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1 Samuel 23:19 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Then came up the Ziphites to Saul to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David hide himself with us in the strongholds in the wood, in the hill of Hachilah, which is on the south of the desert?
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Then came up the Ziphites to Saul to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David hide himself with us in strong holds in the wood, in the hill of Hachilah, which [is] on the south of Jeshimon?
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then Ziphites came up to Saul at Gibeah, saying, “Is David not hiding with us in the strongholds at Horesh, on the hill of Hachilah, which is on the south of Jeshimon?
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Then came up the Ziphites to Saul to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David hide himself with us in strong holds in the wood, in the hill of Hachilah, which [is] on the south of Jeshimon?
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And the Ziphites came up to Saul to Gibeah, saying, Does not David hide himself with us in strongholds in the wood, on the hill of Hachilah, which is on the south of the waste?
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Then came up the Ziphites unto Saul in Gibeah, saying,—Is not David hiding himself with us, in the strongholds in the thicket, in the hill of Hachilah, which is on the right of Jeshimon?
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And the Ziphites go up unto Saul to Gibeah, saying, 'Is not David hiding himself with us in fortresses, in the forest, in the height of Hachilah, which [is] on the south of the desolate place?
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the Ziphites went up to Saul, in Gabaa, saying: Lo, doth not David lie hid with us in the strong holds of the wood, in mount Hachila, which is on the right hand of the desert.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Then came vp the Ziphites to Saul to Gibeah, saying, Doth not Dauid hide himselfe with vs in strong holds in the wood, in the hill of Hachilah, which [is] on the South of Ieshimon?
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the Ziphites came up out of the dry country to Saul to the hill, saying, Behold, is not David hidden with us in Messara, in the narrows in Caene in the hill of Echela, which is on the right of Jessaemon?
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Then came up the Zifim to Shaul to Givah, saying, Doth not Dawid hide himself with us in strong holds in the wood, in the hill of Chakhilah, which [is] on the south of Yeshimon?

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Then came up 5927
{5927} Prime
עָלָה
`alah
{aw-law'}
A primitive root; to ascend, intransitively (be high) or active (mount); used in a great variety of senses, primary and secondary, literally and figuratively.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
the Zifm זִפִים 2130
{2130} Prime
זִיפִי
Ziyphiy
{zee-fee'}
Patrial from H2128; a Ziphite or inhabitant of Ziph.
to x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
l שָׁאוּל 7586
{7586} Prime
שָׁאוּל
Sha'uwl
{shaw-ool'}
Passive participle of H7592; asked; Shaul, the name of an Edomite and two Israelites.
to Giv` גִּבעָה, 1390
{1390} Prime
גִּבְעָה
Gib`ah
{ghib-aw'}
The same as H1389; Gibah; the name of three places in Palestine.
saying, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
Doth not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
hide y5641
[5641] Standard
סָתַר
cathar
{saw-thar'}
A primitive root; to hide (by covering), literally or figuratively.
z8693
<8693> Grammar
Stem - Hithpael (See H8819)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 139
himself x5641
(5641) Complement
סָתַר
cathar
{saw-thar'}
A primitive root; to hide (by covering), literally or figuratively.
with x5973
(5973) Complement
עִם
`im
{eem}
From H6004; adverb or preposition, with (that is, in conjunction with), in varied applications; specifically equally with; often with prepositional prefix (and then usually unrepresented in English).
us in strong holds 4679
{4679} Prime
מְצַד
m@tsad
{mets-ad'}
From H6679; a fastness (as a covert of ambush).
in the wood, 2793
{2793} Prime
חֹרֶשׁ
choresh
{kho'-resh}
From H2790; a forest (perhaps as furnishing the material for fabric).
in the hill 1389
{1389} Prime
גִּבְעָה
gib`ah
{ghib-aw'}
Feminine from the same as H1387; a hillock.
of l חֲכִילָה, 2444
{2444} Prime
חֲכִילָה
Chakiylah
{khak-ee-law'}
From the same as H2447; dark; Chakilah, a hill in Palestine.
which x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
[is] on the south 3225
{3225} Prime
יָמִין
yamiyn
{yaw-meen'}
From H3231; the right hand or side (leg, eye) of a person or other object (as the stronger and more dexterous); locally, the south.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
of Ymn יְשִׁימֹן? 3452
{3452} Prime
יְשִׁימוֹן
y@shiymown
{yesh-ee-mone'}
From H3456; a desolation.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 23:19-23

