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1 Samuel 21:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And the priest answered David, and said, There is no common bread under my hand, but there is holy bread; if only the young men have kept themselves from women.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And the priest answered David, and said, [There is] no common bread under mine hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— The priest answered David and said, “There is no ordinary bread on hand, but there is consecrated bread; if only the young men have kept themselves from women.”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And the priest answered David, and said, [There is] no common bread under my hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And the priest answered David and said, There is no common bread under my hand, but there is holy bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And the priest answered David, and said, There is no common bread under my hand,—but, hallowed bread, there is, if the young men have kept themselves, at least from women.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And the priest answereth David, and saith, 'There is no common bread under my hand, but there is holy bread; if the youths have been kept only from women.'
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the priest answered David, saying: I have no common bread at hand, but only holy bread, if the young men be clean, especially from women?
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And the Priest answered Dauid, and said, There is no common bread vnder mine hand, but there is hallowed bread: if the young men haue kept themselues at least from women.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the priest answered David, and said, There are no common loaves under my hand, for I have none but holy loaves: if the young men have been kept at least from women, then they shall eat [them].
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And the priest answered Dawid, and said, [There is] no common bread under mine hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And the priest 3548
{3548} Prime
כֹּהֵן
kohen
{ko-hane'}
Active participle of H3547; literally one officiating, a priest; also (by courtesy) an acting priest (although a layman).
answered 6030
{6030} Prime
עָנָה
`anah
{aw-naw'}
A primitive root; properly to eye or (generally) to heed, that is, pay attention; by implication to respond; by extension to begin to speak; specifically to sing, shout, testify, announce.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Dwi דָּוִד, 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
and said, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
[There is] no x369
(0369) Complement
אַיִן
'ayin
{ah'-yin}
As if from a primitive root meaning to be nothing or not exist; a non-entity; generally used as a negative particle.
common 2455
{2455} Prime
חֹל
chol
{khole}
From H2490; properly exposed; hence profane.
bread 3899
{3899} Prime
לֶחֶם
lechem
{lekh'-em}
From H3898; food (for man or beast), especially bread, or grain (for making it).
under x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
x8478
(8478) Complement
תַּחַת
tachath
{takh'-ath}
From the same as H8430; the bottom (as depressed); only adverbially below (often with prepositional prefix underneath), in lieu of, etc.
mine hand, 3027
{3027} Prime
יָד
yad
{yawd}
A primitive word; a hand (the open one (indicating power, means, direction, etc.), in distinction from H3709, the closed one); used (as noun, adverb, etc.) in a great variety of applications, both literally and figuratively, both proximate and remote.
but x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
x518
(0518) Complement
אִם
'im
{eem}
A primitive particle; used very widely as demonstrative, lo!; interrogitive, whether?; or conditional, if, although; also Oh that!, when; hence as a negative, not.
there is 3426
{3426} Prime
יֵשׁ
yesh
{yaysh}
Perhaps from an unused root meaning to stand out, or exist; entity; used adverbially or as a copula for the substantive verb (H1961); there is or are (or any other form of the verb to be, as may suit the connection).
hallowed 6944
{6944} Prime
קֹדֶשׁ
qodesh
{ko'-desh}
From H6942; a sacred place or thing; rarely abstractly sanctity.
bread; 3899
{3899} Prime
לֶחֶם
lechem
{lekh'-em}
From H3898; food (for man or beast), especially bread, or grain (for making it).
if x518
(0518) Complement
אִם
'im
{eem}
A primitive particle; used very widely as demonstrative, lo!; interrogitive, whether?; or conditional, if, although; also Oh that!, when; hence as a negative, not.
the young men 5288
{5288} Prime
נַעַר
na`ar
{nah'-ar}
From H5287; (concretely) a boy (as active), from the age of infancy to adolescence; by implication a servant; also (by interchange of sex), a girl (of similar latitude in age).
have kept y8104
[8104] Standard
שָׁמַר
shamar
{shaw-mar'}
A primitive root; properly to hedge about (as with thorns), that is, guard; generally to protect, attend to, etc.
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
themselves x8104
(8104) Complement
שָׁמַר
shamar
{shaw-mar'}
A primitive root; properly to hedge about (as with thorns), that is, guard; generally to protect, attend to, etc.
at least 389
{0389} Prime
אַךְ
'ak
{ak}
Akin to H0403; a particle of affirmation, surely; hence (by limitation) only.
from women. 802
{0802} Prime
אִשָּׁה
'ishshah
{ish-shaw'}
The first form is the feminine of H0376 or H0582; the second form is an irregular plural; a woman (used in the same wide sense as H0582).
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 21:4

_ _ there is hallowed bread — There would be plenty of bread in his house; but there was no time to wait for it. “The hallowed bread” was the old shew-bread, which had been removed the previous day, and which was reserved for the use of the priests alone (Leviticus 24:9). Before entertaining the idea that this bread could be lawfully given to David and his men, the high priest seems to have consulted the oracle (1 Samuel 22:10) as to the course to be followed in this emergency. A dispensation to use the hallowed bread was specially granted by God Himself.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on 1 Samuel 21:1-9.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Samuel 21:4

There is, &c. — Here in the tabernacle: though doubtless he had other provisions is his house; but David was in great haste, and in fear of Doeg whom he saw, and knew and therefore would not stay 'till any thing could be fetched thence. There was a double impediment to the giving this bread to them; Its sacredness in itself; which the priest implies, and David answers 1 Samuel 21:5, and the priest was satisfied therein by David's great necessities. The abstinence from all women, which he supposed should be in those that use it; concerning which he now enquires. And though he mentions this only concerning David's young men, and out of reverence forbears to name him; yet he is also included in the number, as David's answer shews.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Samuel 21:4

And the priest answered David, and said, [There is] no common bread under mine hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from (c) women.

(c) If they have not accompanied with their wives.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
hallowed bread:

1 Samuel 21:6 So the priest gave him hallowed [bread]: for there was no bread there but the shewbread, that was taken from before the LORD, to put hot bread in the day when it was taken away.
Exodus 25:30 And thou shalt set upon the table shewbread before me alway.
Leviticus 24:5-9 And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes thereof: two tenth deals shall be in one cake. ... And it shall be Aaron's and his sons'; and they shall eat it in the holy place: for it [is] most holy unto him of the offerings of the LORD made by fire by a perpetual statute.
Matthew 12:3-4 But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hungred, and they that were with him; ... How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?

if the young:

Exodus 19:15 And he said unto the people, Be ready against the third day: come not at [your] wives.
Zechariah 7:3 [And] to speak unto the priests which [were] in the house of the LORD of hosts, and to the prophets, saying, Should I weep in the fifth month, separating myself, as I have done these so many years?
1 Corinthians 7:5 Defraud ye not one the other, except [it be] with consent for a time, that ye may give yourselves to fasting and prayer; and come together again, that Satan tempt you not for your incontinency.
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Ex 19:15; 25:30. Lv 24:5. 1S 21:6. Zc 7:3. Mt 12:3. 1Co 7:5.

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