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1 Samuel 27:8 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And David and his men went up, and made a raid upon the Geshurites, and the Girzites, and the Amalekites; for those [nations] were the inhabitants of the land, who were of old, as thou goest to Shur, even unto the land of Egypt.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And David and his men went up, and invaded the Geshurites, and the Gezrites, and the Amalekites: for those [nations were] of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, even unto the land of Egypt.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now David and his men went up and raided the Geshurites and the Girzites and the Amalekites; for they were the inhabitants of the land from ancient times, as you come to Shur even as far as the land of Egypt.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And David and his men went up, and invaded the Geshurites, and the Gezrites, and the Amalekites: for those [nations were] of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, even to the land of Egypt.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And David and his men went up and made a raid upon the Geshurites, and the Gerzites, and the Amalekites: for those were of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, and as far as the land of Egypt.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And David and his men went up, and made a raid against the Geshurites and the Gizrites and the Amalekites,—for, they, were the inhabitants of the land who had been from age-past times, as thou enterest Shur, even as far as the land of Egypt.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and David goeth up and his men, and they push unto the Geshurite, and the Gerizite, and the Amalekite, (for they are inhabitants of the land from of old), as thou comest in to Shur and unto the land of Egypt,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And David and his men went up, and pillaged Gessuri, and Gerzi, and the Amalecites: for these were of old the inhabitants of the countries, as men go to Sur, even to the land of Egypt.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Dauid and his men went vp and inuaded the Geshurites, and the Gezrites, and the Amalekites: for those [nations] were of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, euen vnto the land of Egypt.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And David and his men went up, and made an attack on all the Gesirites and on the Amalekites: and behold, the land was inhabited, (even the land from Gelampsur) by those who come from the fortified [cities] even to the land of Mizraim{gr.Egypt}.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Dawid and his men went up, and invaded the Geshurim, and the Gizrim, and the Amaleqim: for those [nations were] of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, even unto the land of Mitzrayim.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
and his men y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
went up, 5927
{5927} Prime
עָלָה
`alah
{aw-law'}
A primitive root; to ascend, intransitively (be high) or active (mount); used in a great variety of senses, primary and secondary, literally and figuratively.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and invaded 6584
{6584} Prime
פָּשַׁט
pashat
{paw-shat'}
A primitive root; to spread out (that is, deploy in hostile array); by analogy to strip (that is, unclothe, plunder, flay, etc.).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
the Grm גְּשׁוּרִים, 1651
{1651} Prime
גְּשׁוּרִי
G@shuwriy
{ghe-shoo-ree'}
Patrial from H1650; a Geshurite (also collectively) or inhabitant of Geshur.
and the Gizrm גִּזרִים, 1511
{1511} Prime
גִּזְרִי
Gizriy
{ghiz-ree'}
The first form is patrial from H1507; a Gezerite (collectively) or inhabitant of Gezer; but the second form is better (as in the text) by transposition and is patrial of H1630; a Girzite (collectively) or member of a native tribe in Palestine.
and the `mlkm עֲמָלֵקִים: 6003
{6003} Prime
עֲמָלֵקִי
`Amaleqiy
{am-aw-lay-kee'}
Patronymic from H6002; an Amalekite (or collectively the Amalekites) or descendant of Amalek.
for x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
those 2007
{2007} Prime
הֵנָּה
hennah
{hane'-naw}
Prolonged for H2004; themselves (often used emphatically for the copula, also in indirect relation).
[nations were] of old 5769
{5769} Prime
עוֹלָם
`owlam
{o-lawm'}
From H5956; properly concealed, that is, the vanishing point; generally time out of mind (past or future), that is, (practically) eternity; frequentative adverbially (especially with prepositional prefix) always.
x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
the inhabitants 3427
{3427} Prime
יָשַׁב
yashab
{yaw-shab'}
A primitive root; properly to sit down (specifically as judge, in ambush, in quiet); by implication to dwell, to remain; causatively to settle, to marry.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
of the land, 776
{0776} Prime
אֶרֶץ
'erets
{eh'-rets}
From an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land).
as thou goest 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
to r שׁוּר, 7793
{7793} Prime
שׁוּר
Shuwr
{shoor}
The same as H7791; Shur, a region of the Desert.
even unto x5704
(5704) Complement
עַד
`ad
{ad}
Properly the same as H5703 (used as a preposition, adverb or conjugation; especially with a preposition); as far (or long, or much) as, whether of space (even unto) or time (during, while, until) or degree (equally with).
the land 776
{0776} Prime
אֶרֶץ
'erets
{eh'-rets}
From an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land).
of Mixrayim מִצרַיִם. 4714
{4714} Prime
מִצְרַיִם
Mitsrayim
{mits-rah'-yim}
Dual of H4693; Mitsrajim, that is, Upper and Lower Egypt.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 27:8

_ _ David ... went up, and invaded the Geshurites — (See Joshua 13:2).

_ _ and the Gezrites — or the Gerizi [Gesenius], (Joshua 12:12), some Arab horde which had once encamped there.

