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1 Samuel 19:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should slay David. But Jonathan, Saul's son, delighted much in David.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now Saul told Jonathan his son and all his servants to put David to death. But Jonathan, Saul’s son, greatly delighted in David.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And Saul spoke to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Saul spoke to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should slay David.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Then spake Saul unto Jonathan his son, and unto all his servants, that they should put David to death;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Saul speaketh unto Jonathan his son, and unto all his servants, to put David to death,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And Saul spoke to Jonathan, his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David. But Jonathan, the son of Saul, loved David exceedingly.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Saul spake to Ionathan his sonne, and to all his seruants, that they should kill Dauid.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Saul spoke to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, to slay David.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Shaul spake to Yehonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill Dawid.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And l שָׁאוּל 7586
{7586} Prime
שָׁאוּל
Sha'uwl
{shaw-ool'}
Passive participle of H7592; asked; Shaul, the name of an Edomite and two Israelites.
spake 1696
{1696} Prime
דִּבֵּר
dabar
{daw-bar'}
A primitive root; perhaps properly to arrange; but used figuratively (of words) to speak; rarely (in a destructive sense) to subdue.
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
to x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
Yhnn יְהוֹנָתָן y3129
[3129] Standard
יוֹנָתָן
Yownathan
{yo-naw-thawn'}
A form of H3083; Jonathan, the name of ten Israelites.
x3083
(3083) Complement
יְהוֹנָתָן
Y@hownathan
{yeh-ho-naw-thawn'}
From H3068 and H5414; Jehovah-given; Jehonathan, the name of four Israelites.
his son, 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
and to x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
his servants, 5650
{5650} Prime
עֶבֶד
`ebed
{eh'-bed}
From H5647; a servant.
that they should kill 4191
{4191} Prime
מָמוֹת
muwth
{mooth}
A primitive root; to die (literally or figuratively); causatively to kill.
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Dwi דָּוִד. 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 19:1

_ _ 1 Samuel 19:1-7. Jonathan discloses his father’s purpose to kill David.

_ _ Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David — The murderous design he had secretly cherished he now reveals to a few of his intimate friends. Jonathan was among the number. He prudently said nothing at the time, but secretly apprised David of his danger; and waiting till the morning, when his father’s excited temper would be cooled, he stationed his friend in a place of concealment, where, overhearing the conversation, he might learn how matters really stood and take immediate flight, if necessary.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Samuel 19:1-7

_ _ Saul and Jonathan appear here in their different characters, with reference to David.

_ _ I. Never was enemy so unreasonably cruel as Saul. He spoke to his son and all his servants that they should kill David, 1 Samuel 19:1. His projects to take him off had failed, and therefore he proclaims him an out-law, and charges all about him, upon their allegiance, to take the first opportunity to kill David. It is strange that he was not ashamed thus to avow his malice when he could give no reason for it, and that knowing all his servants loved David (for so he had said himself, 1 Samuel 18:22), he was not afraid of provoking them to rebel by this bloody order. Either malice was not then so politic, or justice was not so corrupted as it has been since, or else Saul would have had him indicted, and have suborned witnesses to swear treason against him, and so have had him taken off, as Naboth was, by colour of law. But there is least danger from this undisguised malice. It was strange that he who knew how well Jonathan loved him should expect him to kill him; but he thought that because he was heir to the crown he must needs be as envious at David as himself was. And Providence ordered it thus that he might befriend David's safety.

_ _ II. Never was friend so surprisingly kind as Jonathan. A friend in need is a friend indeed. Such a one Jonathan was to David. He not only continued to delight much in him, though David's glory eclipsed his, but bravely appeared for him now that the stream ran so strongly against him.

_ _ 1. He took care for his present security by letting him know his danger (1 Samuel 19:2): “Take heed to thyself, and keep out of harm's way.” Jonathan knew not but that some of the servants might be either so obsequious to Saul or so envious at David as to put the orders in execution which Saul had given, if they could light on David.

