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1 Samuel 17:20 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the place of the wagons, as the host which was going forth to the fight shouted for the battle.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the trench, as the host was going forth to the fight, and shouted for the battle.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— So David arose early in the morning and left the flock with a keeper and took [the supplies] and went as Jesse had commanded him. And he came to the circle of the camp while the army was going out in battle array shouting the war cry.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And David rose early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the trench, as the host was going forth to the fight, and shouted for the battle.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took his charge and went, as Jesse had commanded him. And he came to the wagon-defence; and the host which was going forth to the battle-array shouted for the fight.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— So then David rose up early in the morning, and entrusted the sheep to a keeper, and took up [the provisions] and went his way, as Jesse had commanded him,—and came into the circular rampart, as, the force, was going forth into the ranks, and shouted for the fight.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And David riseth early in the morning, and leaveth the flock to a keeper, and lifteth up, and goeth, as Jesse commanded him, and he cometh in to the path, and to the force which is going out unto the rank, and they have shouted for battle;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— David, therefore, arose in the morning, and gave the charge of the flock to the keeper: and went away loaded, as Isai had commanded him. And he came to the place of Magala, and to the army, which was going out to fight, and shouted for the battle.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Dauid rose vp earely in the morning, and left the sheepe with a keeper, and tooke, and went, as Iesse had commanded him; and he came to the trench, as the host was going forth to the fight, and shouted for the battell.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— [Absent from Manuscript]
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Dawid rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Yishay had commanded him; and he came to the trench, as the host was going forth to the fight, and shouted for the battle.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
rose up early 7925
{7925} Prime
שָׁכַם
shakam
{shaw-kam'}
A primitive root; properly to incline (the shoulder to a burden); but used only as denominative from H7926; literally to load up (on the back of man or beast), that is, to start early in the morning.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
in the morning, 1242
{1242} Prime
בֹּקֶר
boqer
{bo'-ker}
From H1239; properly dawn (as the break of day); generally morning.
and left 5203
{5203} Prime
נָטַשׁ
natash
{naw-tash'}
A primitive root; properly to pound, that is, smite; by implication (as if beating out, and thus expanding) to disperse; also, to thrust off, down, out or upon (including reject, let alone, permit, remit, etc.).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the sheep 6629
{6629} Prime
צֹאן
tso'n
{tsone}
From an unused root meaning to migrate; a collective name for a flock (of sheep or goats); also figuratively (of men).
with x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
a keeper, 8104
{8104} Prime
שָׁמַר
shamar
{shaw-mar'}
A primitive root; properly to hedge about (as with thorns), that is, guard; generally to protect, attend to, etc.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
and took, 5375
{5375} Prime
נָשָׂא
nasa'
{naw-saw'}
A primitive root; to lift, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, absolutely and relatively.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and went, y3212
[3212] Standard
יָלַך
yalak
{yaw-lak'}
A primitive root (compare H1980); to walk (literally or figuratively); causatively to carry (in various senses).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x1980
(1980) Complement
הָלַךְ
halak
{haw-lak'}
Akin to H3212; a primitive root; to walk (in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively).
as x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
Yiay יִשַׁי 3448
{3448} Prime
יִשַׁי
Yishay
{yee-shah'-ee}
From the same as H3426; extant; Jishai, David's father.
had commanded 6680
{6680} Prime
צוּה
tsavah
{tsaw-vaw'}
A primitive root; (intensively) to constitute, enjoin.
z8765
<8765> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2121
him; and he came 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to the trench, 4570
{4570} Prime
מַעְגָּל
ma`gal
{mah-gawl'}
From the same as H5696; a track (literally or figuratively); also a rampart (as circular).
as the host 2428
{2428} Prime
חַיִל
chayil
{khah'-yil}
From H2342; probably a force, whether of men, means or other resources; an army, wealth, virtue, valor, strength.
was going forth 3318
{3318} Prime
יָצָא
yatsa'
{yaw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; to go (causatively bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proximate.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
to x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
the fight, 4634
{4634} Prime
מַעֲרָכָה
ma`arakah
{mah-ar-aw-kaw'}
Feminine of H4633; an arrangement; concretely a pile; specifically a military array.
and shouted 7321
{7321} Prime
רוּעַ
ruwa`
{roo-ah'}
A primitive root; to mar (especially by breaking); figuratively to split the ears (with sound), that is, shout (for alarm or joy).
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
for the battle. 4421
{4421} Prime
מִלְחָמָה
milchamah
{mil-khaw-maw'}
From H3898 (in the sense of fighting); a battle (that is, the engagement); generally war (that is, warfare).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 17:20

_ _ David left the sheep with a keeper — This is the only instance in which the hired shepherd is distinguished from the master or one of his family.

_ _ trench — some feeble attempt at a rampart. It appears (see Margin) to have been formed by a line of carts or chariots, which, from the earliest times, was the practice of nomad people.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on 1 Samuel 17:12-30.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Samuel 17:20

Went, &c. — Jesse little thought of sending his son to the camp, just at that critical juncture. But the wise God orders the time and all the circumstances of affairs, so as to serve the designs of his own glory.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
left the sheep:

1 Samuel 17:28 And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spake unto the men; and Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said, Why camest thou down hither? and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know thy pride, and the naughtiness of thine heart; for thou art come down that thou mightest see the battle.
Ephesians 6:1-2 Children, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is right. ... Honour thy father and mother; (which is the first commandment with promise;)

trench:
or, place of the carriage,
1 Samuel 26:5 And David arose, and came to the place where Saul had pitched: and David beheld the place where Saul lay, and Abner the son of Ner, the captain of his host: and Saul lay in the trench, and the people pitched round about him.
Luke 19:43 For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side,

fight:
or, battle array, or place of fight
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1S 17:28; 26:5. Lk 19:43. Ep 6:1.

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