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1 Samuel 30:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had made a raid upon the South, and upon Ziklag, and had smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then it happened when David and his men came to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had made a raid on the Negev and on Ziklag, and had overthrown Ziklag and burned it with fire;
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass, when David and his men came to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had made a raid upon the south, and upon Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag and burned it with fire;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And it came to pass, when David and his men came to Ziklag on the third day, that, the Amalekites, had made a raid into the South, and into Ziklag, and had smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass, in the coming in of David and his men to Ziklag, on the third day, that the Amalekites have pushed unto the south, and unto Ziklag, and smite Ziklag, and burn it with fire,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Now when David and his men were come to Siceleg on the third day, the Amalecites had made an invasion on the south side upon Siceleg, and had smitten Siceleg, and burnt it with fire,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And it came to passe when Dauid and his men were come to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had inuaded the South and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burnt it with fire:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it came to pass when David and his men had entered Ziklag{gr.Sekelac} on the third day, that Amalek{gr.Amalec} had made an incursion upon the south, and upon Ziklag{gr.Sekelac}, and smitten Ziklag{gr.Sekelac}, and burnt it with fire.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And it came to pass, when Dawid and his men were come to Tziqlag on the third day, that the Amaleqim had invaded the south, and Tziqlag, and smitten Tziqlag, and burned it with fire;

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And it came to pass, x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
when Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
and his men y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
were come 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
to Xklaq צִיקלַג 6860
{6860} Prime
צִקְלַג
Tsiqlag
{tsik-lag'}
Of uncertain derivation; Tsiklag or Tsikelag, a place in Palestine.
on the third 7992
{7992} Prime
שְׁלִישִׁי
sh@liyshiy
{shel-ee-shee'}
Ordinal from H7969; third; feminine a third (part); by extension a third (day, year or time); specifically a third story cell).
day, 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
that the `mlkm עֲמָלֵקִים 6003
{6003} Prime
עֲמָלֵקִי
`Amaleqiy
{am-aw-lay-kee'}
Patronymic from H6002; an Amalekite (or collectively the Amalekites) or descendant of Amalek.
had invaded 6584
{6584} Prime
פָּשַׁט
pashat
{paw-shat'}
A primitive root; to spread out (that is, deploy in hostile array); by analogy to strip (that is, unclothe, plunder, flay, etc.).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
the south, 5045
{5045} Prime
נֶגֶב
negeb
{neh'-gheb}
From an unused root meaning to be parched; the south (from its drought); specifically the negeb or southern district of Judah, occasionally, Egypt (as south to Palestine).
and Xklaq צִיקלַג, 6860
{6860} Prime
צִקְלַג
Tsiqlag
{tsik-lag'}
Of uncertain derivation; Tsiklag or Tsikelag, a place in Palestine.
and smitten 5221
{5221} Prime
נָכָה
nakah
{naw-kaw'}
A primitive root; to strike (lightly or severely, literally or figuratively).
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Xklaq צִיקלַג, 6860
{6860} Prime
צִקְלַג
Tsiqlag
{tsik-lag'}
Of uncertain derivation; Tsiklag or Tsikelag, a place in Palestine.
and burned 8313
{8313} Prime
שָׂרַף
saraph
{saw-raf'}
A primitive root; to be (causatively set) on fire.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
it with fire; 784
{0784} Prime
אֵשׁ
'esh
{aysh}
A primitive word; fire (literally or figuratively).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 30:1

_ _ 1 Samuel 30:1-5. The Amalikites spoil Ziklag.

_ _ Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag — While the strength of the Philistine forces was poured out of their country into the plain of Esdraelon, the Amalekite marauders seized the opportunity of the defenseless state of Philistia to invade the southern territory. Of course, David’s town suffered from the ravages of these nomad plunderers, in revenge for his recent raid upon their territory.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Samuel 30:1-6

_ _ Here we have, I. The descent which the Amalekites made upon Ziklag in David's absence, and the desolations they made there. They surprised the city when it was left unguarded, plundered it, burnt it, and carried all the women and children captives, 1 Samuel 30:1, 1 Samuel 30:2. They intended, by this to revenge the like havoc that David had lately made of them and their country, 1 Samuel 27:8. He that had made so many enemies ought not to have left his own concerns so naked and defenceless. Those that make bold with others must expect that others will make as bold with them and provide accordingly. Now observe in this, 1. The cruelty of Saul's pity (as it proved) in sparing the Amalekites; if he had utterly destroyed them, as he ought to have done, these would not have been in being to do this mischief. 2. How David was corrected for being so forward to go with the Philistines against Israel. God showed him that he had better have staid at home and looked after his own business. When we go abroad in the way of our duty we may comfortably hope that God will take care of our families in our absence, but not otherwise. 3. How wonderfully God inclined the hearts of these Amalekites to carry the women and children away captives, and not to kill them. When David invaded them he put all to the sword (1 Samuel 27:9), and no reason can be given why they did not retaliate upon this city, but that God restrained them; for he has all hearts in his hands, and says to the fury of the most cruel men, Hitherto thou shalt come, and no further. Whether they spared them to lead them in triumph, or to sell them, or to use them for slaves, God's hand must be acknowledged, who designed to make use of the Amalekites for the correction, not for the destruction, of the house of David.

