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1 Samuel 18:6 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And it came to pass as they came, when David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with timbrels, with joy, and with instruments of music.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of musick.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— It happened as they were coming, when David returned from killing the Philistine, that the women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet King Saul, with tambourines, with joy and with musical instruments.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And it came to pass as they came, when David had returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of music.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass as they came, when David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tambours, with joy, and with triangles.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— But so it was, when they came in on the return of David from the smiting of the Philistine, that the women went forth out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet Saul the king,—with timbrels, with rejoicing, and with instruments of three strings.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass, in their coming in, in David's returning from smiting the Philistine, that the women come out from all the cities of Israel to sing—also the dancers—to meet Saul the king, with tabrets, with joy, and with three-stringed instruments;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Now when David returned, after he slew the Philistine, the women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with timbrels of joy, and cornets.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And it came to passe as they came when Dauid was returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meete king Saul, with tabrets, with ioy, and with instruments of musicke.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And there came out women in dances to meet David out of all the cities of Israel, with timbrels, and with rejoicing, and with cymbals.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And it came to pass as they came, when Dawid was returned from the slaughter of the Pelishti, that the women came out of all cities of Yisrael, singing and dancing, to meet king Shaul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of musick.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And it came to pass x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
as they came, 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
when Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
was returned 7725
{7725} Prime
שׁוּב
shuwb
{shoob}
A primitive root; to turn back (hence, away) transitively or intransitively, literally or figuratively (not necessarily with the idea of return to the starting point); generally to retreat; often adverbially again.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
from the slaughter 5221
{5221} Prime
נָכָה
nakah
{naw-kaw'}
A primitive root; to strike (lightly or severely, literally or figuratively).
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
of x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the Plit פְּלִשׁתִּי, 6430
{6430} Prime
פְּלִשְׁתִּי
P@lishtiy
{pel-ish-tee'}
Patrial from H6429; a Pelishtite or inhabitant of Pelesheth.
that the women 802
{0802} Prime
אִשָּׁה
'ishshah
{ish-shaw'}
The first form is the feminine of H0376 or H0582; the second form is an irregular plural; a woman (used in the same wide sense as H0582).
came out 3318
{3318} Prime
יָצָא
yatsa'
{yaw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; to go (causatively bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proximate.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
of all x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
cities 5892
{5892} Prime
עִיר
`iyr
{eer}
From H5782 a city (a place guarded by waking or a watch) in the widest sense (even of a mere encampment or post).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל, 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
singing 7891
{7891} Prime
שִׁיר
shiyr
{sheer}
The second form being the original form, used in (1 Samuel 18:6); a primitive root (rather identical with H7788 through the idea of strolling minstrelsy); to sing.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
and dancing, 4246
{4246} Prime
מְחֹלָה
m@chowlah
{mek-o-law'}
Feminine of H4234; a dance.
to meet 7125
{7125} Prime
קִרָא
qir'ah
{keer-aw'}
From H7122; an encountering, accidental, friendly or hostile (also adverbially opposite).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
l שָׁאוּל, 7586
{7586} Prime
שָׁאוּל
Sha'uwl
{shaw-ool'}
Passive participle of H7592; asked; Shaul, the name of an Edomite and two Israelites.
with tabrets, 8596
{8596} Prime
תֹּף
toph
{tofe}
From H8608 contracted; a tambourine.
with joy, 8057
{8057} Prime
שִׂמְחָה
simchah
{sim-khaw'}
From H8056; blithesomeness or glee, (religious or festival).
and with instruments y7991
[7991] Standard
שָׁלִישׁ
shaliysh
{shaw-leesh'}
(The second form used in 1 Chronicles 11:11, 12, 18; the third form used in 2 Samuel 23:13); from H7969; a triple, that is, (as a musical instrument) a triangle (or perhaps rather three stringed lute); also (as an indefinitely great quantity) a three fold measure (perhaps a treble ephah); also (as an officer) a general of the third rank (upward, that is, the highest).
of musick. x7991
(7991) Complement
שָׁלִישׁ
shaliysh
{shaw-leesh'}
(The second form used in 1 Chronicles 11:11, 12, 18; the third form used in 2 Samuel 23:13); from H7969; a triple, that is, (as a musical instrument) a triangle (or perhaps rather three stringed lute); also (as an indefinitely great quantity) a three fold measure (perhaps a treble ephah); also (as an officer) a general of the third rank (upward, that is, the highest).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 18:6

_ _ the women came out of all cities of Israel — in the homeward march from the pursuit of the Philistines. This is a characteristic trait of Oriental manners. On the return of friends long absent, and particularly on the return of a victorious army, bands of women and children issue from the towns and villages, to form a triumphal procession, to celebrate the victory, and, as they go along, to gratify the soldiers with dancing, instrumental music, and extempore songs, in honor of the generals who have earned the highest distinction by feats of gallantry. The Hebrew women, therefore, were merely paying the customary gratulations to David as the deliverer of their country, but they committed a great indiscretion by praising a subject at the expense of their sovereign.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Samuel 18:6-11

_ _ Now begin David's troubles, and they not only tread on the heels of his triumphs, but take rise from them, such is the vanity of that in this world which seems greatest.

