men prosper, and are in no apprehension of troubles, they are ready to say to God, Depart from us.

_ _ II. God quickly brought troubles upon them, to awaken them, and recover them to repentance, before their hearts were hardened. It was but in the fourth year of Rehoboam that they began to corrupt themselves, and in the fifth year the king of Egypt came up against them with a vast army, took the fenced cities of Judah, and came against Jerusalem, 2 Chronicles 12:2, 2 Chronicles 12:3, 2 Chronicles 12:4. This great calamity coming upon them so soon after they began to desert the worship of God, by a hand they had little reason to suspect (having had a great deal of friendly correspondence with Egypt in the last reign), and coming with so much violence that all the fenced cities of Judah, which Rehoboam had lately fortified and garrisoned and on which he relied much for the safety of his kingdom, fell immediately into the hands of the enemy, without making any resistance, plainly showed that it was from the Lord, because they had transgressed against him.

_ _ III. Lest they should not readily or not rightly understand the meaning of this providence, God by the word explains the rod, 2 Chronicles 12:5. When the princes of Judah had all met at Jerusalem, probably in a great council of war, to concert measures for their own safety in this critical juncture, he sent a prophet to them, the same that had brought them an injunction from God not to fight against the ten tribes (2 Chronicles 11:2), Shemaiah by name; he told them plainly that the reason why Shishak prevailed against them was not because they had been impolitic in the management of their affairs (which perhaps the princes in this congress were at this time scrutinizing), but because they had forsaken God. God never leaves any till they first leave him.

_ _ IV. The rebukes both of the word and of the rod being thus joined, the king and princes humbled themselves before God for their iniquity, penitently acknowledged the sin, and patiently accepted the punishment of it, saying, The Lord is righteous, 2 Chronicles 12:6. “We have none to blame but ourselves; let God be clear when he judgeth.” Thus it becomes us, when we are under the rebukes of Providence, to justify God and judge ourselves. Even kings and princes must either bend or break before God, either be humbled or be ruined.

_ _ V. Upon the profession they made of repentance God showed them some favour, saved them from ruin, and yet left them under some remaining fears of the judgment, to prevent their revolt again.

_ _ 1. God, in mercy, prevented the destruction they were now upon the brink of. Such a vast and now victorious army as Shishak had, having made themselves masters of all the fenced cities, what could be expected but that the whole country, and even Jerusalem itself, would in a little time be theirs? But when God saith, Here shall the proud waves be stayed, the most threatening force strangely dwindles and becomes impotent. Here again the destroying angel, when he comes to Jerusalem, is forbidden to destroy it: “My wrath shall not be poured out upon Jerusalem; not at this time, not by this hand, not utterly to destroy it,” 2 Chronicles 12:7, 2 Chronicles 12:12. Note, Those that acknowledge God righteous in afflicting them shall find him gracious. Those that humble themselves before him shall find favour with him. So ready is the God of mercy to take the first occasion to show mercy. If we have humbled hearts under humbling providences, the affliction has done its work, and it shall either be removed or the property of it altered.

_ _ 2. He granted them some deliverance, not complete, but in part; he gave them some advantages against the enemy, so that they recruited a little; he gave them deliverance for a little while, so some. They reformed but partially, and for a little while, soon relapsing again; and, as their reformation was, so was their deliverance. Yet it is said (2 Chronicles 12:12), in Judah things went well, and began to look with a better face. (1.) In respect of piety. There were good things in Judah (so it is in the margin), good ministers, good people, good families, who were made better by the calamities of their country. Note, In times of great corruption and degeneracy it is some comfort if there be a remnant among whom good things ar found; this is a ground of hope in Israel. (2.) In respect of prosperity. In Judah things went ill when all the fenced cities were taken (2 Chronicles 12:4), but when they repented the posture of their affairs altered, and things went well. Note, If things do not go so well as we could wish, yet we have reason to take notice of it with thankfulness if they go better than was to have been expected, better than formerly, and better than we deserved. We should own God's goodness if he do but grant us some deliverance.

_ _ 3. Yet he left them to smart sorely by the hand of Shishak, both in their liberty and in their wealth.

_ _ (1.) In their liberty (2 Chronicles 12:8): They shall be his servants (that is, they shall lie much at his mercy and be put under contribution by him, and some of them perhaps be taken prisoners and held in captivity by him), that they may know my service, and the service of the kingdoms of the countries. They complained, it may be, of the strictness of their religion, and forsook the law of the Lord (2 Chronicles 12:1) because they thought it a yoke to hard, too heavy, upon them. “Well,” saith God, “let them better themselves if they can; let the neighbouring princes rule them awhile, since they are not willing that I should rule them, and let them try how they like that. They might have served God with joyfulness and gladness of heart, and would not; let them serve their enemies then in hunger and thirst (Deuteronomy 28:47, Deuteronomy 28:48), till they think of returning to their first Master, for then it was better with them,Hosea 2:7. This, some think, is the meaning of Ezekiel 20:24, Ezekiel 20:25. Because they despised my statutes, I gave them statutes that were not good. Note, [1.] The more God's service is compared with other services the more reasonable and easy it will appear. [2.] Whatever difficulties or hardships we may imagine there are in the way of obedience, it is better a thousand times to go through them than to expose ourselves to the punishment of disobedience. Are the laws of temperance thought hard? The effects of intemperance will be much harder. The service of virtue is perfect liberty; the service of lust is perfect slavery.