_ _ 1 Samuel 23:19-29. Saul pursues him.

_ _ Then came up the Ziphites to Saul to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David hide himself with us? — From the tell of Ziph a panorama of the whole surrounding district is to be seen. No wonder, then, that the Ziphites saw David and his men passing to and fro in the mountains of the wilderness. Spying him at a distance when he ventured to show himself on the hill of Hachilah, “on the right hand of the wilderness,” that is, the south side of Ziph, they sent in haste to Saul, to tell him of the lurking place of his enemy [Van De Velde].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Samuel 23:19-29

_ _ Here, 1. The Ziphites offer their service to Saul, to betray David to him, 1 Samuel 23:19, 1 Samuel 23:20. He was sheltering himself in the wilderness of Ziph (1 Samuel 23:14, 1 Samuel 23:15), putting the more confidence in the people of that country because they were of his own tribe. They had reason to think themselves happy that they had an opportunity of serving one who was the ornament of their tribe and was likely to be much more so, who was so far from plundering the country, or giving it any disturbance with his troops, that he was ready to protect it and to them all the good offices that there was occasion for. But, to ingratiate themselves with Saul, they went to him, and not only informed him very particularly where David quartered (1 Samuel 23:19), but invited him to come with his forces into their country in pursuit of him, and promised to deliver him into his hand, 1 Samuel 23:20. Saul had not sent to examine or threaten them, but of their own accord, and even without asking a reward (as Judas did — What will you give me?), they offered to betray David to him who, they knew, thirsted after his blood. 2. Saul thankfully receives their information, and gladly lays hold of the opportunity of hunting David in their wilderness, in hopes to make a prey of him at length. He intimates to them how kindly he took it (1 Samuel 23:21): Blessed be you of the Lord (so near is God to his mouth, though far from his heart), for you have compassion on me. It seems he looked upon himself as a miserable man and an object of pity; his own envy and ill-nature made him so, otherwise he might have been easy and have needed no man's compassion. He likewise insinuates the little concern that the generality of his people showed for him. “You have compassion on me, which others have not.” Saul gives them instructions to search more particularly for his haunts (1 Samuel 23:22), “for” (says he) “I hear he deals very subtilely,” representing him as a man crafty to do mischief, whereas all his subtlety was to secure himself. It was strange that Saul did not go down with them immediately, but he hoped by their means to set his game with the more certainty, and thus divine Providence gave David time to shift for himself. But the Ziphites had laid their spies upon all the places where he was likely to be discovered, and therefore Saul might come and seize him if he was in the land, 1 Samuel 23:23. New he thought himself sure of his prey and pleased himself with the thoughts of devouring it. 3. The imminent peril that David was now brought into. Upon intelligence that the Ziphites had betrayed him, he retired from the hill of Hachilah to the wilderness of Maon (1 Samuel 23:24), and at this time he penned the 54th Psalm, as appears by the title, wherein he calls the Ziphites strangers, though they were Israelites, because they used him barbarously; but he puts himself under the divine protection: “Behold, God is my helper, and then all shall be well” Saul, having got intelligence of him, pursued him closely (1 Samuel 23:25), till he came so near him that there was but a mountain between them (1 Samuel 23:26), David and his men on one side of the mountain flying and Saul and his men on the other side pursuing, David in fear and Saul in hope. But this mountain was an emblem of the divine Providence coming between David and the destroyer, like the pillar of cloud between the Israelites and the Egyptians. David was concealed by this mountain and Saul confounded by it. David now flees as a bird to his mountain (Psalms 11:1) and finds God to him as the shadow of a great rock. Saul hoped with his numerous forces to enclose David, and compass him in and his men; but the ground did not prove convenient for his design, and so it failed. A new name was given to the place in remembrance of this (1 Samuel 23:28): Selah-hammah-lekoththe rock of division, because it divided between Saul and David. 4. The deliverance of David out of this danger. Providence gave Saul a diversion, when he was just ready to lay hold of David; notice was brought him that the Philistines were invading the land (1 Samuel 23:27), probably that part of the land where his own estate lay, which would be seized, or at least spoiled, by the invaders; for the little notice he took of Keilah's distress and David's relief of it, in the beginning of this chapter, gives us cause to suspect that he would not now have left pursuing David, and gone to oppose the Philistines, if some private interests of his own had not been at stake. However it was, he found himself under a necessity of going against the Philistines (1 Samuel 23:28), and by this means David was delivered when he was on the brink of destruction. Saul was disappointed of his prey, and God was glorified as David's wonderful protector. When the Philistines invaded the land they were far from intending any kindness to David by it, yet the overruling providence of God, which orders all events and the times of them, made it very serviceable to him. The wisdom of God is never at a loss for ways and means to preserve his people. As this Saul was diverted, so another Saul was converted, just then when he was breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the saints of the Lord, Acts 9:1. 5. David, having thus escaped, took shelter in some natural fortresses, which he found in the wilderness of En-gedi, 1 Samuel 23:29. And this Dr. Lightfoot thinks was the wilderness of Judah, in which David was when he penned Psalms 63:1-11, which breathes as much pious and devout affection as almost any of his psalms; for in all places and in all conditions he still kept up his communion with God.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Samuel 23:19

