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1 Samuel 16:23 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And it came to pass, when the [evil] spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took the harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And it came to pass, when the [evil] spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— So it came about whenever the [evil] spirit from God came to Saul, David would take the harp and play [it] with his hand; and Saul would be refreshed and be well, and the evil spirit would depart from him.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And it came to pass, when the [evil] spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took a harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass, when the [evil] spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took the harp, and played with his hand; and Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And so it used to be, when a superhuman spirit came unto Saul, then would David take the lyre, and play with his hand,—and Saul would be refreshed, and be joyful, and, the sad spirit, would depart from him.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it hath come to pass, in the spirit of [sadness from] God being on Saul, that David hath taken the harp, and played with his hand, and Saul hath refreshment and gladness, and the spirit of sadness hath turned aside from off him.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— So whensoever the evil spirit from the Lord was upon Saul, David took his harp, and played with his hand, and Saul was refreshed, and was better, for the evil spirit departed from him.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And it came to passe, when the [euill] spirit from God was vpon Saul, that Dauid tooke an harpe, and played with his hand: So Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the euill spirit departed from him.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it came to pass when the evil spirit was upon Saul, that David took his harp, and played with his hand: and Saul was refreshed, and [it was] well with him, and the evil spirit departed from him.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And it came to pass, when the [evil] spirit from Elohim was upon Shaul, that Dawid took an harp, and played with his hand: so Shaul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And it came to pass, x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
when x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
the [evil] spirit 7307
{7307} Prime
רוּחַ
ruwach
{roo'-akh}
From H7306; wind; by resemblance breath, that is, a sensible (or even violent) exhalation; figuratively life, anger, unsubstantiality; by extension a region of the sky; by resemblance spirit, but only of a rational being (including its expression and functions).
from lhm אֱלֹהִים 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
was upon x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
l שָׁאוּל, 7586
{7586} Prime
שָׁאוּל
Sha'uwl
{shaw-ool'}
Passive participle of H7592; asked; Shaul, the name of an Edomite and two Israelites.
that Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
took 3947
{3947} Prime
לָקַח
laqach
{law-kakh'}
A primitive root; to take (in the widest variety of applications).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
an harp, 3658
{3658} Prime
כִּנּוֹר
kinnowr
{kin-nore'}
From an unused root meaning to twang; a harp.
and played 5059
{5059} Prime
נגן
nagan
{naw-gan'}
A primitive root; prop to thrum, that is, beat a tune with the fingers; especially to play on a stringed instrument; hence (generally) to make music.
z8765
<8765> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2121
with his hand: 3027
{3027} Prime
יָד
yad
{yawd}
A primitive word; a hand (the open one (indicating power, means, direction, etc.), in distinction from H3709, the closed one); used (as noun, adverb, etc.) in a great variety of applications, both literally and figuratively, both proximate and remote.
so l שָׁאוּל 7586
{7586} Prime
שָׁאוּל
Sha'uwl
{shaw-ool'}
Passive participle of H7592; asked; Shaul, the name of an Edomite and two Israelites.
was refreshed, 7304
{7304} Prime
רָוַח
ravach
{raw-vakh'}
A primitive root (rather identical with H7306); properly to breathe freely, that is, revive; by implication to have ample room.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
and was well, 2895
{2895} Prime
טוֹב
towb
{tobe}
A primitive root, to be (transitively do or make) good (or well) in the widest sense.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
and the evil 7451
{7451} Prime
רָע
ra`
{rah}
From H7489; bad or (as noun) evil (naturally or morally). This includes the second (feminine) form; as adjective or noun.
spirit 7307
{7307} Prime
רוּחַ
ruwach
{roo'-akh}
From H7306; wind; by resemblance breath, that is, a sensible (or even violent) exhalation; figuratively life, anger, unsubstantiality; by extension a region of the sky; by resemblance spirit, but only of a rational being (including its expression and functions).
departed 5493
{5493} Prime
סוּר
cuwr
{soor}
A primitive root; to turn off (literally or figuratively).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
from x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
him.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 16:23

_ _ David took an harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well — The ancients believed that music had a mysterious influence in healing mental disorders.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on 1 Samuel 16:14-23.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Samuel 16:23

Departed — Namely, for a season. And the reason of this success, may be, partly natural, and partly, supernatural, respecting David; whom God designed by this means to bring into favour with the king, and so to smooth the way for his advancement.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Samuel 16:23

And it came to pass, when the [evil] spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was (g) refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.

(g) God would have Saul receive this benefit from David's hand, that his condemnation might be even more evident, for his cruel hate toward him.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the evil spirit:

1 Samuel 16:14 But the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him.
1 Samuel 16:16 Let our lord now command thy servants, [which are] before thee, to seek out a man, [who is] a cunning player on an harp: and it shall come to pass, when the evil spirit from God is upon thee, that he shall play with his hand, and thou shalt be well.

Saul:

1 Samuel 18:10-11 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul, and he prophesied in the midst of the house: and David played with his hand, as at other times: and [there was] a javelin in Saul's hand. ... And Saul cast the javelin; for he said, I will smite David even to the wall [with it]. And David avoided out of his presence twice.
Matthew 12:43-45 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none. ... Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last [state] of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked generation.
Luke 11:24-26 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest; and finding none, he saith, I will return unto my house whence I came out. ... Then goeth he, and taketh [to him] seven other spirits more wicked than himself; and they enter in, and dwell there: and the last [state] of that man is worse than the first.
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1S 16:14, 16; 18:10. Mt 12:43. Lk 11:24.

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