_ _ (2.) In their wealth. The king of Egypt plundered both the temple and the exchequer, the treasuries of both which Solomon left very full; but he took them away; yea, he took all, all he could lay his hands on, 2 Chronicles 12:9. This was what he came for. David and Solomon, who walked in the way of God, filled the treasuries, one by war and the other by merchandise; but Rehoboam, who forsook the law of God, emptied them. The taking away of the golden shields, and the substituting of brazen ones in their place (2 Chronicles 12:9-11), we had an account of before, 1 Kings 14:25-28.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Chronicles 12:1

And all Israel — So called, because they forsook God, as Israel had done.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

2 Chronicles 12:1

And it came to pass, when Rehoboam had established the kingdom, and had strengthened himself, he forsook the law of the LORD, and (a) all Israel with him.

(a) For such is the inconstancy of the people, that for the most part they follow the vices of their governors.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 3032, bc 972

when Rehoboam:

2 Chronicles 12:13 So king Rehoboam strengthened himself in Jerusalem, and reigned: for Rehoboam [was] one and forty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the LORD had chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, to put his name there. And his mother's name [was] Naamah an Ammonitess.
2 Chronicles 11:17 So they strengthened the kingdom of Judah, and made Rehoboam the son of Solomon strong, three years: for three years they walked in the way of David and Solomon.

he forsook:

2 Chronicles 26:13-16 And under their hand [was] an army, three hundred thousand and seven thousand and five hundred, that made war with mighty power, to help the king against the enemy. ... But when he was strong, his heart was lifted up to [his] destruction: for he transgressed against the LORD his God, and went into the temple of the LORD to burn incense upon the altar of incense.
Deuteronomy 6:10-12 And it shall be, when the LORD thy God shall have brought thee into the land which he sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give thee great and goodly cities, which thou buildedst not, ... [Then] beware lest thou forget the LORD, which brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage.
Deuteronomy 8:10-14 When thou hast eaten and art full, then thou shalt bless the LORD thy God for the good land which he hath given thee. ... Then thine heart be lifted up, and thou forget the LORD thy God, which brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage;
Deuteronomy 32:15 But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked: thou art waxen fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered [with fatness]; then he forsook God [which] made him, and lightly esteemed the Rock of his salvation.
Deuteronomy 32:18 Of the Rock [that] begat thee thou art unmindful, and hast forgotten God that formed thee.
1 Kings 9:9 And they shall answer, Because they forsook the LORD their God, who brought forth their fathers out of the land of Egypt, and have taken hold upon other gods, and have worshipped them, and served them: therefore hath the LORD brought upon them all this evil.
Jeremiah 2:31 O generation, see ye the word of the LORD. Have I been a wilderness unto Israel? a land of darkness? wherefore say my people, We are lords; we will come no more unto thee?
Hosea 13:1 When Ephraim spake trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.
Hosea 13:6-8 According to their pasture, so were they filled; they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten me. ... I will meet them as a bear [that is] bereaved [of her whelps], and will rend the caul of their heart, and there will I devour them like a lion: the wild beast shall tear them.

all Israel:

2 Chronicles 11:3 Speak unto Rehoboam the son of Solomon, king of Judah, and to all Israel in Judah and Benjamin, saying,
1 Kings 12:17 But [as for] the children of Israel which dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them.
1 Kings 14:22-24 And Judah did evil in the sight of the LORD, and they provoked him to jealousy with their sins which they had committed, above all that their fathers had done. ... And there were also sodomites in the land: [and] they did according to all the abominations of the nations which the LORD cast out before the children of Israel.
2 Kings 17:19 Also Judah kept not the commandments of the LORD their God, but walked in the statutes of Israel which they made.
Hosea 5:10-11 The princes of Judah were like them that remove the bound: [therefore] I will pour out my wrath upon them like water. ... Ephraim [is] oppressed [and] broken in judgment, because he willingly walked after the commandment.
Micah 6:16 For the statutes of Omri are kept, and all the works of the house of Ahab, and ye walk in their counsels; that I should make thee a desolation, and the inhabitants thereof an hissing: therefore ye shall bear the reproach of my people.
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Dt 6:10; 8:10; 32:15, 18. 1K 9:9; 12:17; 14:22. 2K 17:19. 2Ch 11:3, 17; 12:13; 26:13. Jr 2:31. Ho 5:10; 13:1, 6. Mi 6:16.

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