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1 Samuel 24:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And it came to pass, when Saul was returned from following the Philistines, that it was told him, saying, Behold, David is in the wilderness of En-gedi.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And it came to pass, when Saul was returned from following the Philistines, that it was told him, saying, Behold, David [is] in the wilderness of Engedi.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now when Saul returned from pursuing the Philistines, he was told, saying, “Behold, David is in the wilderness of Engedi.”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And it came to pass, when Saul had returned from following the Philistines, that it was told to him, saying, Behold, David [is] in the wilderness of En-gedi.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass when Saul had returned from following the Philistines, that it was told him, saying, Behold, David is in the wilderness of Engedi.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And it came to pass, when Saul had returned from following the Philistines, that it was told him, saying: Lo! David is in the wilderness of En-gedi.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass when Saul hath turned back from after the Philistines, that they declare to him, saying, 'Lo, David [is] in the wilderness of En-gedi.'
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And when Saul was returned from following the Philistines, they told him, saying: Behold, David is in the desert of Engaddi.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And it came to passe when Saul was returned from folowing the Philistines, that it was told him, saying, Behold, Dauid is in the wildernesse of En-gedi.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it came to pass when Saul returned from pursuing after the Philistines, that it was reported to him, saying, David [is] in the wilderness of Engaddi.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And it came to pass, when Shaul was returned from following the Pelishtim, that it was told him, saying, Behold, Dawid [is] in the wilderness of En Gedi.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And it came to pass, x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
when x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
l שָׁאוּל 7586
{7586} Prime
שָׁאוּל
Sha'uwl
{shaw-ool'}
Passive participle of H7592; asked; Shaul, the name of an Edomite and two Israelites.
was returned 7725
{7725} Prime
שׁוּב
shuwb
{shoob}
A primitive root; to turn back (hence, away) transitively or intransitively, literally or figuratively (not necessarily with the idea of return to the starting point); generally to retreat; often adverbially again.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
from following 310
{0310} Prime
אַחַר
'achar
{akh-ar'}
From H0309; properly the hind part; generally used as an adverb or conjugation, after (in various senses).
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
the Plitm פְּלִשׁתִּים, 6430
{6430} Prime
פְּלִשְׁתִּי
P@lishtiy
{pel-ish-tee'}
Patrial from H6429; a Pelishtite or inhabitant of Pelesheth.
that it was told 5046
{5046} Prime
נָגַד
nagad
{naw-gad'}
A primitive root; properly to front, that is, stand boldly out opposite; by implication (causatively), to manifest; figuratively to announce (always by word of mouth to one present); specifically to expose, predict, explain, praise.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
him, saying, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
Behold, x2009
(2009) Complement
הִנֵּה
hinneh
{hin-nay'}
Prolonged for H2005; lo!.
Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
[is] in the wilderness 4057
{4057} Prime
מִדְבָּר
midbar
{mid-bawr'}
From H1696 in the sense of driving; a pasture (that is, open field, whither cattle are driven); by implication a desert; also speech (including its organs).
of `n Ge עֵין־גֶּדִי. 5872
{5872} Prime
עִיר־גֶדִי
`Eyn Gediy
{ane geh'-dee}
From H5869 and H1423; fountain of a kid; En-Gedi, a place in Palestine.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 24:1

_ _ 1 Samuel 24:1-7. David in a cave at Engedi cuts off Saul’s skirt, but spares his life.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Samuel 24:1-8

_ _ Here, I. Saul renews his pursuit of David, 1 Samuel 24:1, 1 Samuel 24:2. No sooner had he come home safely from chasing the Philistines, in which it should seem he had good success, than he enquired after David to do him a mischief, and resolved to have another thrust at him, as if he had been delivered to do all these abominations, Jeremiah 7:10. By the frequent incursions of the Philistines, he might have seen how necessary it was to recall David from his banishment and restore him to his place in the army again; but so far is he from doing this that now more than ever he is exasperated against him, and, hearing that he is in the wilderness of En-gedi, he draws out 3000 choice men, and goes with them at his feet in pursuit of him upon the rocks of the wild goats, where, one would think, David should not have been envied a habitation nor Saul desirous of disturbing him; for what harm could he fear from one who was no better accommodated? But it is not enough for Saul that David is thus cooped up; he cannot be easy while he is alive.

