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1 Samuel 4:10 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled every man to his tent: and there was a very great slaughter; for there fell of Israel thirty thousand footmen.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled every man into his tent: and there was a very great slaughter; for there fell of Israel thirty thousand footmen.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— So the Philistines fought and Israel was defeated, and every man fled to his tent; and the slaughter was very great, for there fell of Israel thirty thousand foot soldiers.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled every man into his tent: and there was a very great slaughter, for there fell of Israel thirty thousand footmen.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And the Philistines fought, and Israel was routed, and they fled every man to his tent; and there was a very great slaughter, and there fell of Israel thirty thousand footmen.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— So the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled every man to his home; and the slaughter became exceeding great,—and there fell of Israel—thirty thousand footmen.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And the Philistines fight, and Israel is smitten, and they flee each to his tents, and the blow is very great, and there fall of Israel thirty thousand footmen;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— So the Philistines fought, and Israel was overthrown, and every man fled to his own dwelling: and there was an exceeding great slaughter; for there fell of Israel thirty thousand footmen.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled euery man into his tent: and there was a very great slaughter, for there fell of Israel thirtie thousand footmen.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And they fought with them; and the men of Israel fall, and they fled every man to his ten; and there was a very great slaughter; and there fell of Israel thirty thousand fighting men.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And the Pelishtim fought, and Yisrael was smitten, and they fled every man into his tent: and there was a very great slaughter; for there fell of Yisrael thirty thousand footmen.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And the Plitm פְּלִשׁתִּים 6430
{6430} Prime
פְּלִשְׁתִּי
P@lishtiy
{pel-ish-tee'}
Patrial from H6429; a Pelishtite or inhabitant of Pelesheth.
fought, 3898
{3898} Prime
לָחַם
lacham
{law-kham'}
A primitive root; to feed on; figuratively to consume; by implication to battle (as destruction).
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
and Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
was smitten, 5062
{5062} Prime
נגף
nagaph
{naw-gaf'}
A primitive root; to push, gore, defeat, stub (the toe), inflict (a disease).
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
and they fled 5127
{5127} Prime
נוּס
nuwc
{noos}
A primitive root; to flit, that is, vanish away (subside, escape; causatively chase, impel, deliver).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
every man 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
into his tent: 168
{0168} Prime
אֹהֶל
'ohel
{o'-hel}
From H0166; a tent (as clearly conspicuous from a distance).
and there was x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
a very 3966
{3966} Prime
מְאֹד
m@`od
{meh-ode'}
From the same as H0181; properly vehemence, that is, (with or without preposition) vehemently; by implication wholly, speedily, etc. (often with other words as an intensive or superlative; especially when repeated).
great 1419
{1419} Prime
גָּדוֹל
gadowl
{gaw-dole'}
From H1431; great (in any sense); hence older; also insolent.
slaughter; 4347
{4347} Prime
מַכָּה
makkah
{mak-kaw'}
(Plural only) from H5221; a blow (in 2 Chronicles 2:10, of the flail); by implication a wound; figuratively carnage, also pestilence.
for there fell 5307
{5307} Prime
נָפַל
naphal
{naw-fal'}
A primitive root; to fall, in a great variety of applications (intransitively or causatively, literally or figuratively).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
thirty 7970
{7970} Prime
שְׁלוֹשִׁים
sh@lowshiym
{shel-o-sheem'}
Multiple of H7969; thirty; or (ordinal) thirtieth.
thousand 505
{0505} Prime
אֶלֶף
'eleph
{eh'-lef}
Properly the same as H0504; hence (an ox's head being the first letter of the alphabet, and this eventually used as a numeral) a thousand.
footmen. 7273
{7273} Prime
רַגְלִי
ragliy
{rag-lee'}
From H7272; a foot man (soldier).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

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Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Samuel 4:10-11

_ _ Here is a short account of the issue of this battle.

_ _ I. Israel was smitten, the army dispersed and totally routed, not retiring into the camp, as before (1 Samuel 4:2) when they hoped to rally again, but returning to their tents, every man shifting for his own safety and making the best of his way home, despairing to make head any more; and 30,000 were slain in the field of battle, 1 Samuel 4:10. Israel was put to the worse, 1. Though they had the better cause, were the people of God and the Philistines were uncircumcised; they stood up in necessary defence of their just rights and liberties against invaders, and yet they failed of success, for their rock had sold them. A good cause often suffers for the sake of the bad men that undertake it. 2. Though they had the greater confidence, and were the more courageous. They shouted, while the Philistines trembled, and yet, when God pleased so to order it, the Philistines' terrors were turned into triumphs, and Israel's shouts into lamentations. 3. Though they had the ark of God with them. External privileges will secure none that abuse them and do not live up to them. The ark in the camp will add nothing to its strength when there is an Achan in it.

