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1 Samuel 22:2 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And every one [that was] in distress, and every one that [was] in debt, and every one [that was] discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was discontented gathered to him; and he became captain over them. Now there were about four hundred men with him.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And every one [that was] in distress, and every one that [was] in debt, and every one [that was] discontented, resorted to him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And every one in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one of embittered spirit collected round him; and he became a captain over them; and there were with him about four hundred men.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And there gathered themselves unto him—every one that was in distress, and every one that had a creditor, and every one embittered in soul, and he came to be over them as a prince,—and there were with him, about four hundred men.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and gather themselves unto him do every man in distress, and every man who hath an exactor, and every man bitter in soul, and he is over them for head, and there are with him about four hundred men.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And all that were in distress, and oppressed with debt, and under affliction of mind, gathered themselves unto him: and he became their prince, and there were with him about four hundred men.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And euery one [that was] in distresse, and euery one that [was] in debt, and euery one [that was] discontented, gathered themselues vnto him, and he became a captaine ouer them: and there were with him about foure hundred men.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And there gathered to him every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was troubled in mind; and he was a leader over them, and there were with him about four hundred men.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And every one [that was] in distress, and every one that [was] in debt, and every one [that was] discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And every x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
one 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
[that was] in distress, 4689
{4689} Prime
מָצוֹק
matsowq
{maw-tsoke'}
From H6693; a narrow place, that is, (abstractly and figuratively) confinement or disability.
and every x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
one 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
that x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
[was] in debt, 5378
{5378} Prime
נָשָׁא
nasha'
{naw-shaw'}
A primitive root (perhaps identical with H5377, through the idea of imposition); to lend on interest; by implication to dun for debt.
z8801
<8801> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 309
and every x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
one 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
[that was] discontented, 4751
{4751} Prime
מַר
mar
{mar}
From H4843; bitter (literally or figuratively); also (as noun) bitterness, or (adverbially) bitterly.
5315
{5315} Prime
נֶפֶשׁ
nephesh
{neh'-fesh}
From H5314; properly a breathing creature, that is, animal or (abstractly) vitality; used very widely in a literal, accommodated or figurative sense (bodily or mental).
gathered y6908
[6908] Standard
קָבַץ
qabats
{kaw-bats'}
A primitive root; to grasp, that is, collect.
z8691
<8691> Grammar
Stem - Hithpael (See H8819)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 533
themselves x6908
(6908) Complement
קָבַץ
qabats
{kaw-bats'}
A primitive root; to grasp, that is, collect.
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
him; and he became x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
a captain 8269
{8269} Prime
שַׂר
sar
{sar}
From H8323; a head person (of any rank or class).
over x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
them: and there were x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
with x5973
(5973) Complement
עִם
`im
{eem}
From H6004; adverb or preposition, with (that is, in conjunction with), in varied applications; specifically equally with; often with prepositional prefix (and then usually unrepresented in English).
him about four 702
{0702} Prime
אַרְבַּע
'arba`
{ar-bah'}
The second form is the masculine form; from H7251; four.
hundred 3967
{3967} Prime
מֵאָה
me'ah
{may-aw'}
Probably a primitive numeral; a hundred; also as a multiplicative and a fraction.
men. 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 22:2

_ _ every one that was in distress — (See on Judges 11:3).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on 1 Samuel 22:1-5.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Samuel 22:2

Debt — Probably poor debtors, whom the creditors were obliged to spare, Exodus 22:25. And though their persons were with David, yet their lands and goods were liable to their creditors. Captain over them — He did not maintain any injustice or wickedness, which some of them possibly might be guilty of; but on the contrary, he instructed and obliged them to the practice of all justice and honesty.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
distress:

Judges 11:3 Then Jephthah fled from his brethren, and dwelt in the land of Tob: and there were gathered vain men to Jephthah, and went out with him.
Matthew 11:12 And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force.
Matthew 11:28 Come unto me, all [ye] that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.

was in debt:
Heb. had a creditor,
Matthew 18:25-34 But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. ... And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due unto him.

discontented:
Heb. bitter of soul,
1 Samuel 1:10 And she [was] in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto the LORD, and wept sore.
1 Samuel 30:6 And David was greatly distressed; for the people spake of stoning him, because the soul of all the people was grieved, every man for his sons and for his daughters: but David encouraged himself in the LORD his God.
Judges 18:25 And the children of Dan said unto him, Let not thy voice be heard among us, lest angry fellows run upon thee, and thou lose thy life, with the lives of thy household.
2 Samuel 17:8 For, said Hushai, thou knowest thy father and his men, that they [be] mighty men, and they [be] chafed in their minds, as a bear robbed of her whelps in the field: and thy father [is] a man of war, and will not lodge with the people.
Proverbs 31:6 Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish, and wine unto those that be of heavy hearts.
*marg.

a captain:

1 Samuel 9:16 To morrow about this time I will send thee a man out of the land of Benjamin, and thou shalt anoint him [to be] captain over my people Israel, that he may save my people out of the hand of the Philistines: for I have looked upon my people, because their cry is come unto me.
1 Samuel 25:15-16 But the men [were] very good unto us, and we were not hurt, neither missed we any thing, as long as we were conversant with them, when we were in the fields: ... They were a wall unto us both by night and day, all the while we were with them keeping the sheep.
1 Samuel 30:22-24 Then answered all the wicked men and [men] of Belial, of those that went with David, and said, Because they went not with us, we will not give them [ought] of the spoil that we have recovered, save to every man his wife and his children, that they may lead [them] away, and depart. ... For who will hearken unto you in this matter? but as his part [is] that goeth down to the battle, so [shall] his part [be] that tarrieth by the stuff: they shall part alike.
2 Samuel 5:2 Also in time past, when Saul was king over us, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel: and the LORD said to thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be a captain over Israel.
2 Kings 20:5 Turn again, and tell Hezekiah the captain of my people, Thus saith the LORD, the God of David thy father, I have heard thy prayer, I have seen thy tears: behold, I will heal thee: on the third day thou shalt go up unto the house of the LORD.
1 Chronicles 11:15-19 Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim. ... And said, My God forbid it me, that I should do this thing: shall I drink the blood of these men that have put their lives in jeopardy? for with [the jeopardy of] their lives they brought it. Therefore he would not drink it. These things did these three mightiest.
Psalms 72:12-14 For he shall deliver the needy when he crieth; the poor also, and [him] that hath no helper. ... He shall redeem their soul from deceit and violence: and precious shall their blood be in his sight.
Matthew 9:12-13 But when Jesus heard [that], he said unto them, They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick. ... But go ye and learn what [that] meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice: for I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.
Hebrews 2:10 For it became him, for whom [are] all things, and by whom [are] all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Jg 11:3; 18:25. 1S 1:10; 9:16; 25:15; 30:6, 22. 2S 5:2; 17:8. 2K 20:5. 1Ch 11:15. Ps 72:12. Pv 31:6. Mt 9:12; 11:12, 28; 18:25. He 2:10.

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