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1 Samuel 22:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave of Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard it, they went down thither to him.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard [it], they went down thither to him.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— So David departed from there and escaped to the cave of Adullam; and when his brothers and all his father’s household heard [of it], they went down there to him.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard [it], they went down thither to him.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And David departed thence, and escaped to the cave of Adullam. And his brethren and all his father's house heard [it], and they went down thither to him.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— David therefore departed thence, and escaped, into the cave of Adullam,—and, when his brethren and all the household of his father heard it, they went down unto him, thither.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And David goeth thence, and is escaped unto the cave of Adullam, and his brethren hear, and all the house of his father, and go down unto him thither;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— David therefore went from thence, and fled to the cave of Odollam. And when his brethren, and all his father's house, had heard of it, they went down to him thither.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Dauid therefore departed thence, and escaped to the caue Adullam: and when his brethren, and all his fathers house heard it, they went downe thither to him.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And David departed thence, and escaped; and he comes to the cave of Adullam{gr.Odollam}, and his brethren hear, and the house of his father, and they go down to him there.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Dawid therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard [it], they went down thither to him.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
therefore departed y3212
[3212] Standard
יָלַך
yalak
{yaw-lak'}
A primitive root (compare H1980); to walk (literally or figuratively); causatively to carry (in various senses).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x1980
(1980) Complement
הָלַךְ
halak
{haw-lak'}
Akin to H3212; a primitive root; to walk (in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively).
thence, x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
x8033
(8033) Complement
שָׁם
sham
{shawm}
A primitive particle (rather from the relative H0834); there (transfered to time) then; often thither, or thence.
and escaped 4422
{4422} Prime
מָלַט
malat
{maw-lat'}
A primitive root; properly to be smooth, that is, (by implication) to escape (as if by slipperiness); causatively to release or rescue; specifically to bring forth young, emit sparks.
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
to x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
the cave 4631
{4631} Prime
מְעָרָה
m@`arah
{meh-aw-raw'}
From H5783; a cavern (as dark).
`ullm עֲדֻלָּם: 5725
{5725} Prime
עֲדֻלָּם
`Adullam
{ad-ool-lawm'}
Probably from the passive participle of the same as H5724; Adullam, a place in Palestine.
and when his brethren 251
{0251} Prime
אָח
'ach
{awkh}
A primitive word; a brother (used in the widest sense of literal relationship and metaphorical affinity or resemblance (like H0001)).
and all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
his father's 1
{0001} Prime
אָב
'ab
{awb}
A primitive word; father in a literal and immediate, or figurative and remote application.
house 1004
{1004} Prime
בַּיִת
bayith
{bah'-yith}
Probably from H1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest variation of applications, especially family, etc.).
heard 8085
{8085} Prime
שָׁמַע
shama`
{shaw-mah'}
A primitive root; to hear intelligently (often with implication of attention, obedience, etc.; causatively to tell, etc.).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
[it], they went down 3381
{3381} Prime
יָרַד
yarad
{yaw-rad'}
A primitive root; to descend (literally to go downwards; or conventionally to a lower region, as the shore, a boundary, the enemy, etc.; or figuratively to fall); causatively to bring down (in all the above applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
thither x8033
(8033) Complement
שָׁם
sham
{shawm}
A primitive particle (rather from the relative H0834); there (transfered to time) then; often thither, or thence.
to x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
him.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 22:1

_ _ 1 Samuel 22:1-8. David’s kindred and others resort to him at Adullam.

_ _ David ... escaped to the cave Adullam — supposed to be that now called Deir-Dubban, a number of pits or underground vaults, some nearly square, and all about fifteen or twenty feet deep, with perpendicular sides, in the soft limestone or chalky rocks. They are on the borders of the Philistine plain at the base of the Judea mountains, six miles southwest from Beth-lehem, and well adapted for concealing a number of refugees.

_ _ his brethren and all his father’s house ... went down — to escape the effects of Saul’s rage, which seems to have extended to all David’s family. From Beth-lehem to Deir-Dubban it is, indeed, a descent all the way.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Samuel 22:1-5

_ _ Here, I. David shelters himself in the cave of Adullam, 1 Samuel 22:1. Whether it was a natural or artificial fastness does not appear; it is probable that the access to it was so difficult that David thought himself able, with Goliath's sword, to keep it against all the forces of Saul, and therefore buried himself alive in it, while he was waiting to see (and he says here, 1 Samuel 22:3) what God would do with him. The promise of the kingdom implied a promise of preservation to it, and yet David used proper means for his own safety, otherwise he would have tempted God. He did not do any thing that aimed to destroy Saul, but only to secure himself. He that might have done great service to his country as a judge or general is here shut up in a cave, and thrown by as a vessel in which there was no pleasure. We must not think it strange if sometimes shining lights be thus eclipsed and hidden under a bushel. Perhaps the apostle refers to this instance of David, among others, when he speaks of some of the Old Testament worthies that wandered in deserts, in dens and caves of the earth, Hebrews 11:38. It was at this time that David penned Psalms 142:1-7, which is entitled, A prayer when David was in the cave; and there he complains that no man would know him and that refuge failed him, but hopes that shortly the righteous would compass him about.