_ _ II. The ark itself was taken by the Philistines; and Hophni and Phinehas, who it is likely kept close to it, and when it was in danger ventured far in the defense of it, because by it they got their living, were both slain, 1 Samuel 4:11. To this sad even the Psalmist refers, Psalms 78:61. 64, He delivered his strength into captivity, and his glory into the enemy's hands. Their priests fell by the sword. 1. The slaughter of the priests, considering their bad character, was no great loss to Israel, but it was a dreadful judgment upon the house of Eli. The word which God had spoken was fulfilled in it (1 Samuel 2:34): This shall be a sign unto thee, an earnest of the judgments threatened, thy two sons shall die both in one day, and so shall all the increase of thy house die in the flower of their age, v. 33. If Eli had done his duty, and put them, as polluted, from the priesthood (Nehemiah 7:64), they might have lived, though in disgrace; but now God takes the work into his own hands, and chases them out of the world by the sword of the uncircumcised. The Lord is known by those judgments which he executeth. It is true the sword devours one as well as another, but these were waited for of the sword, marked for vengeance. They were out of the place; what had they to do in the camp? When men leave the way of their duty they shut themselves out of God's protection. But this was not all; they had betrayed the ark, by bringing it into danger, without a warrant from God, and this filled the measure of their iniquities. But, 2. The taking of the ark was a very great judgment upon Israel, and a certain token of God's hot displeasure against them. Now they are made to see their folly in trusting to their external privileges which they had by their wickedness forfeited them, and fancying that the ark would save them when God had departed from them. Now they are made to reflect, with the utmost regret, upon their own rashness and presumption in bringing the ark into the camp and so exposing it, and wish a thousand times they had left it where God had fixed it. Now they are convinced that God will not be prescribed to by vain and foolish men, and that though he has bound us to his ark he has not bound himself to it, but will rather deliver it into the hands of his sworn enemies than suffer it to be profaned by his false friends, and countenance their superstition. Let none think to shelter themselves from the wrath of God under the cloak of a visible profession, for there will be those cast into outer darkness that have eaten and drunk in Christ's presence.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Samuel 4:10

Tent — To his habitation, called by the ancient name of his tent. There fell — Before, they lost but four thousand, now in the presence of the ark, thirty thousand, to teach them that the ark and ordinances of God, were never designed as a refuge to impenitent sinners, but only for the comfort of those that repent.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Samuel 4:10

And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled every man into his tent: and there was a very great slaughter; for there fell of Israel (e) thirty thousand footmen.

(e) David alluding to this place in (Psalms 78:63) says they were consumed with fire: meaning they were suddenly destroyed.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Israel:

1 Samuel 4:2 And the Philistines put themselves in array against Israel: and when they joined battle, Israel was smitten before the Philistines: and they slew of the army in the field about four thousand men.
Leviticus 26:17 And I will set my face against you, and ye shall be slain before your enemies: they that hate you shall reign over you; and ye shall flee when none pursueth you.
Deuteronomy 28:25 The LORD shall cause thee to be smitten before thine enemies: thou shalt go out one way against them, and flee seven ways before them: and shalt be removed into all the kingdoms of the earth.
Psalms 78:9 The children of Ephraim, [being] armed, [and] carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.
Psalms 78:60-64 So that he forsook the tabernacle of Shiloh, the tent [which] he placed among men; ... Their priests fell by the sword; and their widows made no lamentation.

every man:

2 Samuel 20:1 And there happened to be there a man of Belial, whose name [was] Sheba, the son of Bichri, a Benjamite: and he blew a trumpet, and said, We have no part in David, neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: every man to his tents, O Israel.
1 Kings 12:16 So when all Israel saw that the king hearkened not unto them, the people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David? neither [have we] inheritance in the son of Jesse: to your tents, O Israel: now see to thine own house, David. So Israel departed unto their tents.
1 Kings 22:36 And there went a proclamation throughout the host about the going down of the sun, saying, Every man to his city, and every man to his own country.
2 Kings 14:12 And Judah was put to the worse before Israel; and they fled every man to their tents.

a very great:

2 Samuel 18:7 Where the people of Israel were slain before the servants of David, and there was there a great slaughter that day of twenty thousand [men].
2 Chronicles 13:17 And Abijah and his people slew them with a great slaughter: so there fell down slain of Israel five hundred thousand chosen men.
2 Chronicles 28:5-6 Wherefore the LORD his God delivered him into the hand of the king of Syria; and they smote him, and carried away a great multitude of them captives, and brought [them] to Damascus. And he was also delivered into the hand of the king of Israel, who smote him with a great slaughter. ... For Pekah the son of Remaliah slew in Judah an hundred and twenty thousand in one day, [which were] all valiant men; because they had forsaken the LORD God of their fathers.
Isaiah 10:3-6 And what will ye do in the day of visitation, and in the desolation [which] shall come from far? to whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye leave your glory? ... I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets.
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Lv 26:17. Dt 28:25. 1S 4:2. 2S 18:7; 20:1. 1K 12:16; 22:36. 2K 14:12. 2Ch 13:17; 28:5. Ps 78:9, 60. Is 10:3.

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