_ _ II. The confusion and consternation that David and his men were in when they found their houses in ashes and their wives and children gone into captivity. Three days' march they had from the camp of the Philistines to Ziklag, and now that they came thither weary, but hoping to find rest in their houses and joy in their families, behold a black and dismal scene was presented to them (1 Samuel 30:3), which made them all weep (David himself not excepted), though they were men of war, till they had no more power to weep, 1 Samuel 30:4. The mention of David's wives, Ahinoam and Abigail, and their being carried captive, intimates that this circumstance went nearer his heart than any thing else. Note, It is no disparagement to the boldest and bravest spirits to lament the calamities of relations and friends. Observe, 1. This trouble came upon them when they were absent. It was the ancient policy of Amalek to take Israel at an advantage. 2. It met them at their return, and, for aught that appears, their own eyes gave them the first intelligence of it. Note, When we go abroad we cannot foresee what evil tidings may meet us when we come home again. The going out may be very cheerful, and yet the coming in be very doleful. Boast not thyself therefore of tomorrow, nor of tonight either, for thou knowest not what a day, or a piece of a day, may bring forth, Proverbs 27:1. If, when we come off a journey, we find our tabernacles in peace, and not laid waste as David here found his, let the Lord be praised for it.

_ _ III. The mutiny and murmuring of David's men against him (1 Samuel 30:6): David was greatly distressed, for, in the midst of all his losses, his own people spoke of stoning him, 1. Because they looked upon him as the occasion of their calamities, by the provocation he had given the Amalekites, and his indiscretion in leaving Ziklag without a garrison in it. Thus apt are we, when we are in trouble, to fly into a rage against those who are in any way the occasion of our trouble, while we overlook the divine providence, and have not that regard to the operations of God's hand in it which would silence our passions, and make us patient. 2. Because now they began to despair of that preferment which they had promised themselves in following David. They hoped ere this to have been all princes; and now to find themselves all beggars was such a disappointment to them as made them grow outrageous, and threaten the life of him on whom, under God, they had the greatest dependence. What absurdities will not ungoverned passions plunge men into? This was a sore trial to the man after God's own heart, and could not but go very near him. Saul had driven him from his country, the Philistines had driven him from their camp, the Amalekites had plundered his city, his wives were taken prisoners, and now, to complete his woe, his own familiar friends, in whom he trusted, whom he had sheltered, and who did eat of his bread, instead of sympathizing with him and offering him any relief, lifted up the heel against him and threatened to stone him. Great faith must expect such severe exercises. But it is observable that David was reduced to this extremity just before his accession to the throne. At this very time, perhaps, the stroke was struck which opened the door to his advancement. Things are sometimes at the worst with the church and people of God just before they begin to mend.

_ _ IV. David's pious dependence upon the divine providence and grace in this distress: But David encouraged himself in the Lord his God. His men fretted at their loss. The soul of the people was bitter, so the word is. Their own discontent and impatience added wormwood and gall to the affliction and misery, and made their case doubly grievous. But 1. David bore it better, though he had more reason than any of them to lament it; they gave liberty to their passions, but he set his graces on work, and by encouraging himself in God, while they dispirited each other, he kept his spirit calm and sedate. Or, 2. There may be a reference to the threatening words his men gave out against him. They spoke of stoning him; but he, not offering to avenge the affront, nor terrified by their menaces, encouraged himself in the Lord his God, believed, and considered with application to his present case, the power and providence of God, his justice and goodness, the method he commonly takes of bringing low and then raising up, his care of his people that serve him and trust in him, and the particular promises he had made to him of bringing him safely to the throne; with these considerations he supported himself, not doubting but the present trouble would end well. Note, Those that have taken the Lord for their God may take encouragement from their relation to him in the worst of times. It is the duty and interest of all good people, whatever happens, to encourage themselves in God as their Lord and their God, assuring themselves that he can and will bring light out of darkness, peace out of trouble, and good out of evil, to all that love him and are the called according to his purpose, Romans 8:28. It was David's practice, and he had the comfort of it, What time I am afraid I will trust in thee. When he was at his wits' end he was not at his faith's end.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Samuel 30:1

The south — Namely, the southern part of Judah, and the adjacent parts.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Samuel 30:1

And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on (a) the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and (b) smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;

(a) After that he departed from Achish.

(b) That is, destroyed their city.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
were come:

1 Samuel 29:11 So David and his men rose up early to depart in the morning, to return into the land of the Philistines. And the Philistines went up to Jezreel.
2 Samuel 1:2 It came even to pass on the third day, that, behold, a man came out of the camp from Saul with his clothes rent, and earth upon his head: and [so] it was, when he came to David, that he fell to the earth, and did obeisance.

on the third:
This was the third day after he had left the Philistine army at Aphek, from which place, Calmet supposes, Ziklag was distant more than thirty leagues.

the Amalekites:

1 Samuel 15:7 And Saul smote the Amalekites from Havilah [until] thou comest to Shur, that [is] over against Egypt.
1 Samuel 27:8-10 And David and his men went up, and invaded the Geshurites, and the Gezrites, and the Amalekites: for those [nations were] of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, even unto the land of Egypt. ... And Achish said, Whither have ye made a road to day? And David said, Against the south of Judah, and against the south of the Jerahmeelites, and against the south of the Kenites.
Genesis 24:62 And Isaac came from the way of the well Lahairoi; for he dwelt in the south country.
Joshua 11:6 And the LORD said unto Joshua, Be not afraid because of them: for to morrow about this time will I deliver them up all slain before Israel: thou shalt hough their horses, and burn their chariots with fire.
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Gn 24:62. Jsh 11:6. 1S 15:7; 27:8; 29:11. 2S 1:2.

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