_ _ II. Thither his relations flocked to him, his brethren and all his father's house, to be protected by him, to give assistance to him, and to take their lot with him. A brother is born for adversity. Now, Joab, and Abishai, and the rest of his relations, came to him, to suffer and venture with him, in hopes shortly to be advanced with him; and they were so. The first three of his worthies were those that first owed him when he was in the cave, 1 Chronicles 11:15, etc.

_ _ III. Here he began to raise forces in his own defence, 1 Samuel 22:2. He found by the late experiments he had made that he could not save himself by flight, and therefore was necessitated to do it by force, wherein he never acted offensively, never offered any violence to his prince nor gave any disturbance to the peace of the kingdom, but only used his forces as a guard to his own person. But, whatever defence his soldiers were to him, they did him no great credit, for the regiment he had was made up not of great men, nor rich men, nor stout men, no, nor good men, but men in distress, in debt, and discontented, men of broken fortunes and restless spirits, that were put to their shifts, and knew not well what to do with themselves. When David had fixed his headquarters in the cave of Adullam, they came and enlisted themselves under him to the number of about 400. See what weak instruments God sometimes makes use of, by which to bring about his own purposes. The Son of David is ready to receive distressed souls, that will appoint him their captain and be commanded by him.

_ _ IV. He took care to settle his parents in a place of safety. No such place could he find in all the land of Israel while Saul was so bitterly enraged against him and all that belonged to him for his sake; he therefore goes with them to the king of Moab, and puts them under his protection, 1 Samuel 22:3, 1 Samuel 22:4. Observe here, 1. With what a tender concern he provided for his aged parents. It was not fit they should be exposed either to the frights or to the fatigues which he must expect during his struggle with Saul (their age would by no means bear such exposure); therefore the first thing he does is to find them a quiet habitation, whatever became of himself. Let children learn from this to show pity at home and requite their parents (1 Timothy 5:4), in every thing consulting their ease and satisfaction. Though ever so highly preferred, and ever so much employed, let them not forget their aged parents. 2. With what a humble faith he expects the issue of his present distresses: Till I know what God will do for me. He expresses his hopes very modestly, as one that had entirely cast himself upon God and committed his way to him, expecting a good issue, not from his own arts, or arms, or merits, but from what the wisdom, power, and goodness of God would do for him. Now David's father and mother forsook him, but God did not, Psalms 27:10.

_ _ V. He had the advice and assistance of the prophet Gad, who probably was one of the sons of the prophets that were brought up under Samuel, and was by him recommended to David for his chaplain or spiritual guide. Being a prophet, he would pray for him and instruct him in the mind of God; and David, though he was himself a prophet, was glad of his assistance. He advised him to go into the land of Judah (1 Samuel 22:5), as one that was confident of his own innocency, and was well assured of the divine protection, and was desirous, even in his present hard circumstances, to do some service to his tribe and country. Let him not be ashamed to own his own cause nor decline the succours that would be offered him. Animated by this word, there he determined to appear publicly. Thus are the steps of a good man ordered by the Lord.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Samuel 22:1

David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave (a) Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard [it], they went down thither to him.

(a) Which was in the tribe of Judah, near Bethlehem.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
David:

1 Samuel 21:10-15 And David arose, and fled that day for fear of Saul, and went to Achish the king of Gath. ... Have I need of mad men, that ye have brought this [fellow] to play the mad man in my presence? shall this [fellow] come into my house?
Psalms 34:1 [[[A Psalm] of David, when he changed his behaviour before Abimelech; who drove him away, and he departed.]] I will bless the LORD at all times: his praise [shall] continually [be] in my mouth.
Psalms 57:1 [[To the chief Musician, Altaschith, Michtam of David, when he fled from Saul in the cave.]] Be merciful unto me, O God, be merciful unto me: for my soul trusteth in thee: yea, in the shadow of thy wings will I make my refuge, until [these] calamities be overpast.
*titles

the cave:

Joshua 12:15 The king of Libnah, one; the king of Adullam, one;
Joshua 15:35 Jarmuth, and Adullam, Socoh, and Azekah,
2 Samuel 23:13-14 And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim. ... And David [was] then in an hold, and the garrison of the Philistines [was] then [in] Bethlehem.
1 Chronicles 11:15 Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim.
Psalms 142:1 [[Maschil of David; A Prayer when he was in the cave.]] I cried unto the LORD with my voice; with my voice unto the LORD did I make my supplication.
*title
Micah 1:3 For, behold, the LORD cometh forth out of his place, and will come down, and tread upon the high places of the earth.
Micah 1:15 Yet will I bring an heir unto thee, O inhabitant of Mareshah: he shall come unto Adullam the glory of Israel.
Hebrews 11:38 (Of whom the world was not worthy:) they wandered in deserts, and [in] mountains, and [in] dens and caves of the earth.

Adullam:
Adullam was a city of Judah; and, according to Eusebius, ten miles (Jerome says eleven) eastward from Eleutheropolis.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Jsh 12:15; 15:35. 1S 21:10. 2S 23:13. 1Ch 11:15. Ps 34:1; 57:1; 142:1. Mi 1:3, 15. He 11:38.

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