Ziphites — Who were of David's own tribe tho' for this their unnatural carriage to him, he calls them strangers, Psalms 54:3.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the Ziphites:

1 Samuel 22:7-8 Then Saul said unto his servants that stood about him, Hear now, ye Benjamites; will the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards, [and] make you all captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds; ... That all of you have conspired against me, and [there is] none that sheweth me that my son hath made a league with the son of Jesse, and [there is] none of you that is sorry for me, or sheweth unto me that my son hath stirred up my servant against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?
1 Samuel 26:1 And the Ziphites came unto Saul to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David hide himself in the hill of Hachilah, [which is] before Jeshimon?
Psalms 54:1 [[To the chief Musician on Neginoth, Maschil, [A Psalm] of David, when the Ziphims came and said to Saul, Doth not David hide himself with us?]] Save me, O God, by thy name, and judge me by thy strength.
*title
Psalms 54:3-4 For strangers are risen up against me, and oppressors seek after my soul: they have not set God before them. Selah. ... Behold, God [is] mine helper: the Lord [is] with them that uphold my soul.
Proverbs 29:12 If a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants [are] wicked.

Hachilah:
Calmet states, that Hachilah was a mountain about ten miles south of Jericho, where Jonathan Maccabeus built the castle of Massada, west of the Dead Sea, and not far from En-gedi.
1 Samuel 26:1 And the Ziphites came unto Saul to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David hide himself in the hill of Hachilah, [which is] before Jeshimon?
1 Samuel 26:3 And Saul pitched in the hill of Hachilah, which [is] before Jeshimon, by the way. But David abode in the wilderness, and he saw that Saul came after him into the wilderness.

on the south:
Heb. on the right hand

Jeshimon:
or, the wilderness, Eusebius places Jeshimon ten miles south of Jericho, near the Dead Sea; which agrees extremely well with the position of Hachilah, as stated by Calmet.
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1S 22:7; 26:1, 3. Ps 54:1, 3. Pv 29:12.

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