_ _ II. Providence brings Saul alone into the same cave wherein David and his men had hidden themselves, 1 Samuel 24:3. In those countries there were very large caves in the sides of the rocks or mountains, partly natural, but probably much enlarged by art for the sheltering of sheep from the heat of the sun; hence we read of places where the flocks did rest at noon (Song of Songs 1:7), and this cave seems to be spoken of as one of the sheep-cotes. In the sides of this cave David and his men remained, perhaps not all his men, the whole 600, but only some few of his particular friends, the rest being disposed of in similar retirements. Saul, passing by, turned in himself alone, not in search of David (for, supposing him to be an aspiring ambitious man, he thought to find him rather climbing with the wild goats upon the rocks than retiring with the sheep into a cave), but thither he turned aside to cover his feet, that is, to sleep awhile, it being a cool and quiet place, and very refreshing in the heat of the day; probably he ordered his attendants to march before, reserving only a very few to wait for him at the mouth of the cave. Some by the covering of the feet understand the easing of nature, and think that this was Saul's errand into the cave: but the former interpretation is more probable.

_ _ III. David's servants stir him up to kill Saul now that he has so fair an opportunity to do it, 1 Samuel 24:4. They reminded him that this was the day which he had long looked for, and of which God had spoken to him in general when he was anointed to the kingdom, which should put a period to his troubles and open the passage to his advancement. Saul now lay at his mercy, and it was easy to imagine how little mercy he would find with Saul and therefore what little reason he had to show mercy to him. “By all means” (say his servants) “give him the fatal blow now.” See how apt we are to misunderstand, 1. The promises of God. God had assured David that he would deliver him from Saul, and his men interpret this as a warrant to destroy Saul. 2. The providences of God. Because it was now in his power to kill him, they concluded he might lawfully do it.

_ _ IV. David cut off the skirt of his robe, but soon repented that he had done this: His heart smote him for it (1 Samuel 24:5); though it did Saul no real hurt, and served David for a proof that it was in his power to have killed him (1 Samuel 24:11), yet, because it was an affront to Saul's royal dignity, he wished he had not done it. Note, It is a good thing to have a heart within us smiting us for sins that seem little; it is a sign that conscience is awake and tender, and will be the means of preventing greater sins.

_ _ V. He reasons strongly both with himself and with his servants against doing Saul any hurt. 1. He reasons with himself (1 Samuel 24:6): The Lord forbid that I should do this thing. Note, Sin is a thing which it becomes us to startle at, and to resist the temptations to, not only with resolution, but with a holy indignation. He considered Saul now, not as his enemy, and the only person that stood in the way of his preferment (for then he would be induced to hearken to the temptation), but as God's anointed (that is, the person whom God had appointed to reign as long as he lived, and who, as such, was under the particular protection of the divine law), and as his master, to whom he was obliged to be faithful. Let servants and subjects learn hence to be dutiful and loyal, whatever hardships are put upon them, 1 Peter 2:18. 2. He reasons with his servants: He suffered them not to rise against Saul, 1 Samuel 24:7. He would not only not do this evil thing himself, but he would not suffer those about him to do it. Thus did he render good for evil to him from whom he had received evil for good, and was herein both a type of Christ, who saved his persecutors, and an example to all Christians not to be overcome of evil, but to overcome evil with good.

_ _ VI. He followed Saul out of the cave, and, though he would not take the opportunity to slay him, yet he wisely took the opportunity, if possible, to slay his enmity, by convincing him that he was not such a man as he took him for. 1. Even in showing his head now he testified that he had an honourable opinion of Saul. He had too much reason to believe that, let him say what he would, Saul would immediately be the death of him as soon as he saw him, and yet he bravely lays aside that jealousy, and thinks Saul so much a man of sense as to hear his reasoning when he had so much to say in his own vindication and such fresh and sensible proofs to give of his own integrity. 2. His behaviour was very respectful: He stooped with his face to the earth, and bowed himself, giving honour to whom honour was due, and teaching us to order ourselves lowly and reverently to all our superiors, even to those that have been most injurious to us.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Samuel 24:1

And it came to pass, when Saul was returned from following the Philistines, that it was told him, saying, Behold, David [is] in the wilderness of (b) Engedi.

(b) A city of Judah, (Joshua 15:62).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
when Saul:

1 Samuel 23:28-29 Wherefore Saul returned from pursuing after David, and went against the Philistines: therefore they called that place Selahammahlekoth. ... And David went up from thence, and dwelt in strong holds at Engedi.

following:
Heb. after

it was told:

1 Samuel 23:19 Then came up the Ziphites to Saul to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David hide himself with us in strong holds in the wood, in the hill of Hachilah, which [is] on the south of Jeshimon?
Proverbs 25:5 Take away the wicked [from] before the king, and his throne shall be established in righteousness.
Proverbs 29:12 If a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants [are] wicked.
Ezekiel 22:9 In thee are men that carry tales to shed blood: and in thee they eat upon the mountains: in the midst of thee they commit lewdness.
Hosea 7:3 They make the king glad with their wickedness, and the princes with their lies.

the wilderness:

1 Samuel 23:29 And David went up from thence, and dwelt in strong holds at Engedi.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

1S 23:19, 28, 29. Pv 25:5; 29:12. Ezk 22:9. Ho 7:3.

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