_ _ 2. He took pains to pacify his father and reconcile him to David. The next morning he ventured to commune with him concerning David (1 Samuel 19:3), not that night, perhaps because he observed Saul to be drunk and not fit to be spoken to, or because he hoped that, when he had slept upon it, he would himself revoke the order, or because he could not have an opportunity of speaking to him till morning.

_ _ (1.) His intercession for David was very prudent. It was managed with a great deal of the meekness of wisdom; and he showed himself faithful to his friends by speaking good of him, though he was in danger of incurring his father's displeasure by it — a rare instance of valuable friendship! He pleads, [1.] The good services David had done to the public, and particularly to Saul: His work has been to thee-ward very good, 1 Samuel 19:4. Witness the relief he had given him against his distemper with his harp, and his bold encounter with Goliath, that memorable action, which did, in effect, save Saul's life and kingdom. He appeals to himself concerning his: Thou thyself sawest it, and didst rejoice. In that and other instances it appeared that David was a favourite of heaven and a friend to Israel, as well as a good servant to Saul, for by him the Lord wrought a great salvation for all Israel; so that to order him to be slain was not only base ingratitude to so good a servant, but a great affront to God and a great injury to the public. [2.] He pleads his innocency. Though he had formerly done many good offices, yet, if he had now been chargeable with any crimes, it would have been another matter; but he has not sinned against thee (1 Samuel 19:1), his blood is innocent (1 Samuel 19:5), and, if he be slain, it is without cause. And Jonathan had therefore reason to protest against it because he could not entail any thing upon his family more pernicious than the guilt of innocent blood.

_ _ (2.) His intercession, being thus prudent, was prevalent. God inclined the heart of Saul to hearken to the voice of Jonathan. Note, We must be willing to hear reason, and to take all reproofs and good advice even from our inferiors, parents from their own children. How forcible are right words! Saul was, for the present, so far convinced of the unreasonableness of his enmity to David that, [1.] He recalled the bloody warrant for his execution (1 Samuel 19:6): As the Lord liveth, he shall not be slain. Whether Saul swore here with due solemnity or no does not appear; perhaps he did, and the matter was of such moment as to deserve it and of such uncertainty as to need it. But at other times Saul swore rashly and profanely, which made the sincerity of this oath justly questionable; for it may be feared that those who can so far jest with an oath as to make a by-word of it, and prostitute it to a trifle, have not such a due sense of the obligation of it but that, to serve a turn, they will prostitute it to a lie. Some suspect that Saul said and swore this with a malicious design to bring David within his reach again, intending to take the first opportunity to slay him. But, as bad as Saul was, we can scarcely think so ill of him; and therefore we suppose that he spoke as he thought for the present, but the convictions soon wore off and his corruptions prevailed and triumphed over them. [2.] He renewed the grant of his place at court. Jonathan brought him to Saul, and he was in his presence as in times past (1 Samuel 19:7), hoping that now the storm was over, and that his friend Jonathan would be instrumental to keep his father always in this good mind.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Samuel 19:1

And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should (a) kill David.

(a) Before Saul sought David's life secretly, but now his hypocrisy grows to open cruelty.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
And Saul:
Saul's enmity now burst forth, in the avowed purpose of putting David to death; and nothing less than the especial interposition of Providence could have saved David's life, when every officer about the king's person, and every soldier, had positive orders to dispatch him.
1 Samuel 18:8-9 And Saul was very wroth, and the saying displeased him; and he said, They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me they have ascribed [but] thousands: and [what] can he have more but the kingdom? ... And Saul eyed David from that day and forward.
Proverbs 27:4 Wrath [is] cruel, and anger [is] outrageous; but who [is] able to stand before envy?
Ecclesiastes 9:3 This [is] an evil among all [things] that are done under the sun, that [there is] one event unto all: yea, also the heart of the sons of men is full of evil, and madness [is] in their heart while they live, and after that [they go] to the dead.
Jeremiah 9:3 And they bend their tongues [like] their bow [for] lies: but they are not valiant for the truth upon the earth; for they proceed from evil to evil, and they know not me, saith the LORD.
2 Timothy 3:13 But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived.
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1S 18:8. Pv 27:4. Ec 9:3. Jr 9:3. 2Ti 3:13.

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