_ _ and the Amalekites — Part of the district occupied by them lay on the south of the land of Israel (Judges 5:14; Judges 12:15).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Samuel 27:8-12

_ _ Here is an account of David's actions while he was in the land of the Philistines, a fierce attack he made upon some remains of the devoted nations, his success in it, and the representation he gave of it to Achish. 1. We may acquit him of injustice and cruelty in this action because those people whom he cut off were such as heaven had long since doomed to destruction, and he that did it was one whom heaven had ordained to dominion; so that the thing was very fit to be done, and he was very fit to do it. It was not for him that was anointed to fight the Lord's battles to sit still in sloth, however he might think fit, in modesty, to retire. He desired to be safe from Saul only that he might expose himself for Israel. He avenged an old quarrel that God had with these nations, and at the same time fetched in provisions for himself and his army, for by their swords they must live. The Amalekites were to be all cut off. Probably the Geshurites and Gezrites were branches of Amalek. Saul was rejected for sparing them, David makes up the deficiency of his obedience before he succeeds him. He smote them, and left none alive, 1 Samuel 27:8, 1 Samuel 27:9. The service paid itself, for they carried off abundance of spoil, which served for the subsistence of David's forces. 2. Yet we cannot acquit him of dissimulation with Achish in the account he gave him of this expedition. (1.) David, it seems, was not willing that he should know the truth, and therefore spared none to carry tidings to Gath (1 Samuel 27:11), not because he was ashamed of what he had done as a bad thing, but because he was afraid, if the Philistines knew it, they would be apprehensive of danger to themselves or their allies by harbouring him among them and would expel him from their coasts. It would be easy to conclude, If so he did, so will be his manner, and therefore he industriously conceals it from them, which, it seems, he could do by putting them all to the sword, for none of their neighbours would inform against him, nor perhaps would soon come to the knowledge of what was done, intelligence not being so readily communicated then as now. (2.) He hid it from Achish with an equivocation not at all becoming his character. Being asked which way he had made his sally, he answered, Against the south of Judah, v. 13. It was true he had invaded those countries that lay south of Judah, but he made Achish believe he had invaded those that lay south in Judah, the Ziphites for example, that had once and again betrayed him; so Achish understood him, and thence inferred that he had made his people Israel to abhor him, and so riveted himself in the interest of Achish. The fidelity of Achish to him, his good opinion of him, and the confidence he put in him, aggravate his sin in deceiving him thus, which, with some other such instances, David seems penitently to reflect upon when he prays, Remove from me the way of lying.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Samuel 27:8

Amalekites — The remnant of those whom Saul destroyed, 1 Samuel 15:3-9, who retired into remote and desert places.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Samuel 27:8

And David and his men went up, and invaded the (d) Geshurites, and the Gezrites, and the Amalekites: for those [nations were] of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, even unto the land of Egypt.

(d) These were the wicked Canaanites, whom God had appointed to be destroyed.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 2948, bc 1056, An, Ex, Is, 435

the Geshurites:

Joshua 13:2 This [is] the land that yet remaineth: all the borders of the Philistines, and all Geshuri,
Joshua 13:13 Nevertheless the children of Israel expelled not the Geshurites, nor the Maachathites: but the Geshurites and the Maachathites dwell among the Israelites until this day.
2 Samuel 13:37-38 But Absalom fled, and went to Talmai, the son of Ammihud, king of Geshur. And [David] mourned for his son every day. ... So Absalom fled, and went to Geshur, and was there three years.
2 Samuel 14:23 So Joab arose and went to Geshur, and brought Absalom to Jerusalem.
2 Samuel 14:32 And Absalom answered Joab, Behold, I sent unto thee, saying, Come hither, that I may send thee to the king, to say, Wherefore am I come from Geshur? [it had been] good for me [to have been] there still: now therefore let me see the king's face; and if there be [any] iniquity in me, let him kill me.
2 Samuel 15:8 For thy servant vowed a vow while I abode at Geshur in Syria, saying, If the LORD shall bring me again indeed to Jerusalem, then I will serve the LORD.
1 Chronicles 2:23 And he took Geshur, and Aram, with the towns of Jair, from them, with Kenath, and the towns thereof, [even] threescore cities. All these [belonged to] the sons of Machir the father of Gilead.

Gezrites:
or, Gerzites, These people seem to be the Gerrhenians (2 Maccabees 13:24) whose chief city, Gerrha, is mentioned by Strabo as lying between Gaza and Pelusium in Egypt.

the Amalekites:

Joshua 16:10 And they drave not out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer: but the Canaanites dwell among the Ephraimites unto this day, and serve under tribute.
Judges 1:29 Neither did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer; but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them.
1 Kings 9:15-17 And this [is] the reason of the levy which king Solomon raised; for to build the house of the LORD, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, and Megiddo, and Gezer. ... And Solomon built Gezer, and Bethhoron the nether,

as thou goest:

1 Samuel 15:7-8 And Saul smote the Amalekites from Havilah [until] thou comest to Shur, that [is] over against Egypt. ... And he took Agag the king of the Amalekites alive, and utterly destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword.
1 Samuel 30:1 And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;
Exodus 17:14-16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this [for] a memorial in a book, and rehearse [it] in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven. ... For he said, Because the LORD hath sworn [that] the LORD [will have] war with Amalek from generation to generation.
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Ex 17:14. Jsh 13:2, 13; 16:10. Jg 1:29. 1S 15:7; 30:1. 2S 13:37; 14:23, 32; 15:8. 1K 9:15. 1Ch 2:23.

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