_ _ I. He was too much magnified by the common people. Some time after the victory Saul went a triumphant progress through the cities of Israel that lay next him, to receive the congratulations of the country. And, when he made his public entry into any place, the women were most forward to show him respect, as was usual then in public triumphs (1 Samuel 18:6), and they had got a song, it seems, which they sang in their dances (made by some poet or other, that was a great admirer of David's bravery, and was more just than wise, in giving his achievements in the late action the preference before Saul's), the burden of which was, Saul had slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands. Such a difference as this Moses made between the numbers of Ephraim and Manasseh, Deuteronomy 33:17.

_ _ II. This mightily displeased Saul, and made him envy David, 1 Samuel 18:8, 1 Samuel 18:9. He ought to have considered that they referred only to this late action, and intended not to diminish any of Saul's former exploits; and that in the action now celebrated it was undeniably true that David, in killing Goliath, did in effect slay all the Philistines that were slain that day and defeated the whole army; so that they did but give David his due. It may be, he that composed the song only used a poetic liberty, and intended not any invidious comparison between Saul and David; or, if he did, it was below the great mind of a prince to take notice of such a reflection upon his personal honour, when it appeared that the glory of the public was sincerely intended. But Saul was very wroth, and presently suspected some treasonable design at the bottom of it: What can he have more but the kingdom? This made him eye David as one he was jealous of and sought advantages against (1 Samuel 18:9): his countenance was not towards him as it had been. Proud men cannot endure to hear any praised but themselves, and think all their honour lost that goes by themselves. It is a sign that the Spirit of God has departed from men if they be peevish in their resentment of affronts, envious and suspicious of all about them, and ill-natured in their conduct; for the wisdom from above makes us quite otherwise.

_ _ III. In his fury he aimed to kill David, 1 Samuel 18:10, 1 Samuel 18:11. Jealousy is the rage of a man; it made Saul outrageous against David and impatient to get him out of the way. 1. His fits of frenzy returned upon him. The very next day after he conceived malice against David the evil spirit from God, that had formerly haunted him, seized him again. Those that indulge themselves in envy and uncharitableness give place to the devil, and prepare for the re-entry of the unclean spirit, with seven others more wicked. Where envy is there is confusion. Saul pretended a religious ecstasy: He prophesied in the midst of the house, that is, he had the gestures and motions of a prophet, and humoured the thing well enough to decoy David into a snare, and that he might be fearless of any danger and off his guard; and perhaps designing, if he could but kill him, to impute it to a divine impulse and to charge it upon the spirit of prophecy with which he seemed to be animated: but really it was a hellish fury that actuated him. 2. David, though advanced to a much higher post of honour, disdained not, for his master's service, to return to his harp: He played with his hand as at other times. Let not the highest think any thing below them whereby they may do good and be serviceable to those they are obliged to. 3. He took this opportunity to aim at the death of David. A sword in a madman's hand is a dangerous thing, especially such a madman as Saul was, that was mad with malice. Yet he had a javelin or dart in his hand, which he projected, endeavouring thereby to slay David, not in a sudden passion, but deliberately: I will smite David to the wall with it, with such a desperate force did he throw it. Justly does David complain of his enemies that they hated him with a cruel hatred, Psalms 25:19. No life is thought too precious to be sacrificed to malice. If a grateful sense of the great service David had done to the public could not assuage Saul's fury, yet one would think he should have allowed himself to consider the kindness David was now doing him, in relieving him, as no one else could, against the worst of troubles. Those are possessed with a devilish spirit indeed that render evil for good. Compare David, with his harp in his hand, aiming to serve Saul, and Saul, with his javelin in his hand, aiming to slay David; and observe the meekness and usefulness of God's persecuted people and the brutishness and barbarity of their persecutors. The bloodthirsty hate the upright, but the just seek his soul, Proverbs 29:10. 4. David happily avoided the blow twice (namely, now, and afterwards, Proverbs 19:10); he did not throw the javelin at Saul again, but withdrew, not fighting but flying for his own preservation; though he had both strength and courage enough, and colour of right, to make resistance and revenge the injury, yet he did no more than secure himself, by getting out of the way of it. David, no doubt, had a watchful eye upon Saul's hand, and the javelin in it, and did as bravely in running from it as he did lately in running upon Goliath. Yet his safety must be ascribed to the watchful eye of God's providence upon him, saving his servant from the hurtful sword; and by this narrow escape it seemed he was designed for something extraordinary.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Samuel 18:6

And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the (c) Philistine, that the women came out of all cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of musick.

(c) That is, Goliath.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Philistine:
or, Philistines

the women:

Exodus 15:20 And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances.
Judges 11:34 And Jephthah came to Mizpeh unto his house, and, behold, his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and with dances: and she [was his] only child; beside her he had neither son nor daughter.
Psalms 68:25 The singers went before, the players on instruments [followed] after; among [them were] the damsels playing with timbrels.
Jeremiah 31:11-13 For the LORD hath redeemed Jacob, and ransomed him from the hand of [him that was] stronger than he. ... Then shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, both young men and old together: for I will turn their mourning into joy, and will comfort them, and make them rejoice from their sorrow.

instruments of music:
Heb. three stringed instruments, The original shalishim, is rendered by the Vulgate sistris. The sistrum was an ancient Egyptian instrument made of brass, with three, and sometimes more brass rods across; which, being loose in their holes, made a jingling noise when shaken.
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Ex 15:20. Jg 11:34. Ps 68:25. Jr 31:11.

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